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SubjectRe: [patch] sched: auto-tune migration costs [was: Re: Industry db benchmark result on recent 2.6 kernels]

* Chen, Kenneth W <kenneth.w.chen@intel.com> wrote:

> Perhaps, I'm not getting the latest patch? It skipped measuring
> because migration cost array is non-zero (initialized to -1LL):

yeah ... some mixup here. I've attached the latest.

> Also, the cost calculation in measure_one() looks fishy to me in this
> version.

> > + t0 = sched_clock();
> > + touch_cache(cache, size);
> > + t1 = sched_clock();

> > + t2 = sched_clock();
> > + touch_cache(cache, size);
> > + t3 = sched_clock();

> > + cost = t2-t1 + t3-t2;
>
> Typo here ??

yeah - fixed this too in the attached snapshot.

Ingo
--- linux/kernel/sched.c.orig
+++ linux/kernel/sched.c
@@ -47,6 +47,7 @@
#include <linux/syscalls.h>
#include <linux/times.h>
#include <linux/acct.h>
+#include <linux/vmalloc.h>
#include <asm/tlb.h>

#include <asm/unistd.h>
@@ -4640,6 +4641,478 @@ void __devinit init_sched_build_groups(s
}


+/*
+ * Self-tuning task migration cost measurement between source and target CPUs.
+ *
+ * This is done by measuring the cost of manipulating buffers of varying
+ * sizes. For a given buffer-size here are the steps that are taken:
+ *
+ * 1) the source CPU reads+dirties a shared buffer
+ * 2) the target CPU reads+dirties the same shared buffer
+ *
+ * We measure how long they take, in the following 4 scenarios:
+ *
+ * - source: CPU1, target: CPU2 | cost1
+ * - source: CPU2, target: CPU1 | cost2
+ * - source: CPU1, target: CPU1 | cost3
+ * - source: CPU2, target: CPU2 | cost4
+ *
+ * We then calculate the cost3+cost4-cost1-cost2 difference - this is
+ * the cost of migration.
+ *
+ * We then start off from a small buffer-size and iterate up to larger
+ * buffer sizes, in 5% steps - measuring each buffer-size separately, and
+ * doing a maximum search for the cost. (The maximum cost for a migration
+ * normally occurs when the working set size is around the effective cache
+ * size.)
+ */
+#define SEARCH_SCOPE 2
+#define MIN_CACHE_SIZE (64*1024U)
+#define DEFAULT_CACHE_SIZE (5*1024*1024U)
+#define ITERATIONS 3
+#define SIZE_THRESH 130
+#define COST_THRESH 130
+
+/*
+ * The migration cost is a function of 'domain distance'. Domain
+ * distance is the number of steps a CPU has to iterate down its
+ * domain tree to share a domain with the other CPU. The farther
+ * two CPUs are from each other, the larger the distance gets.
+ *
+ * Note that we use the distance only to cache measurement results,
+ * the distance value is not used numerically otherwise. When two
+ * CPUs have the same distance it is assumed that the migration
+ * cost is the same. (this is a simplification but quite practical)
+ */
+#define MAX_DOMAIN_DISTANCE 32
+
+static __initdata unsigned long long migration_cost[MAX_DOMAIN_DISTANCE] =
+ { -1LL , };
+
+/*
+ * Allow override of migration cost - in units of microseconds.
+ * E.g. migration_cost=1000,2000,3000 will set up a level-1 cost
+ * of 1 msec, level-2 cost of 2 msecs and level3 cost of 3 msecs:
+ */
+static int __init migration_cost_setup(char *str)
+{
+ int ints[MAX_DOMAIN_DISTANCE+1], i;
+
+ str = get_options(str, ARRAY_SIZE(ints), ints);
+
+ printk("#ints: %d\n", ints[0]);
+ for (i = 1; i <= ints[0]; i++) {
+ migration_cost[i-1] = (unsigned long long)ints[i]*1000;
+ printk("migration_cost[%d]: %Ld\n", i-1, migration_cost[i-1]);
+ }
+ return 1;
+}
+
+__setup ("migration_cost=", migration_cost_setup);
+
+/*
+ * Global multiplier (divisor) for migration-cutoff values,
+ * in percentiles. E.g. use a value of 150 to get 1.5 times
+ * longer cache-hot cutoff times.
+ *
+ * (We scale it from 100 to 128 to long long handling easier.)
+ */
+
+#define MIGRATION_FACTOR_SCALE 128
+
+static __initdata unsigned int migration_factor = MIGRATION_FACTOR_SCALE;
+
+static int __init setup_migration_factor(char *str)
+{
+ get_option(&str, &migration_factor);
+ migration_factor = migration_factor * MIGRATION_FACTOR_SCALE / 100;
+ return 1;
+}
+
+__setup("migration_factor=", setup_migration_factor);
+
+/*
+ * Estimated distance of two CPUs, measured via the number of domains
+ * we have to pass for the two CPUs to be in the same span:
+ */
+__init static unsigned long domain_distance(int cpu1, int cpu2)
+{
+ unsigned long distance = 0;
+ struct sched_domain *sd;
+
+ for_each_domain(cpu1, sd) {
+ WARN_ON(!cpu_isset(cpu1, sd->span));
+ if (cpu_isset(cpu2, sd->span))
+ return distance;
+ distance++;
+ }
+ if (distance >= MAX_DOMAIN_DISTANCE) {
+ WARN_ON(1);
+ distance = MAX_DOMAIN_DISTANCE-1;
+ }
+
+ return distance;
+}
+
+static __initdata unsigned int migration_debug = 1;
+
+static int __init setup_migration_debug(char *str)
+{
+ get_option(&str, &migration_debug);
+ return 1;
+}
+
+__setup("migration_debug=", setup_migration_debug);
+
+/*
+ * Maximum cache-size that the scheduler should try to measure.
+ * Architectures with larger caches should tune this up during
+ * bootup. Gets used in the domain-setup code (i.e. during SMP
+ * bootup).
+ */
+__initdata unsigned int max_cache_size;
+
+static int __init setup_max_cache_size(char *str)
+{
+ get_option(&str, &max_cache_size);
+ return 1;
+}
+
+__setup("max_cache_size=", setup_max_cache_size);
+
+/*
+ * Dirty a big buffer in a hard-to-predict (for the L2 cache) way. This
+ * is the operation that is timed, so we try to generate unpredictable
+ * cachemisses that still end up filling the L2 cache:
+ */
+__init static void touch_cache(void *__cache, unsigned long __size)
+{
+ unsigned long size = __size/sizeof(long), chunk1 = size/3,
+ chunk2 = 2*size/3;
+ unsigned long *cache = __cache;
+ int i;
+
+ for (i = 0; i < size/6; i += 8) {
+ switch (i % 6) {
+ case 0: cache[i]++;
+ case 1: cache[size-1-i]++;
+ case 2: cache[chunk1-i]++;
+ case 3: cache[chunk1+i]++;
+ case 4: cache[chunk2-i]++;
+ case 5: cache[chunk2+i]++;
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+/*
+ * Measure the cache-cost of one task migration. Returns in units of nsec.
+ */
+__init static unsigned long long measure_one(void *cache, unsigned long size,
+ int source, int target)
+{
+ cpumask_t mask, saved_mask;
+ unsigned long long t0, t1, t2, t3, cost;
+
+ saved_mask = current->cpus_allowed;
+
+ /*
+ * Migrate to the source CPU:
+ */
+ mask = cpumask_of_cpu(source);
+ set_cpus_allowed(current, mask);
+ WARN_ON(smp_processor_id() != source);
+
+ /*
+ * Dirty the working set:
+ */
+ t0 = sched_clock();
+ touch_cache(cache, size);
+ t1 = sched_clock();
+
+ /*
+ * Migrate to the target CPU, dirty the L2 cache and access
+ * the shared buffer. (which represents the working set
+ * of a migrated task.)
+ */
+ mask = cpumask_of_cpu(target);
+ set_cpus_allowed(current, mask);
+ WARN_ON(smp_processor_id() != target);
+
+ t2 = sched_clock();
+ touch_cache(cache, size);
+ t3 = sched_clock();
+
+ cost = t1-t0 + t3-t2;
+
+ if (migration_debug >= 2)
+ printk("[%d->%d]: %8Ld %8Ld %8Ld => %10Ld.\n",
+ source, target, t1-t0, t1-t0, t3-t2, cost);
+
+ set_cpus_allowed(current, saved_mask);
+
+ return cost;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Measure a series of task migrations and return the average
+ * result. Since this code runs early during bootup the system
+ * is 'undisturbed' and the average latency makes sense.
+ *
+ * The algorithm in essence auto-detects the relevant cache-size,
+ * so it will properly detect different cachesizes for different
+ * cache-hierarchies, depending on how the CPUs are connected.
+ *
+ * Architectures can prime the upper limit of the search range via
+ * max_cache_size, otherwise the search range defaults to 20MB...64K.
+ */
+__init static unsigned long long
+measure_cost(int cpu1, int cpu2, void *cache, unsigned int size)
+{
+ unsigned long long cost1, cost2;
+ int i;
+
+ /*
+ * Measure the migration cost of 'size' bytes, over an
+ * average of 10 runs:
+ *
+ * (We perturb the cache size by a small (0..4k)
+ * value to compensate size/alignment related artifacts.
+ * We also subtract the cost of the operation done on
+ * the same CPU.)
+ */
+ cost1 = 0;
+
+ /*
+ * dry run, to make sure we start off cache-cold on cpu1,
+ * and to get any vmalloc pagefaults in advance:
+ */
+ measure_one(cache, size, cpu1, cpu2);
+ for (i = 0; i < ITERATIONS; i++)
+ cost1 += measure_one(cache, size - i*1024, cpu1, cpu2);
+
+ measure_one(cache, size, cpu2, cpu1);
+ for (i = 0; i < ITERATIONS; i++)
+ cost1 += measure_one(cache, size - i*1024, cpu2, cpu1);
+
+ /*
+ * (We measure the non-migrating [cached] cost on both
+ * cpu1 and cpu2, to handle CPUs with different speeds)
+ */
+ cost2 = 0;
+
+ measure_one(cache, size, cpu1, cpu1);
+ for (i = 0; i < ITERATIONS; i++)
+ cost2 += measure_one(cache, size - i*1024, cpu1, cpu1);
+
+ measure_one(cache, size, cpu2, cpu2);
+ for (i = 0; i < ITERATIONS; i++)
+ cost2 += measure_one(cache, size - i*1024, cpu2, cpu2);
+
+ /*
+ * Get the per-iteration migration cost:
+ */
+ do_div(cost1, 2*ITERATIONS);
+ do_div(cost2, 2*ITERATIONS);
+
+ return cost1 - cost2;
+}
+
+__init static unsigned long long measure_migration_cost(int cpu1, int cpu2)
+{
+ unsigned long long max_cost = 0, fluct = 0, avg_fluct = 0;
+ unsigned int max_size, size, size_found = 0;
+ long long cost = 0, prev_cost;
+ void *cache;
+
+ /*
+ * Search from max_cache_size*5 down to 64K - the real relevant
+ * cachesize has to lie somewhere inbetween.
+ */
+ if (max_cache_size) {
+ max_size = max(max_cache_size * SEARCH_SCOPE, MIN_CACHE_SIZE);
+ size = max(max_cache_size / SEARCH_SCOPE, MIN_CACHE_SIZE);
+ } else {
+ /*
+ * Since we have no estimation about the relevant
+ * search range
+ */
+ max_size = DEFAULT_CACHE_SIZE * SEARCH_SCOPE;
+ size = MIN_CACHE_SIZE;
+ }
+
+ if (!cpu_online(cpu1) || !cpu_online(cpu2)) {
+ printk("cpu %d and %d not both online!\n", cpu1, cpu2);
+ return 0;
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * Allocate the working set:
+ */
+ cache = vmalloc(max_size);
+ if (!cache) {
+ printk("could not vmalloc %d bytes for cache!\n", 2*max_size);
+ return 1000000; // return 1 msec on very small boxen
+ }
+
+ while (size <= max_size) {
+ prev_cost = cost;
+ cost = measure_cost(cpu1, cpu2, cache, size);
+
+ /*
+ * Update the max:
+ */
+ if (cost > 0) {
+ if (max_cost < cost) {
+ max_cost = cost;
+ size_found = size;
+ }
+ }
+ /*
+ * Calculate average fluctuation, we use this to prevent
+ * noise from triggering an early break out of the loop:
+ */
+ fluct = abs(cost - prev_cost);
+ avg_fluct = (avg_fluct + fluct)/2;
+
+ if (migration_debug)
+ printk("-> [%d][%d][%7d] %3ld.%ld [%3ld.%ld] (%ld): (%8Ld %8Ld)\n",
+ cpu1, cpu2, size,
+ (long)cost / 1000000,
+ ((long)cost / 100000) % 10,
+ (long)max_cost / 1000000,
+ ((long)max_cost / 100000) % 10,
+ domain_distance(cpu1, cpu2),
+ cost, avg_fluct);
+
+ /*
+ * If we iterated at least 20% past the previous maximum,
+ * and the cost has dropped by more than 20% already,
+ * (taking fluctuations into account) then we assume to
+ * have found the maximum and break out of the loop early:
+ */
+ if (size_found && (size*100 > size_found*SIZE_THRESH))
+ if (cost+avg_fluct <= 0 ||
+ max_cost*100 > (cost+avg_fluct)*COST_THRESH) {
+
+ if (migration_debug)
+ printk("-> found max.\n");
+ break;
+ }
+ /*
+ * Increase the cachesize in 5% steps:
+ */
+ size = size * 20 / 19;
+ }
+
+ if (migration_debug)
+ printk("[%d][%d] working set size found: %d, cost: %Ld\n",
+ cpu1, cpu2, size_found, max_cost);
+
+ vfree(cache);
+
+ /*
+ * A task is considered 'cache cold' if at least 2 times
+ * the worst-case cost of migration has passed.
+ *
+ * (this limit is only listened to if the load-balancing
+ * situation is 'nice' - if there is a large imbalance we
+ * ignore it for the sake of CPU utilization and
+ * processing fairness.)
+ */
+ return 2 * max_cost * migration_factor / MIGRATION_FACTOR_SCALE;
+}
+
+void __devinit calibrate_migration_costs(void)
+{
+ int cpu1 = -1, cpu2 = -1, cpu;
+ struct sched_domain *sd;
+ unsigned long distance, max_distance = 0;
+ unsigned long long cost;
+ unsigned long flags, j0, j1;
+
+ local_irq_save(flags);
+ local_irq_enable();
+ j0 = jiffies;
+
+ /*
+ * First pass - calculate the cacheflush times:
+ */
+ for_each_online_cpu(cpu1) {
+ for_each_online_cpu(cpu2) {
+ if (cpu1 == cpu2)
+ continue;
+ distance = domain_distance(cpu1, cpu2);
+ max_distance = max(max_distance, distance);
+ /*
+ * Do we have the result cached already?
+ */
+ if (migration_cost[distance] != -1LL)
+ cost = migration_cost[distance];
+ else {
+ cost = measure_migration_cost(cpu1, cpu2);
+ migration_cost[distance] = cost;
+ }
+ }
+ }
+ /*
+ * Second pass - update the sched domain hierarchy with
+ * the new cache-hot-time estimations:
+ */
+ for_each_online_cpu(cpu) {
+ distance = 0;
+ for_each_domain(cpu, sd) {
+ sd->cache_hot_time = migration_cost[distance];
+ distance++;
+ }
+ }
+ /*
+ * Print the matrix:
+ */
+ printk("---------------------\n");
+ printk("| migration cost matrix (max_cache_size: %d, cpu: %ld MHz):\n",
+ max_cache_size,
+#ifdef CONFIG_X86
+ cpu_khz/1000
+#else
+ -1L
+#endif
+ );
+ printk("---------------------\n");
+ printk(" ");
+ for_each_online_cpu(cpu1)
+ printk(" [%02d]", cpu1);
+ printk("\n");
+ for_each_online_cpu(cpu1) {
+ printk("[%02d]: ", cpu1);
+ for_each_online_cpu(cpu2) {
+ if (cpu1 == cpu2) {
+ printk(" - ");
+ continue;
+ }
+ distance = domain_distance(cpu1, cpu2);
+ max_distance = max(max_distance, distance);
+ cost = migration_cost[distance];
+ printk(" %2ld.%ld(%ld)", (long)cost / 1000000,
+ ((long)cost / 100000) % 10, distance);
+ }
+ printk("\n");
+ }
+ printk("--------------------------------\n");
+ printk("| cacheflush times [%ld]:", max_distance+1);
+ for (distance = 0; distance <= max_distance; distance++) {
+ cost = migration_cost[distance];
+ printk(" %ld.%ld (%Ld)", (long)cost / 1000000,
+ ((long)cost / 100000) % 10, cost);
+ }
+ printk("\n");
+ j1 = jiffies;
+ printk("| calibration delay: %ld seconds\n", (j1-j0)/HZ);
+ printk("--------------------------------\n");
+
+ local_irq_restore(flags);
+}
+
+
#ifdef ARCH_HAS_SCHED_DOMAIN
extern void __devinit arch_init_sched_domains(void);
extern void __devinit arch_destroy_sched_domains(void);
@@ -4820,6 +5293,10 @@ static void __devinit arch_init_sched_do
#endif
cpu_attach_domain(sd, i);
}
+ /*
+ * Tune cache-hot values:
+ */
+ calibrate_migration_costs();
}

#ifdef CONFIG_HOTPLUG_CPU
--- linux/arch/ia64/kernel/domain.c.orig
+++ linux/arch/ia64/kernel/domain.c
@@ -358,6 +358,10 @@ next_sg:
#endif
cpu_attach_domain(sd, i);
}
+ /*
+ * Tune cache-hot values:
+ */
+ calibrate_migration_costs();
}

void __devinit arch_destroy_sched_domains(void)
--- linux/arch/ia64/kernel/setup.c.orig
+++ linux/arch/ia64/kernel/setup.c
@@ -561,6 +561,7 @@ static void
get_max_cacheline_size (void)
{
unsigned long line_size, max = 1;
+ unsigned int cache_size = 0;
u64 l, levels, unique_caches;
pal_cache_config_info_t cci;
s64 status;
@@ -585,8 +586,11 @@ get_max_cacheline_size (void)
line_size = 1 << cci.pcci_line_size;
if (line_size > max)
max = line_size;
+ if (cache_size < cci.pcci_cache_size)
+ cache_size = cci.pcci_cache_size;
}
out:
+ max_cache_size = max(max_cache_size, cache_size);
if (max > ia64_max_cacheline_size)
ia64_max_cacheline_size = max;
}
--- linux/arch/i386/kernel/smpboot.c.orig
+++ linux/arch/i386/kernel/smpboot.c
@@ -873,6 +873,7 @@ static void smp_tune_scheduling (void)
cachesize = 16; /* Pentiums, 2x8kB cache */
bandwidth = 100;
}
+ max_cache_size = cachesize * 1024;
}
}

--- linux/include/asm-ia64/topology.h.orig
+++ linux/include/asm-ia64/topology.h
@@ -51,7 +51,6 @@ void build_cpu_to_node_map(void);
.max_interval = 320, \
.busy_factor = 320, \
.imbalance_pct = 125, \
- .cache_hot_time = (10*1000000), \
.cache_nice_tries = 1, \
.per_cpu_gain = 100, \
.flags = SD_LOAD_BALANCE \
@@ -73,7 +72,6 @@ void build_cpu_to_node_map(void);
.max_interval = 320, \
.busy_factor = 320, \
.imbalance_pct = 125, \
- .cache_hot_time = (10*1000000), \
.cache_nice_tries = 1, \
.per_cpu_gain = 100, \
.flags = SD_LOAD_BALANCE \
--- linux/include/linux/topology.h.orig
+++ linux/include/linux/topology.h
@@ -86,7 +86,6 @@
.max_interval = 2, \
.busy_factor = 8, \
.imbalance_pct = 110, \
- .cache_hot_time = 0, \
.cache_nice_tries = 0, \
.per_cpu_gain = 25, \
.flags = SD_LOAD_BALANCE \
@@ -112,7 +111,6 @@
.max_interval = 4, \
.busy_factor = 64, \
.imbalance_pct = 125, \
- .cache_hot_time = (5*1000000/2), \
.cache_nice_tries = 1, \
.per_cpu_gain = 100, \
.flags = SD_LOAD_BALANCE \
--- linux/include/linux/sched.h.orig
+++ linux/include/linux/sched.h
@@ -527,7 +527,17 @@ extern cpumask_t cpu_isolated_map;
extern void init_sched_build_groups(struct sched_group groups[],
cpumask_t span, int (*group_fn)(int cpu));
extern void cpu_attach_domain(struct sched_domain *sd, int cpu);
+
#endif /* ARCH_HAS_SCHED_DOMAIN */
+
+/*
+ * Maximum cache size the migration-costs auto-tuning code will
+ * search from:
+ */
+extern unsigned int max_cache_size;
+
+extern void calibrate_migration_costs(void);
+
#endif /* CONFIG_SMP */


--- linux/include/asm-i386/topology.h.orig
+++ linux/include/asm-i386/topology.h
@@ -75,7 +75,6 @@ static inline cpumask_t pcibus_to_cpumas
.max_interval = 32, \
.busy_factor = 32, \
.imbalance_pct = 125, \
- .cache_hot_time = (10*1000000), \
.cache_nice_tries = 1, \
.per_cpu_gain = 100, \
.flags = SD_LOAD_BALANCE \
--- linux/include/asm-ppc64/topology.h.orig
+++ linux/include/asm-ppc64/topology.h
@@ -46,7 +46,6 @@ static inline int node_to_first_cpu(int
.max_interval = 32, \
.busy_factor = 32, \
.imbalance_pct = 125, \
- .cache_hot_time = (10*1000000), \
.cache_nice_tries = 1, \
.per_cpu_gain = 100, \
.flags = SD_LOAD_BALANCE \
--- linux/include/asm-x86_64/topology.h.orig
+++ linux/include/asm-x86_64/topology.h
@@ -48,7 +48,6 @@ static inline cpumask_t __pcibus_to_cpum
.max_interval = 32, \
.busy_factor = 32, \
.imbalance_pct = 125, \
- .cache_hot_time = (10*1000000), \
.cache_nice_tries = 1, \
.per_cpu_gain = 100, \
.flags = SD_LOAD_BALANCE \
--- linux/include/asm-mips/mach-ip27/topology.h.orig
+++ linux/include/asm-mips/mach-ip27/topology.h
@@ -24,7 +24,6 @@ extern unsigned char __node_distances[MA
.max_interval = 32, \
.busy_factor = 32, \
.imbalance_pct = 125, \
- .cache_hot_time = (10*1000), \
.cache_nice_tries = 1, \
.per_cpu_gain = 100, \
.flags = SD_LOAD_BALANCE \
\
 
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