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SubjectRe: [RFC] Event counters [1/3]: Basic counter functionality
Hi Christoph,

On Tue, Dec 20, 2005 at 03:57:33PM -0800, Christoph Lameter wrote:
> Light weight counter functions
>
> The remaining counters in page_state after the zoned VM counter patch has been
> applied are all just for show in /proc/vmstat. They have no essential function
> for the VM and therefore we can make these counters lightweight by ignoring
> races and also allow an off switch for embedded systems that allows a building
> of a linux kernels without these counters.
>
> The implementation of these counters is through inline code that typically
> results in a simple increment of a global memory locations.
>
> Also
> - Rename page_state to event_state
> - Make event state an array indexed by the event item.
>
> Signed-off-by: Christoph Lameter <clameter@sgi.com>
>
> Index: linux-2.6.15-rc5-mm3/init/Kconfig
> ===================================================================
> --- linux-2.6.15-rc5-mm3.orig/init/Kconfig 2005-12-16 11:44:09.000000000 -0800
> +++ linux-2.6.15-rc5-mm3/init/Kconfig 2005-12-20 14:15:23.000000000 -0800
> @@ -411,6 +411,15 @@ config SLAB
> SLOB is more space efficient but does not scale well and is
> more susceptible to fragmentation.
>
> +config EVENT_COUNTERS

Please rename to VM_EVENT_COUNTERS or a better name.

> + default y
> + bool "Enable event counters for /proc/vmstat" if EMBEDDED
> + help
> + Event counters are only needed to display statistics. They
> + have no function for the kernel itself. This option allows
> + the disabling of the event counters. /proc/vmstat will only
> + contain essential counters.
> +
> config SERIAL_PCI
> depends PCI && SERIAL_8250
> default y
> Index: linux-2.6.15-rc5-mm3/include/linux/page-flags.h
> ===================================================================
> --- linux-2.6.15-rc5-mm3.orig/include/linux/page-flags.h 2005-12-20 13:15:45.000000000 -0800
> +++ linux-2.6.15-rc5-mm3/include/linux/page-flags.h 2005-12-20 14:55:00.000000000 -0800
> @@ -77,120 +77,70 @@
> #define PG_nosave_free 18 /* Free, should not be written */
> #define PG_uncached 19 /* Page has been mapped as uncached */
>
> +#ifdef CONFIG_EVENT_COUNTERS
> /*
> - * Global page accounting. One instance per CPU. Only unsigned longs are
> - * allowed.
> + * Light weight per cpu counter implementation.
> *
> - * - Fields can be modified with xxx_page_state and xxx_page_state_zone at
> - * any time safely (which protects the instance from modification by
> - * interrupt.
> - * - The __xxx_page_state variants can be used safely when interrupts are
> - * disabled.
> - * - The __xxx_page_state variants can be used if the field is only
> - * modified from process context, or only modified from interrupt context.
> - * In this case, the field should be commented here.
> + * Note that these can race. We do not bother to enable preemption
> + * or care about interrupt races. All we care about is to have some
> + * approximate count of events.

What about this addition to the documentation above, to make it a little more
verbose:

The possible race scenario is restricted to kernel preemption,
and could happen as follows:

thread A thread B
a) movl xyz(%ebp), %eax movl xyz(%ebp), %eax
b) incl %eax incl %eax
c) movl %eax, xyz(%ebp) movl %eax, xyz(%ebp)

Thread A can be preempted in b), and thread B succesfully increments the
counter, writing it back to memory. Now thread A resumes execution, with
its stale copy of the counter, and overwrites the current counter.

Resulting in increments lost.

However that should be relatively rare condition.

> + *
> + * Counters should only be incremented and no critical kernel component
> + * should rely on the counter values.
> + *
> + * Counters are handled completely inline. On many platforms the code
> + * generated will simply be the increment of a global address.
> */
> -struct page_state {
> - /*
> - * The below are zeroed by get_page_state(). Use get_full_page_state()
> - * to add up all these.
> - */
> - unsigned long pgpgin; /* Disk reads */
> - unsigned long pgpgout; /* Disk writes */
> - unsigned long pswpin; /* swap reads */
> - unsigned long pswpout; /* swap writes */
> -
> - unsigned long pgalloc_high; /* page allocations */
> - unsigned long pgalloc_normal;
> - unsigned long pgalloc_dma32;
> - unsigned long pgalloc_dma;
> -
> - unsigned long pgfree; /* page freeings */
> - unsigned long pgactivate; /* pages moved inactive->active */
> - unsigned long pgdeactivate; /* pages moved active->inactive */
> -
> - unsigned long pgfault; /* faults (major+minor) */
> - unsigned long pgmajfault; /* faults (major only) */
> -
> - unsigned long pgrefill_high; /* inspected in refill_inactive_zone */
> - unsigned long pgrefill_normal;
> - unsigned long pgrefill_dma32;
> - unsigned long pgrefill_dma;
> -
> - unsigned long pgsteal_high; /* total highmem pages reclaimed */
> - unsigned long pgsteal_normal;
> - unsigned long pgsteal_dma32;
> - unsigned long pgsteal_dma;
> -
> - unsigned long pgscan_kswapd_high;/* total highmem pages scanned */
> - unsigned long pgscan_kswapd_normal;
> - unsigned long pgscan_kswapd_dma32;
> - unsigned long pgscan_kswapd_dma;
> -
> - unsigned long pgscan_direct_high;/* total highmem pages scanned */
> - unsigned long pgscan_direct_normal;
> - unsigned long pgscan_direct_dma32;
> - unsigned long pgscan_direct_dma;
> -
> - unsigned long pginodesteal; /* pages reclaimed via inode freeing */
> - unsigned long slabs_scanned; /* slab objects scanned */
> - unsigned long kswapd_steal; /* pages reclaimed by kswapd */
> - unsigned long kswapd_inodesteal;/* reclaimed via kswapd inode freeing */
> - unsigned long pageoutrun; /* kswapd's calls to page reclaim */
> - unsigned long allocstall; /* direct reclaim calls */
> +#define FOR_ALL_ZONES(x) x##_DMA, x##_DMA32, x##_NORMAL, x##_HIGH
>
> - unsigned long pgrotated; /* pages rotated to tail of the LRU */
> +enum event_item { PGPGIN, PGPGOUT, PSWPIN, PSWPOUT,
> + FOR_ALL_ZONES(PGALLOC),
> + PGFREE, PGACTIVATE, PGDEACTIVATE,
> + PGFAULT, PGMAJFAULT,
> + FOR_ALL_ZONES(PGREFILL),
> + FOR_ALL_ZONES(PGSTEAL),
> + FOR_ALL_ZONES(PGSCAN_KSWAPD),
> + FOR_ALL_ZONES(PGSCAN_DIRECT),
> + PGINODESTEAL, SLABS_SCANNED, KSWAPD_STEAL, KSWAPD_INODESTEAL,
> + PAGEOUTRUN, ALLOCSTALL, PGROTATED,
> + NR_EVENT_ITEMS
> };
>
> -extern void get_full_page_state(struct page_state *ret);
> -extern unsigned long read_page_state_offset(unsigned long offset);
> -extern void mod_page_state_offset(unsigned long offset, unsigned long delta);
> -extern void __mod_page_state_offset(unsigned long offset, unsigned long delta);
> -
> -#define read_page_state(member) \
> - read_page_state_offset(offsetof(struct page_state, member))
> -
> -#define mod_page_state(member, delta) \
> - mod_page_state_offset(offsetof(struct page_state, member), (delta))
> -
> -#define __mod_page_state(member, delta) \
> - __mod_page_state_offset(offsetof(struct page_state, member), (delta))
> -
> -#define inc_page_state(member) mod_page_state(member, 1UL)
> -#define dec_page_state(member) mod_page_state(member, 0UL - 1)
> -#define add_page_state(member,delta) mod_page_state(member, (delta))
> -#define sub_page_state(member,delta) mod_page_state(member, 0UL - (delta))
> -
> -#define __inc_page_state(member) __mod_page_state(member, 1UL)
> -#define __dec_page_state(member) __mod_page_state(member, 0UL - 1)
> -#define __add_page_state(member,delta) __mod_page_state(member, (delta))
> -#define __sub_page_state(member,delta) __mod_page_state(member, 0UL - (delta))
> -
> -#define page_state(member) (*__page_state(offsetof(struct page_state, member)))
> -
> -#define state_zone_offset(zone, member) \
> -({ \
> - unsigned offset; \
> - if (is_highmem(zone)) \
> - offset = offsetof(struct page_state, member##_high); \
> - else if (is_normal(zone)) \
> - offset = offsetof(struct page_state, member##_normal); \
> - else if (is_dma32(zone)) \
> - offset = offsetof(struct page_state, member##_dma32); \
> - else \
> - offset = offsetof(struct page_state, member##_dma); \
> - offset; \
> -})
> -
> -#define __mod_page_state_zone(zone, member, delta) \
> - do { \
> - __mod_page_state_offset(state_zone_offset(zone, member), (delta)); \
> - } while (0)
> -
> -#define mod_page_state_zone(zone, member, delta) \
> - do { \
> - mod_page_state_offset(state_zone_offset(zone, member), (delta)); \
> - } while (0)
> +struct event_state {
> + unsigned long event[NR_EVENT_ITEMS];
> +};
> +
> +DECLARE_PER_CPU(struct event_state, event_states);

Might be interesting to mark this structure as __cacheline_aligned_in_smp to
avoid unrelated data sitting in the same line?

-
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