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SubjectRe: [patchset] Lockfree fd lookup 0 of 5
The following patch adds kref_lf_xxx api and kref_lf_get_rcu to enable
refcounting of objects part of a lockfree collection.

Thanks,
Kiran


D:
D: kref-lf-2.6.7.patch:
D: This patch depends on the kref shrinkage patches. This provides
D: infrastructure for lockfree refcounting and adds kref_lf_xxx api
D: for lockfree refcounting. This patch also changes kref_xxx to
D: static inlines since kref_xxx are mostly one-two liners
D:

diff -ruN -X /home/kiran/dontdiff linux-2.6.7/include/linux/kref.h test-2.6.7/include/linux/kref.h
--- linux-2.6.7/include/linux/kref.h 2004-08-01 22:37:46.000000000 +0530
+++ test-2.6.7/include/linux/kref.h 2004-08-01 22:50:06.000000000 +0530
@@ -16,16 +16,264 @@
#define _KREF_H_

#include <linux/types.h>
+#include <linux/kernel.h>
#include <asm/atomic.h>

-
struct kref {
atomic_t refcount;
};

-void kref_init(struct kref *kref);
-struct kref *kref_get(struct kref *kref);
-void kref_put(struct kref *kref, void (*release) (struct kref *kref));
+/**
+ * kref_init - initialize object.
+ * @kref: object in question.
+ */
+static inline void kref_init(struct kref *kref)
+{
+ atomic_set(&kref->refcount, 1);
+}
+
+/**
+ * kref_get - increment refcount for object.
+ * @kref: object.
+ */
+static inline struct kref *kref_get(struct kref *kref)
+{
+ WARN_ON(!atomic_read(&kref->refcount));
+ atomic_inc(&kref->refcount);
+ return kref;
+}
+
+/**
+ * kref_put - decrement refcount for object.
+ * @kref: object.
+ * @release: pointer to the function that will clean up the object
+ * when the last reference to the object is released.
+ * This pointer is required.
+ *
+ * Decrement the refcount, and if 0, call release().
+ */
+static inline void
+kref_put(struct kref *kref, void (*release) (struct kref * kref))
+{
+ if (atomic_dec_and_test(&kref->refcount)) {
+ WARN_ON(release == NULL);
+ pr_debug("kref cleaning up\n");
+ release(kref);
+ }
+}
+
+/**
+ * kref_read - Return the refcount value.
+ * @kref: object.
+ */
+static inline int kref_read(struct kref *kref)
+{
+ return atomic_read(&kref->refcount);
+}
+
+/**
+ * kref_put_last - decrement refcount for object.
+ * @kref: object.
+ *
+ * Decrement the refcount, and if 0 return true.
+ * Returns false otherwise.
+ * Use this only if you cannot use kref_put -- when the
+ * release function of kref_put needs more than just the
+ * refcounted object. Use of kref_put_last when kref_put
+ * can do will be frowned upon.
+ */
+static inline int kref_put_last(struct kref *kref)
+{
+ return atomic_dec_and_test(&kref->refcount);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Refcounter framework for elements of lists/arrays protected by
+ * RCU.
+ *
+ * Refcounting on elements of lists which are protected by traditional
+ * reader/writer spinlocks or semaphores are straight forward as in:
+ *
+ * 1. 2.
+ * add() search_and_reference()
+ * { {
+ * alloc_object read_lock(&list_lock);
+ * ... search_for_element
+ * kref_init(&el->rc) kref_get(&el->rc);
+ * write_lock(&list_lock); ...
+ * add_element read_unlock(&list_lock);
+ * ... ...
+ * write_unlock(&list_lock); }
+ * }
+ *
+ * 3. 4.
+ * release_referenced() delete()
+ * { {
+ * ... write_lock(&list_lock);
+ * if (kref_put_last(&el->rc)) ...
+ * start_cleanup_object ...
+ * free_object delete_element
+ * ... write_unlock(&list_lock);
+ * } ...
+ * if (kref_put_last(&el->rc))
+ * start_cleanup_object
+ * free_object
+ * }
+ *
+ * If this list/array is made lock free using rcu as in changing the
+ * write_lock in add() and delete() to spin_lock and changing read_lock
+ * in search_and_reference to rcu_read_lock(), the kref_get in
+ * search_and_reference could potentially hold reference to an element which
+ * has already been deleted from the list/array. kref_lf_get_rcu takes
+ * care of this scenario. search_and_reference should look as;
+ * 2.
+ * search_and_reference()
+ * {
+ * rcu_read_lock();
+ * search_for_element
+ * if (!kref_lf_get_rcu(&el->rc)) {
+ * rcu_read_unlock();
+ * return FAIL;
+ * }
+ * ...
+ * ...
+ * rcu_read_unlock();
+ * }
+ *
+ * Of course, free_object after kref_put_last should be batched using call_rcu.
+ * Sometimes, reference to the element need to be obtained in the
+ * update (write) stream. In such cases, kref_lf_get_rcu might be an overkill
+ * since the spinlock serialising list updates are held. kref_lf_get
+ * is to be used in such cases.
+ * Note: Except for kref_lf_get_rcu, kref_lf_xxx api are the same as
+ * corresponding kref_xxx api for most arches. However, for arches which
+ * donot have cmpxchg kref_lf_xxx api use a hashed spinlock implementation to
+ * implement kref_lf_get_rcu, and acquire the same hashed spinlock for
+ * kref_lf_get etc to preserve atomicity.
+ * Note: Use kref_lf_xxx api only if you need to use kref_lf_get_rcu on the
+ * refcounter atleast at one place. Mixing kref_lf_xx and kref_xxx api
+ * might lead to races.
+ *
+ */
+
+#ifdef __HAVE_ARCH_CMPXCHG
+
+#define kref_lf_init kref_init
+#define kref_lf_get kref_get
+#define kref_lf_put kref_put
+#define kref_lf_put_last kref_put_last
+
+/*
+ * cmpxchg is needed on UP too, if deletions to the list/array can happen
+ * in interrupt context.
+ */
+
+/**
+ * kref_lf_get_rcu - Take reference to an object of a lockfree collection
+ * by traversing a lockfree list/array.
+ * @kref: object.
+ *
+ * Try and increment the refcount by 1. The increment might fail if
+ * the refcounted object has been through a 1 to 0 transition and
+ * is no longer part of the lockfree list.
+ * Returns non-zero on successful increment and zero otherwise.
+ */
+static inline int kref_lf_get_rcu(struct kref *kref)
+{
+ int c, old;
+ c = atomic_read(&kref->refcount);
+ while (c && (old = cmpxchg(&kref->refcount.counter, c, c + 1)) != c)
+ c = old;
+ return c;
+}
+
+#else /* !__HAVE_ARCH_CMPXCHG */
+
+#include <linux/spinlock.h>
+
+/*
+ * We use an array of spinlocks for the krefs -- similar to ones in sparc
+ * 32 bit atomic_t implementations, and a hash function similar to that
+ * for our refcounting needs.
+ * Can't help multiprocessors which donot have cmpxchg :(
+ */
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
+#define KREF_HASH_SIZE 4
+#define KREF_HASH(k) \
+ (&__kref_hash[(((unsigned long)k)>>8) & (KREF_HASH_SIZE-1)])
+#else
+#define KREF_HASH_SIZE 1
+#define KREF_HASH(k) &__kref_hash[0]
+#endif /* CONFIG_SMP */
+
+extern spinlock_t __kref_hash[KREF_HASH_SIZE];
+
+static inline void kref_lf_init(struct kref *kref)
+{
+ unsigned long flags;
+ spin_lock_irqsave(KREF_HASH(kref), flags);
+ kref->refcount.counter = 1;
+ spin_unlock_irqrestore(KREF_HASH(kref), flags);
+}
+
+static inline void kref_lf_get(struct kref *kref)
+{
+ unsigned long flags;
+ spin_lock_irqsave(KREF_HASH(kref), flags);
+ kref->refcount.counter += 1;
+ spin_unlock_irqrestore(KREF_HASH(kref), flags);
+}
+
+static inline void
+kref_lf_put(struct kref *kref, void (*release) (struct kref * kref))
+{
+ unsigned long flags;
+ spin_lock_irqsave(KREF_HASH(kref), flags);
+ kref->refcount.counter--;
+ if (!kref->refcount.counter) {
+ spin_unlock_irqrestore(KREF_HASH(kref), flags);
+ WARN_ON(release == NULL);
+ pr_debug("kref cleaning up\n");
+ release(kref);
+ } else {
+ spin_unlock_irqrestore(KREF_HASH(kref), flags);
+ }
+}
+
+static inline int kref_lf_put_last(struct kref *kref)
+{
+ unsigned long flags;
+ spin_lock_irqsave(KREF_HASH(kref), flags);
+ kref->refcount.counter--;
+ if (!kref->refcount.counter) {
+ spin_unlock_irqrestore(KREF_HASH(kref), flags);
+ return 1;
+ } else {
+ spin_unlock_irqrestore(KREF_HASH(kref), flags);
+ return 0;
+ }
+}
+
+static inline int kref_lf_get_rcu(struct kref *kref)
+{
+ int ret;
+ unsigned long flags;
+ spin_lock_irqsave(KREF_HASH(kref), flags);
+ if (kref->refcount.counter)
+ ret = kref->refcount.counter++;
+ else
+ ret = 0;
+ spin_unlock_irqrestore(KREF_HASH(kref), flags);
+ return ret;
+}
+
+#endif /* __HAVE_ARCH_CMPXCHG */

+/* Spinlocks are not needed in this case, if atomic_read is used */
+static inline int kref_lf_read(struct kref *kref)
+{
+ return atomic_read(&kref->refcount);
+}

-#endif /* _KREF_H_ */
+#endif /* _KREF_H_ */
diff -ruN -X /home/kiran/dontdiff linux-2.6.7/lib/kref.c test-2.6.7/lib/kref.c
--- linux-2.6.7/lib/kref.c 2004-08-01 22:37:46.000000000 +0530
+++ test-2.6.7/lib/kref.c 2004-08-01 21:41:19.000000000 +0530
@@ -11,49 +11,12 @@
*
*/

-/* #define DEBUG */
-
#include <linux/kref.h>
#include <linux/module.h>

-/**
- * kref_init - initialize object.
- * @kref: object in question.
- */
-void kref_init(struct kref *kref)
-{
- atomic_set(&kref->refcount,1);
-}
-
-/**
- * kref_get - increment refcount for object.
- * @kref: object.
- */
-struct kref *kref_get(struct kref *kref)
-{
- WARN_ON(!atomic_read(&kref->refcount));
- atomic_inc(&kref->refcount);
- return kref;
-}
-
-/**
- * kref_put - decrement refcount for object.
- * @kref: object.
- * @release: pointer to the function that will clean up the object
- * when the last reference to the object is released.
- * This pointer is required.
- *
- * Decrement the refcount, and if 0, call release().
- */
-void kref_put(struct kref *kref, void (*release) (struct kref *kref))
-{
- WARN_ON(release == NULL);
- if (atomic_dec_and_test(&kref->refcount)) {
- pr_debug("kref cleaning up\n");
- release(kref);
- }
-}
-
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(kref_init);
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(kref_get);
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(kref_put);
+#ifndef __HAVE_ARCH_CMPXCHG
+spinlock_t __kref_hash[KREF_HASH_SIZE] = {
+ [0 ... (KREF_HASH_SIZE-1)] = SPIN_LOCK_UNLOCKED
+};
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(__kref_hash);
+#endif
-
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