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SubjectRe: [PATCH 2/2] Futex non-page-pinning fix
Date
In message <20030825210606.5912bac4.akpm@osdl.org> you write:
> But end_swap_bio_read() is called from interrupt context. Hence the
> spinlock you have in there needs to become IRQ safe.

OK, I've fixed that, with conservative assumptions (so it doesn't
assume context). Or is _bh sufficient?

> Two issues:
>
> a) what to do about futexes in file-backed pages? At present the
> attacker can pin arbitrary amount of memory by backing it with a file.

At present == 2.6.0-test4? In 2.6.0-test4, the attacker can pin one
page per process (OK), or on per FD using FUTEX_FD (not OK). This
patch changes it so that pages are *never* pinned, whatever is backing
them.

> Your solution won't scale to solving this, because we need to perform
> a futex lookup on every add_to_page_cache(). (Well, it will scale
> fairly well because add_to_page_cache() is ratelimited by the IO speed.
> But it will still suck quite a bit for some people).

I assumed that for non-anonymous pages the mapping + index was always
a unique identifier, even as they were swapped out. We need a
persistent unique identifier for a page, OR a callback to
unhash/rehash it when the identifier changes. Hence mapping + index
where mapping != NULL, and the struct page and callbacks for swap
pages. Using the callbacks for wherever else page->mapping changes is
simple (but may be slow).

> b) Assuming a) is solved: futexes which are backed by tmpfs. tmpfs
> (which is a study in conceptual baroquenness) will rewrite page->mapping
> as pages are moved between tmpfs inodes and swapper_space. I _think_
> lock_page() is sufficient to serialise against this. If not, both
> ->page_locks are needed.

Looks like the call to move_to_swap_cache is already serialized by
spin_lock(&info->lock) in shmem_writepage AFAICT, in fact,
move_to_swap_cache seems to assume serialization, since it does
(outside any of its locks):

/* shift page from clean_pages to dirty_pages list */
BUG_ON(PageDirty(page));
set_page_dirty(page);

> This of course will break your hashing scheme. Hooks in
> move_to_swap_cache() and move_from_swap_cache() are needed.

I've added it, but how often does that get called?

A simple optimization would be to have a page bit which says "has ever
had someone waiting on a futex" which would optimize this: it could be
reset in the futex callbacks if it finds noone is waiting on that
page.

> Or create RLIM_NRFUTEX.

This is the option of last resort: shades of SysV semaphores. Even if
it only applied to FUTEX_FD, it makes them basically unusable.

OK, here's a new one (modified previous patch prepended for completeness),
Rusty.
--
Anyone who quotes me in their sig is an idiot. -- Rusty Russell.

Name: Minor futex comment tweaks and cleanups
Author: Rusty Russell
Status: Tested on 2.6.0-test4-bk2

D: Changes:
D:
D: (1) don't return 0 from futex_wait if we are somehow
D: spuriously woken up, loop in that case.
D:
D: (2) remove bogus comment about address no longer being in this
D: address space: we hold the mm lock, and __pin_page succeeded, so it
D: can't be true,
D:
D: (3) remove bogus comment about "get_user might fault and schedule",
D:
D: (4) clarify comment about hashing: we hash address of struct page,
D: not page itself,
D:
D: (4) remove list_empty check: we still hold the lock, so it can
D: never happen, and
D:
D: (5) single error exit path, and move __queue_me to the end (order
D: doesn't matter since we're inside the futex lock).

diff -urpN --exclude TAGS -X /home/rusty/devel/kernel/kernel-patches/current-dontdiff --minimal .9416-linux-2.6.0-test4-bk2/kernel/futex.c .9416-linux-2.6.0-test4-bk2.updated/kernel/futex.c
--- .9416-linux-2.6.0-test4-bk2/kernel/futex.c 2003-05-27 15:02:23.000000000 +1000
+++ .9416-linux-2.6.0-test4-bk2.updated/kernel/futex.c 2003-08-27 12:34:53.000000000 +1000
@@ -84,9 +84,7 @@ static inline void unlock_futex_mm(void)
spin_unlock(&current->mm->page_table_lock);
}

-/*
- * The physical page is shared, so we can hash on its address:
- */
+/* The struct page is shared, so we can hash on its address. */
static inline struct list_head *hash_futex(struct page *page, int offset)
{
return &futex_queues[hash_long((unsigned long)page + offset,
@@ -311,67 +309,68 @@ static inline int futex_wait(unsigned lo
int val,
unsigned long time)
{
- DECLARE_WAITQUEUE(wait, current);
- int ret = 0, curval;
+ wait_queue_t wait;
+ int ret, curval;
struct page *page;
struct futex_q q;

+again:
init_waitqueue_head(&q.waiters);
+ init_waitqueue_entry(wait, current);

lock_futex_mm();

page = __pin_page(uaddr - offset);
if (!page) {
- unlock_futex_mm();
- return -EFAULT;
+ ret = -EFAULT;
+ goto unlock;
}
- __queue_me(&q, page, uaddr, offset, -1, NULL);

/*
- * Page is pinned, but may no longer be in this address space.
+ * Page is pinned, but may be a kernel address.
* It cannot schedule, so we access it with the spinlock held.
*/
if (get_user(curval, (int *)uaddr) != 0) {
- unlock_futex_mm();
ret = -EFAULT;
- goto out;
+ goto unlock;
}
+
if (curval != val) {
- unlock_futex_mm();
ret = -EWOULDBLOCK;
- goto out;
+ goto unlock;
}
- /*
- * The get_user() above might fault and schedule so we
- * cannot just set TASK_INTERRUPTIBLE state when queueing
- * ourselves into the futex hash. This code thus has to
- * rely on the futex_wake() code doing a wakeup after removing
- * the waiter from the list.
- */
+
+ __queue_me(&q, page, uaddr, offset, -1, NULL);
add_wait_queue(&q.waiters, &wait);
set_current_state(TASK_INTERRUPTIBLE);
- if (!list_empty(&q.list)) {
- unlock_futex_mm();
- time = schedule_timeout(time);
- }
+ unlock_futex_mm();
+
+ time = schedule_timeout(time);
+
set_current_state(TASK_RUNNING);
/*
* NOTE: we don't remove ourselves from the waitqueue because
* we are the only user of it.
*/
- if (time == 0) {
- ret = -ETIMEDOUT;
- goto out;
- }
- if (signal_pending(current))
- ret = -EINTR;
-out:
- /* Were we woken up anyway? */
+ put_page(q.page);
+
+ /* Were we woken up (and removed from queue)? Always return
+ * success when this happens. */
if (!unqueue_me(&q))
ret = 0;
- put_page(q.page);
+ else if (time == 0)
+ ret = -ETIMEDOUT;
+ else if (signal_pending(current))
+ ret = -EINTR;
+ else
+ /* Spurious wakeup somehow. Loop. */
+ goto again;

return ret;
+
+unlock:
+ unlock_futex_mm();
+ return ret;
}

static int futex_close(struct inode *inode, struct file *filp)
Name: Futexes without pinning pages
Author: Rusty Russell
Status: Tested on 2.6.0-test4-bk2
Depends: Misc/futex-minor-tweaks.patch.gz
Depends: Misc/qemu-page-offset.patch.gz

D: Avoid pinning pages with futexes in them, to resolve FUTEX_FD DoS.
D: Insert callbacks in swap code to unhash them when they are swapped
D: out and rehash them when they are swapped back in.

diff -urpN --exclude TAGS -X /home/rusty/devel/kernel/kernel-patches/current-dontdiff --minimal .26024-linux-2.6.0-test4-bk2/include/linux/futex.h .26024-linux-2.6.0-test4-bk2.updated/include/linux/futex.h
--- .26024-linux-2.6.0-test4-bk2/include/linux/futex.h 2003-05-27 15:02:21.000000000 +1000
+++ .26024-linux-2.6.0-test4-bk2.updated/include/linux/futex.h 2003-08-27 15:05:37.000000000 +1000
@@ -17,4 +17,7 @@ asmlinkage long sys_futex(u32 __user *ua
long do_futex(unsigned long uaddr, int op, int val,
unsigned long timeout, unsigned long uaddr2, int val2);

+/* For mm/page_io.c to tell us about swapping of (anonymous) pages. */
+extern void futex_swap_out(struct page *page);
+extern void futex_swap_in(struct page *page);
#endif
diff -urpN --exclude TAGS -X /home/rusty/devel/kernel/kernel-patches/current-dontdiff --minimal .26024-linux-2.6.0-test4-bk2/kernel/futex.c .26024-linux-2.6.0-test4-bk2.updated/kernel/futex.c
--- .26024-linux-2.6.0-test4-bk2/kernel/futex.c 2003-08-27 15:05:36.000000000 +1000
+++ .26024-linux-2.6.0-test4-bk2.updated/kernel/futex.c 2003-08-27 15:07:31.000000000 +1000
@@ -52,14 +52,17 @@ struct futex_q {
/* the virtual => physical COW-safe cache */
vcache_t vcache;

+ /* When anonymous memory swapped out, this stores the index. */
+ unsigned long swap_index;
+
/* For fd, sigio sent using these. */
int fd;
struct file *filp;
};

-/* The key for the hash is the address + index + offset within page */
static struct list_head futex_queues[1<<FUTEX_HASHBITS];
static spinlock_t futex_lock = SPIN_LOCK_UNLOCKED;
+static LIST_HEAD(futex_swapped);

extern void send_sigio(struct fown_struct *fown, int fd, int band);

@@ -74,21 +77,74 @@ static inline void lock_futex_mm(void)
{
spin_lock(&current->mm->page_table_lock);
spin_lock(&vcache_lock);
- spin_lock(&futex_lock);
+ spin_lock_irq(&futex_lock);
}

static inline void unlock_futex_mm(void)
{
- spin_unlock(&futex_lock);
+ spin_unlock_irq(&futex_lock);
spin_unlock(&vcache_lock);
spin_unlock(&current->mm->page_table_lock);
}

-/* The struct page is shared, so we can hash on its address. */
+/* For pages which are file backed, we can simply hash by mapping and
+ * index. For anonymous regions, we hash by the actual struct page *,
+ * and move them in and out of the hash if they are swapped out.
+ */
static inline struct list_head *hash_futex(struct page *page, int offset)
{
- return &futex_queues[hash_long((unsigned long)page + offset,
- FUTEX_HASHBITS)];
+ unsigned long hashin;
+ if (page->mapping)
+ hashin = (unsigned long)page->mapping + page->index;
+ else
+ hashin = (unsigned long)page;
+
+ return &futex_queues[hash_long(hashin+offset, FUTEX_HASHBITS)];
+}
+
+/* Called when we're going to swap this page out (ie. whenever mapping
+ * changes). */
+void futex_swap_out(struct page *page)
+{
+ unsigned int i;
+
+ /* It should have the mapping (== &swapper_space) and index
+ * set by now */
+ BUG_ON(!page->mapping);
+
+ spin_lock_irq(&futex_lock);
+ for (i = 0; i < 1 << FUTEX_HASHBITS; i++) {
+ struct list_head *l, *next;
+ list_for_each_safe(l, next, &futex_queues[i]) {
+ struct futex_q *q = list_entry(l, struct futex_q,list);
+ if (q->page == page) {
+ list_del(&q->list);
+ q->swap_index = page->index;
+ q->page = NULL;
+ list_add(&q->list, &futex_swapped);
+ }
+ }
+ }
+ spin_unlock_irq(&futex_lock);
+}
+
+/* Called when we're going to swap this page in (can be interrupt context) */
+void futex_swap_in(struct page *page)
+{
+ struct list_head *l, *next;
+ unsigned long flags;
+
+ spin_lock_irqsave(&futex_lock, flags);
+ list_for_each_safe(l, next, &futex_swapped) {
+ struct futex_q *q = list_entry(l, struct futex_q, list);
+
+ if (q->swap_index == page->index) {
+ list_del(&q->list);
+ q->page = page;
+ list_add(&q->list, hash_futex(q->page, q->offset));
+ }
+ }
+ spin_unlock_irqrestore(&futex_lock, flags);
}

/*
@@ -196,17 +252,15 @@ static void futex_vcache_callback(vcache
struct futex_q *q = container_of(vcache, struct futex_q, vcache);
struct list_head *head = hash_futex(new_page, q->offset);

- spin_lock(&futex_lock);
+ spin_lock_irq(&futex_lock);

if (!list_empty(&q->list)) {
- put_page(q->page);
- q->page = new_page;
- __pin_page_atomic(new_page);
list_del(&q->list);
+ q->page = new_page;
list_add_tail(&q->list, head);
}

- spin_unlock(&futex_lock);
+ spin_unlock_irq(&futex_lock);
}

/*
@@ -244,8 +298,6 @@ static inline int futex_requeue(unsigned
send_sigio(&this->filp->f_owner,
this->fd, POLL_IN);
} else {
- put_page(this->page);
- __pin_page_atomic (page2);
list_add_tail(i, head2);
__attach_vcache(&this->vcache, uaddr2,
current->mm, futex_vcache_callback);
@@ -293,13 +345,13 @@ static inline int unqueue_me(struct fute
int ret = 0;

spin_lock(&vcache_lock);
- spin_lock(&futex_lock);
+ spin_lock_irq(&futex_lock);
if (!list_empty(&q->list)) {
list_del(&q->list);
__detach_vcache(&q->vcache);
ret = 1;
}
- spin_unlock(&futex_lock);
+ spin_unlock_irq(&futex_lock);
spin_unlock(&vcache_lock);
return ret;
}
@@ -316,7 +368,7 @@ static inline int futex_wait(unsigned lo

again:
init_waitqueue_head(&q.waiters);
- init_waitqueue_entry(wait, current);
+ init_waitqueue_entry(&wait, current);

lock_futex_mm();

@@ -332,18 +384,19 @@ again:
*/
if (get_user(curval, (int *)uaddr) != 0) {
ret = -EFAULT;
- goto unlock;
+ goto putpage;
}

if (curval != val) {
ret = -EWOULDBLOCK;
- goto unlock;
+ goto putpage;
}

__queue_me(&q, page, uaddr, offset, -1, NULL);
add_wait_queue(&q.waiters, &wait);
set_current_state(TASK_INTERRUPTIBLE);
unlock_futex_mm();
+ put_page(page);

time = schedule_timeout(time);

@@ -352,7 +405,6 @@ again:
* NOTE: we don't remove ourselves from the waitqueue because
* we are the only user of it.
*/
- put_page(q.page);

/* Were we woken up (and removed from queue)? Always return
* success when this happens. */
@@ -368,6 +420,8 @@ again:

return ret;

+putpage:
+ put_page(page);
unlock:
unlock_futex_mm();
return ret;
@@ -378,7 +432,6 @@ static int futex_close(struct inode *ino
struct futex_q *q = filp->private_data;

unqueue_me(q);
- put_page(q->page);
kfree(filp->private_data);
return 0;
}
@@ -391,10 +444,10 @@ static unsigned int futex_poll(struct fi
int ret = 0;

poll_wait(filp, &q->waiters, wait);
- spin_lock(&futex_lock);
+ spin_lock_irq(&futex_lock);
if (list_empty(&q->list))
ret = POLLIN | POLLRDNORM;
- spin_unlock(&futex_lock);
+ spin_unlock_irq(&futex_lock);

return ret;
}
diff -urpN --exclude TAGS -X /home/rusty/devel/kernel/kernel-patches/current-dontdiff --minimal .26024-linux-2.6.0-test4-bk2/mm/page_io.c .26024-linux-2.6.0-test4-bk2.updated/mm/page_io.c
--- .26024-linux-2.6.0-test4-bk2/mm/page_io.c 2003-02-07 19:18:58.000000000 +1100
+++ .26024-linux-2.6.0-test4-bk2.updated/mm/page_io.c 2003-08-27 15:05:37.000000000 +1000
@@ -19,6 +19,7 @@
#include <linux/buffer_head.h> /* for block_sync_page() */
#include <linux/mpage.h>
#include <linux/writeback.h>
+#include <linux/futex.h>
#include <asm/pgtable.h>

static struct bio *
@@ -77,6 +78,7 @@ static int end_swap_bio_read(struct bio
ClearPageUptodate(page);
} else {
SetPageUptodate(page);
+ futex_swap_in(page);
}
unlock_page(page);
bio_put(bio);
@@ -105,6 +107,7 @@ int swap_writepage(struct page *page, st
}
inc_page_state(pswpout);
SetPageWriteback(page);
+ futex_swap_out(page);
unlock_page(page);
submit_bio(WRITE, bio);
out:
diff -urpN --exclude TAGS -X /home/rusty/devel/kernel/kernel-patches/current-dontdiff --minimal .26024-linux-2.6.0-test4-bk2/mm/swap_state.c .26024-linux-2.6.0-test4-bk2.updated/mm/swap_state.c
--- .26024-linux-2.6.0-test4-bk2/mm/swap_state.c 2003-08-12 06:58:06.000000000 +1000
+++ .26024-linux-2.6.0-test4-bk2.updated/mm/swap_state.c 2003-08-27 15:09:30.000000000 +1000
@@ -13,6 +13,7 @@
#include <linux/init.h>
#include <linux/pagemap.h>
#include <linux/backing-dev.h>
+#include <linux/futex.h>

#include <asm/pgtable.h>

@@ -214,6 +215,7 @@ int move_to_swap_cache(struct page *page
BUG_ON(PageDirty(page));
set_page_dirty(page);
INC_CACHE_INFO(add_total);
+ futex_swap_out(page);
} else if (err == -EEXIST)
INC_CACHE_INFO(exist_race);
return err;
@@ -248,6 +250,7 @@ int move_from_swap_cache(struct page *pa
/* shift page from clean_pages to dirty_pages list */
ClearPageDirty(page);
set_page_dirty(page);
+ futex_swap_in(page);
}
return err;
}
-
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