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SubjectRe: [PATCH] loop: fixing cryptoloop troubles.
Christophe Saout  wrote:
>Before encryption the data to be encrypted gets xor'ed with the result
>from the previous encrypted block. The idea in cryptoloop is that not
>the result from the previous run gets used but a specially constructed
>dummy block that has the sector number (little-endian encoded) in the
>first four bytes and is null every where else. So you simply get some
>additional perturbation based on the sector number, so that zero-filled
>sectors always looked differently after encoding.
>When decoding this means that the sector number is xor'ed over the
>encrypted block. If, when decoding, the sector number doesn't match that
>one that was put in the iv while encoding that sector, you will get
>errors in the first four bytes, mostly one or few bits flipped.

Unrelated to the corruption issues:

Is this how cryptoloop works? The sector number is used directly as the
IV (not the encrypted sector number)? In other words, if X denotes the
first block of plaintext and S the sector number, then the first block
of ciphertext is C = E_K(X ^ S)?

If yes, I noticed a small security weakness. This usage of CBC mode can
leak a few bits of information about the plaintext data, in some cases.
For instance, consider the following example. Let X denote the first block
of plaintext at sector S, and X' the first block of plaintext at sector S'.
Suppose X' = X^1 and S' = S^1 (here "^" denotes xor, as usual). Then
C = E_K(X^S), and C' = E_K(X'^S') = E_K((X^1)^(S^1)) = E_K(X^S) = C.
This condition can be recognized in the encrypted data.

In other words, here's the attack. The attacker looks at two sectors,
number S and S', and looks at the first block of ciphertext in each sector,
call them C and C'. If C = C', then the attacker knows that
X = X' ^ S ^ S', where X and X' denote the first block of plaintext in
each sector. If plaintext were totally random, this would almost never
happen (with probability 2^-64 for a 64-bit block cipher). However,
plaintext data often isn't exactly random. There are some plausible
ways that the condition X = X' ^ S ^ S' could arise with non-negligible
probability, and if this happens, information leaks to the attacker.

Is this a problem worth fixing? You'll have to decide. Fortunately,
there is a simple fix: use the encrypted sector number as IV, not the
plaintext sector number. In other words, the IV would be E_K(S), and
thus the first block of ciphertext would be C = E_K(X ^ E_K(S)). This
fix makes the above attack go away.
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