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    SubjectRe: any chance of 2.6.0-test*?
    On Sun, Jan 12, 2003 at 09:19:28PM -0500, Rob Wilkens wrote:
    > On Sun, 2003-01-12 at 20:51, Nuno Monteiro wrote:
    > > You dont realistically expect to learn how to program reading
    > > Documentation/CodingStyle, do you? CodingStyle merely serves as general
    > No, but I would expect rules of kernel coding to be in there. For
    > example, we were talking about using return mid-function. I always
    > considerred that perfectly OK. Others were saying that's a no-no. If
    > it's a no-no, it should be documented. That is, if it's a no-no. That
    > may be a situational thing though.

    That document is short for several reasons.

    - It has been written for particular needs, and updated rarely

    - Most long-time kernel coders really don't need detailed guidelines,
    although newcomers (like yourself) apparently want something..

    Things you need to understand include at least:

    - Linux kernel is one of the most complicated codes that gcc compiler
    is ever put to work on, and over the years we have unearthed tons of
    optimizer bugs. Many of somewhat odd looking coding details do
    originate from circumventions of those compiler bugs.

    - Advanced optimizer hinting features, like unlikely() attribute
    are very new in (this) compiler, and while they in theory move the
    "unlikely" codes out of the fast-path, such things have been buggy
    in the past, and we are worried of bug effects...

    - Why code in a manner, where the optimizer needs to work very hard to
    produce fast code, when simplified structures, like those with 'goto'
    in them, can result the same with much less effort ?

    - Knowing effects of those optimizations requires profiling, and studying
    produced assembly code on different target systems.

    - Linux is multi-CPU-architecture kernel, looking at it via "intel-only,
    lattest Pentium-XIV" viewpoint is not going to cover all cases. Making
    changes that bloat code will make system that much harder to fit into
    smaller embedded machines.

    - Sometimes you need to code differently to achieve higher performance
    at different processors. See drivers/md/xor.c and header files
    it includes. Especially all include/asm-*/xor.h files, including
    include/asm-generic/xor.h ... (That shows to you how different
    approaches work at different systems. What works fast in register-
    rich processors does not necessarily be fast in register-poor things,
    like i386 series.)

    - Adding function classifiers like "static inline" do change rules
    somewhat. (Especially things like "mid-function return".)

    - Larger code, either with manually replicated exit cleanup (which
    are pain to maintain, when some large-scale change is needed), or
    via excessive use of "static inline", will pressure caches, and
    makes it more likely to drop soon to be again needed code (or data)
    from cache. Cases where cache-miss costs your tens, or hundreds
    of processor clock cycles that is really important question.

    - Explaining things like GCC asm() statement syntaxes isn't a thing
    for Linux kernel documentation. (Those vary from target processor
    to another!)

    I repeat:

    To understand effects of various coding details, you need to study produced
    assembly code, and keep in mind that in modern processors a branch out of
    straight-line execution path (after optimizations) is expensive (in time),
    and cache-misses are even more expensive.

    Then you need to benchmark those codes with different loads (where
    applicable) to find out what caches affect them -- and when you must
    bypass caches (they are limited resource, after all) in order to give
    overall improved system performance, when your code does not cause
    actively used code or data to be evicted from caches unnecessarily.

    > -Rob

    /Matti Aarnio
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