`On Mon, 19 Aug 2002, Oliver Xymoron wrote:> On Mon, Aug 19, 2002 at 01:43:59AM -0400, Theodore Ts'o wrote:> > On Sat, Aug 17, 2002 at 09:15:22PM -0500, Oliver Xymoron wrote:> >> > >  Assuming the interrupt actually has a nice gamma-like distribution> > >  (which is unlikely in practice), then this is indeed true. The> > >  trouble is that Linux assumes that if a delta is 13 bits, it contains> > >  12 bits of actual entropy. A moment of thought will reveal that> > >  binary numbers of the form 1xxxx can contain at most 4 bits of> > >  entropy - it's a tautology that all binary numbers start with 1 when> > >  you take off the leading zeros. This is actually a degenerate case of> > >  Benford's Law (http://mathworld.wolfram.com/BenfordsLaw.html), which> > >  governs the distribution of leading digits in scale invariant> > >  distributions.> > > > > >  What we're concerned with is the entropy contained in digits> > >  following the leading 1, which we can derive with a simple extension> > >  of Benford's Law (and some Python):> > > > I'm not a statistician, and my last probability class was over 15> > years ago, but I don't buy your extension of Benford's law.  Sure, if> > we take street addresses numbering from 1 to 10000, the probability> > that the leading digit will be 1 will be roughly 30%.  But the> > distribution of the low two digits will be quite evenly distributed.> > Put another way, by picking a house at random, and looking at the low> > two digits, and can very fairly choose a number between 0 and 99.  > > That's correct, and that's what's being calculated. The example Python> code calculates the Benford distribution not in base 2, but in base> 2^bits. Then it uses the Shannon entropy definition to calculate the> overall entropy of that distribution. For a 12 bit number, we've got> about 7 bits of entropy, most of it concentrated in the LSBs.I think you have it slightly wrong there. By snipping away the first digit from a number leaves you with, not Benford's distribution, but uniform distribution, for which the Shannon entropy is naturally roughlythe bitcount.Benford's distribution as presented (1 being the first digit 30% of the time) concerns firstly base 10 and secondly randomly upper bound sets.For base 2 the Benford's leading digit distribution naturally narrows down to 1 being the first digit 100% of the time. Benford's law says little about the remaining digits. Thus by snipping that first bit away leaves us with a set that reflects the properties of the choice. Assuming it's random, we get uniform distribution.Wether the bit count of the smallest of the three deltas isactually sufficient to guarantee us that amount of randomness in the choice is another question. Like stated here already, it can be easily fooled, and there's a strong possibility that it gets "fooled" already.Clearly periodic but not delta-wise detectable sequences would pass the delta checks. If interrupts get timed like, 1 3 11 50 1 3 11 50 1 3 11 50,the deltas would indicate more entropy than there's present.Some level of fourier analysis would be necessary to go further than what we can with the deltas.(For the record, I'm not one bit worried about the kernel rng, perhaps the entropy bit count may be theoretically a bit off from time to time, but remarks like "If someone then breaks SHA-1, he can do this and that..."only amuze me. If someone breaks SHA-1 we're bound to change the hash then, eh? Not mention that we'd be in deep shit not just kernelwise.)-- Tommi Kynde Kyntola		kynde@ts.ray.fi      "A man alone in the forest talking to himself and       no women around to hear him. Is he still wrong?"-To unsubscribe from this list: send the line "unsubscribe linux-kernel" inthe body of a message to majordomo@vger.kernel.orgMore majordomo info at  http://vger.kernel.org/majordomo-info.htmlPlease read the FAQ at  http://www.tux.org/lkml/`