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SubjectRe: [PATCH] New Read-Copy Update patch
Hi Andrea,

On Tue, Feb 05, 2002 at 06:13:54PM +0100, Andrea Arcangeli wrote:
> On Tue, Feb 05, 2002 at 09:18:26PM +0530, Dipankar Sarma wrote:
> > Main features of rcu-2.5.3.patch -
> >
> > 1. Unlike my previous patch based on the old DYNIX/ptx algorithm
> > this does not have any code in arch-dependent directories. This
> > should make Andrea happy ;-)
> > 2. No overhead in fastpath other than a per-cpu counter increment
> > during context switch.
> > 3. RCU callbacks maintained in per-cpu lists, so global locking
> > needs to be used only once in every quiescent cycle, not
> > for queueing RCU callbacks.
> > 4. No changes to scheduler code.
> > 5. No RCU, no overhead other than the context switch counter increment.
>
> I think you attached the wrong patch, the below one is based on the
> kernel thread that we don't need with the scheduler counter.

Actually that was a different patch from the earlier krcud based
patches - in this we don't have krcud for UP and use krcuds only to move
the per-cpu callback lists. My idea was to get it reviewed in lkml
and see if this would be acceptable.

>
> BTW, I'd like to point out that the schedule counter is likely to be at
> zero cacheline cost.

Yes. Otherwise you wouldn't have it in schedule().

I apologize for the confusion. To set the records straight, we are
experimenting with two patches - one I mailed earlier
(rcu-2.5.3.patch) and rcu_poll which is a part of aa kernels.
I am including rcu_poll-2.5.2.patch along with this. BTW, the
sched.h changes in this can be avoided once we have Rusty's per-CPU
data patch.

The main difference between rcu and rcu_poll are these -

1. rcu uses per-cpu callback lists.
2. rcu_poll forces all CPUs to go through quiescent state
whereas rcu uses a periodic per-cpu check to see if this
happened.

In our measurements, we find that rcu is slightly faster than
rcu_poll. We have an ongoing work of determining exactly
what adds to overheads in different RCU implementations and
what helps in performance. Our initial measurements a few months
ago showed that any delay in call_rcu() significantly affects
the performance. There is more work to do here.
At the moment however, I would go with whichever approach
is more acceptable.

Thanks
Dipankar
--
Dipankar Sarma <dipankar@in.ibm.com> http://lse.sourceforge.net
Linux Technology Center, IBM Software Lab, Bangalore, India.


diff -urN linux-2.5.2/include/linux/rcupdate.h linux-2.5.2-rcu_poll/include/linux/rcupdate.h
--- linux-2.5.2/include/linux/rcupdate.h Thu Jan 1 05:30:00 1970
+++ linux-2.5.2-rcu_poll/include/linux/rcupdate.h Thu Jan 31 22:00:38 2002
@@ -0,0 +1,59 @@
+/*
+ * Read-Copy Update mechanism for mutual exclusion
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
+ * Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.
+ *
+ * Copyright (c) International Business Machines Corp., 2001
+ *
+ * Author: Dipankar Sarma <dipankar@in.ibm.com>
+ *
+ * Based on the original work by Paul McKenney <paul.mckenney@us.ibm.com>
+ * and inputs from Andrea Arcangeli, Rusty Russell, Andi Kleen etc.
+ * Papers:
+ * http://www.rdrop.com/users/paulmck/paper/rclockpdcsproof.pdf
+ * http://lse.sourceforge.net/locking/rclock_OLS.2001.05.01c.sc.pdf (OLS2001)
+ *
+ * For detailed explanation of Read-Copy Update mechanism see -
+ * http://lse.sourceforge.net/locking/rcupdate.html
+ *
+ */
+
+#ifndef __LINUX_RCUPDATE_H
+#define __LINUX_RCUPDATE_H
+
+#include <linux/list.h>
+
+/*
+ * Callback structure for use with call_rcu().
+ */
+struct rcu_head {
+ struct list_head list;
+ void (*func)(void *obj);
+ void *arg;
+};
+
+#define RCU_HEAD_INIT(head) { LIST_HEAD_INIT(head.list), NULL, NULL }
+#define RCU_HEAD(head) struct rcu_head head = RCU_HEAD_INIT(head)
+#define INIT_RCU_HEAD(ptr) do { \
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&(ptr)->list); (ptr)->func = NULL; (ptr)->arg = NULL; \
+} while (0)
+
+
+extern void FASTCALL(call_rcu(struct rcu_head *head, void (*func)(void *arg), void *arg));
+extern void synchronize_kernel(void);
+
+extern void rcu_init(void);
+
+#endif /* __LINUX_RCUPDATE_H */
diff -urN linux-2.5.2/include/linux/sched.h linux-2.5.2-rcu_poll/include/linux/sched.h
--- linux-2.5.2/include/linux/sched.h Tue Jan 15 02:57:08 2002
+++ linux-2.5.2-rcu_poll/include/linux/sched.h Thu Jan 31 22:01:06 2002
@@ -155,6 +155,7 @@
extern void flush_scheduled_tasks(void);
extern int start_context_thread(void);
extern int current_is_keventd(void);
+extern void force_cpu_reschedule(int cpu);

/*
* The default fd array needs to be at least BITS_PER_LONG,
@@ -566,6 +567,39 @@
extern struct mm_struct init_mm;
extern struct task_struct *init_tasks[NR_CPUS];

+#define BITMAP_SIZE ((MAX_PRIO+7)/8)
+#define PRIO_INTERACTIVE (MAX_RT_PRIO + (MAX_PRIO - MAX_RT_PRIO) / 4)
+#define TASK_INTERACTIVE(p) ((p)->prio >= MAX_RT_PRIO && (p)->prio <= PRIO_INTERACTIVE)
+#define JSLEEP_TO_PRIO(t) (((t) * 20) / HZ)
+
+typedef struct runqueue runqueue_t;
+
+struct prio_array {
+ int nr_active;
+ spinlock_t *lock;
+ runqueue_t *rq;
+ char bitmap[BITMAP_SIZE];
+ list_t queue[MAX_PRIO];
+};
+
+struct runqueue {
+ int cpu;
+ spinlock_t lock;
+ unsigned long nr_running, nr_switches;
+ task_t *curr, *idle;
+ prio_array_t *active, *expired, arrays[2];
+ long quiescent;
+} ____cacheline_aligned_in_smp;
+
+extern struct runqueue runqueues[];
+
+#define this_rq() (runqueues + smp_processor_id())
+#define task_rq(p) (runqueues + (p)->cpu)
+#define cpu_rq(cpu) (runqueues + (cpu))
+#define cpu_curr(cpu) (runqueues[(cpu)].curr)
+#define rt_task(p) ((p)->policy != SCHED_OTHER)
+#define RCU_quiescent(cpu) ((cpu_rq((cpu)))->quiescent)
+
/* PID hashing. (shouldnt this be dynamic?) */
#define PIDHASH_SZ (4096 >> 2)
extern struct task_struct *pidhash[PIDHASH_SZ];
diff -urN linux-2.5.2/init/main.c linux-2.5.2-rcu_poll/init/main.c
--- linux-2.5.2/init/main.c Wed Jan 9 23:15:17 2002
+++ linux-2.5.2-rcu_poll/init/main.c Tue Jan 29 21:29:22 2002
@@ -27,6 +27,7 @@
#include <linux/iobuf.h>
#include <linux/bootmem.h>
#include <linux/tty.h>
+#include <linux/rcupdate.h>

#include <asm/io.h>
#include <asm/bugs.h>
@@ -352,6 +353,7 @@
printk("Kernel command line: %s\n", saved_command_line);
parse_options(command_line);
trap_init();
+ rcu_init();
init_IRQ();
sched_init();
softirq_init();
diff -urN linux-2.5.2/kernel/Makefile linux-2.5.2-rcu_poll/kernel/Makefile
--- linux-2.5.2/kernel/Makefile Fri Nov 30 06:23:45 2001
+++ linux-2.5.2-rcu_poll/kernel/Makefile Thu Jan 31 21:53:22 2002
@@ -10,12 +10,12 @@
O_TARGET := kernel.o

export-objs = signal.o sys.o kmod.o context.o ksyms.o pm.o exec_domain.o \
- printk.o device.o
+ printk.o device.o rcupdate.o

obj-y = sched.o dma.o fork.o exec_domain.o panic.o printk.o \
module.o exit.o itimer.o info.o time.o softirq.o resource.o \
sysctl.o acct.o capability.o ptrace.o timer.o user.o \
- signal.o sys.o kmod.o context.o device.o
+ signal.o sys.o kmod.o context.o device.o rcupdate.o

obj-$(CONFIG_UID16) += uid16.o
obj-$(CONFIG_MODULES) += ksyms.o
diff -urN linux-2.5.2/kernel/rcupdate.c linux-2.5.2-rcu_poll/kernel/rcupdate.c
--- linux-2.5.2/kernel/rcupdate.c Thu Jan 1 05:30:00 1970
+++ linux-2.5.2-rcu_poll/kernel/rcupdate.c Thu Jan 31 21:38:46 2002
@@ -0,0 +1,212 @@
+/*
+ * Read-Copy Update mechanism for mutual exclusion
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
+ * Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.
+ *
+ * Copyright (c) International Business Machines Corp., 2001
+ * Copyright (C) Andrea Arcangeli <andrea@suse.de> SuSE, 2001
+ *
+ * Author: Dipankar Sarma <dipankar@in.ibm.com>,
+ * Andrea Arcangeli <andrea@suse.de>
+ *
+ * Based on the original work by Paul McKenney <paul.mckenney@us.ibm.com>
+ * and inputs from Andrea Arcangeli, Rusty Russell, Andi Kleen etc.
+ * Papers:
+ * http://www.rdrop.com/users/paulmck/paper/rclockpdcsproof.pdf
+ * http://lse.sourceforge.net/locking/rclock_OLS.2001.05.01c.sc.pdf (OLS2001)
+ *
+ * For detailed explanation of Read-Copy Update mechanism see -
+ * http://lse.sourceforge.net/locking/rcupdate.html
+ *
+ */
+
+#include <linux/init.h>
+#include <linux/kernel.h>
+#include <linux/spinlock.h>
+#include <linux/sched.h>
+#include <linux/smp.h>
+#include <linux/interrupt.h>
+#include <linux/module.h>
+#include <linux/completion.h>
+#include <linux/rcupdate.h>
+
+/* Definition for rcupdate control block. */
+static spinlock_t rcu_lock;
+static struct list_head rcu_nxtlist;
+static struct list_head rcu_curlist;
+static struct tasklet_struct rcu_tasklet;
+static unsigned long rcu_qsmask;
+static int rcu_polling_in_progress;
+static long rcu_quiescent_checkpoint[NR_CPUS];
+
+/*
+ * Register a new rcu callback. This will be invoked as soon
+ * as all CPUs have performed a context switch or been seen in the
+ * idle loop or in a user process.
+ */
+void call_rcu(struct rcu_head *head, void (*func)(void *arg), void *arg)
+{
+ head->func = func;
+ head->arg = arg;
+
+ spin_lock_bh(&rcu_lock);
+ list_add(&head->list, &rcu_nxtlist);
+ spin_unlock_bh(&rcu_lock);
+
+ tasklet_hi_schedule(&rcu_tasklet);
+}
+
+static int rcu_prepare_polling(void)
+{
+ int stop;
+ int i;
+
+#ifdef DEBUG
+ if (!list_empty(&rcu_curlist))
+ BUG();
+#endif
+
+ stop = 1;
+ if (!list_empty(&rcu_nxtlist)) {
+ list_splice(&rcu_nxtlist, &rcu_curlist);
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&rcu_nxtlist);
+
+ rcu_polling_in_progress = 1;
+
+ for (i = 0; i < smp_num_cpus; i++) {
+ int cpu = cpu_logical_map(i);
+
+ if (cpu != smp_processor_id()) {
+ rcu_qsmask |= 1UL << cpu;
+ rcu_quiescent_checkpoint[cpu] = RCU_quiescent(cpu);
+ force_cpu_reschedule(cpu);
+ }
+ }
+ stop = 0;
+ }
+
+ return stop;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Invoke the completed RCU callbacks.
+ */
+static void rcu_invoke_callbacks(void)
+{
+ struct list_head *entry;
+ struct rcu_head *head;
+
+#ifdef DEBUG
+ if (list_empty(&rcu_curlist))
+ BUG();
+#endif
+
+ entry = rcu_curlist.prev;
+ do {
+ head = list_entry(entry, struct rcu_head, list);
+ entry = entry->prev;
+
+ head->func(head->arg);
+ } while (entry != &rcu_curlist);
+
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&rcu_curlist);
+}
+
+static int rcu_completion(void)
+{
+ int stop;
+
+ rcu_polling_in_progress = 0;
+ rcu_invoke_callbacks();
+
+ stop = rcu_prepare_polling();
+
+ return stop;
+}
+
+static int rcu_polling(void)
+{
+ int i;
+ int stop;
+
+ for (i = 0; i < smp_num_cpus; i++) {
+ int cpu = cpu_logical_map(i);
+
+ if (rcu_qsmask & (1UL << cpu))
+ if (rcu_quiescent_checkpoint[cpu] != RCU_quiescent(cpu))
+ rcu_qsmask &= ~(1UL << cpu);
+ }
+
+ stop = 0;
+ if (!rcu_qsmask)
+ stop = rcu_completion();
+
+ return stop;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Look into the per-cpu callback information to see if there is
+ * any processing necessary - if so do it.
+ */
+static void rcu_process_callbacks(unsigned long data)
+{
+ int stop;
+
+ spin_lock(&rcu_lock);
+ if (!rcu_polling_in_progress)
+ stop = rcu_prepare_polling();
+ else
+ stop = rcu_polling();
+ spin_unlock(&rcu_lock);
+
+ if (!stop)
+ tasklet_hi_schedule(&rcu_tasklet);
+}
+
+/* Because of FASTCALL declaration of complete, we use this wrapper */
+static void wakeme_after_rcu(void *completion)
+{
+ complete(completion);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Initializes rcu mechanism. Assumed to be called early.
+ * That is before local timer(SMP) or jiffie timer (uniproc) is setup.
+ */
+void __init rcu_init(void)
+{
+ tasklet_init(&rcu_tasklet, rcu_process_callbacks, 0UL);
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&rcu_nxtlist);
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&rcu_curlist);
+ spin_lock_init(&rcu_lock);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Wait until all the CPUs have gone through a "quiescent" state.
+ */
+void synchronize_kernel(void)
+{
+ struct rcu_head rcu;
+ DECLARE_COMPLETION(completion);
+
+ /* Will wake me after RCU finished */
+ call_rcu(&rcu, wakeme_after_rcu, &completion);
+
+ /* Wait for it */
+ wait_for_completion(&completion);
+}
+
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(call_rcu);
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(synchronize_kernel);
diff -urN linux-2.5.2/kernel/sched.c linux-2.5.2-rcu_poll/kernel/sched.c
--- linux-2.5.2/kernel/sched.c Tue Jan 15 01:09:31 2002
+++ linux-2.5.2-rcu_poll/kernel/sched.c Fri Feb 1 17:17:39 2002
@@ -20,21 +20,6 @@
#include <linux/interrupt.h>
#include <asm/mmu_context.h>

-#define BITMAP_SIZE ((MAX_PRIO+7)/8)
-#define PRIO_INTERACTIVE (MAX_RT_PRIO + (MAX_PRIO - MAX_RT_PRIO) / 4)
-#define TASK_INTERACTIVE(p) ((p)->prio >= MAX_RT_PRIO && (p)->prio <= PRIO_INTERACTIVE)
-#define JSLEEP_TO_PRIO(t) (((t) * 20) / HZ)
-
-typedef struct runqueue runqueue_t;
-
-struct prio_array {
- int nr_active;
- spinlock_t *lock;
- runqueue_t *rq;
- char bitmap[BITMAP_SIZE];
- list_t queue[MAX_PRIO];
-};
-
/*
* This is the main, per-CPU runqueue data structure.
*
@@ -46,20 +31,7 @@
* if there is a RT task active in an SMP system but there is no
* RT scheduling activity otherwise.
*/
-static struct runqueue {
- int cpu;
- spinlock_t lock;
- unsigned long nr_running, nr_switches;
- task_t *curr, *idle;
- prio_array_t *active, *expired, arrays[2];
- char __pad [SMP_CACHE_BYTES];
-} runqueues [NR_CPUS] __cacheline_aligned;
-
-#define this_rq() (runqueues + smp_processor_id())
-#define task_rq(p) (runqueues + (p)->cpu)
-#define cpu_rq(cpu) (runqueues + (cpu))
-#define cpu_curr(cpu) (runqueues[(cpu)].curr)
-#define rt_task(p) ((p)->policy != SCHED_OTHER)
+struct runqueue runqueues [NR_CPUS] __cacheline_aligned;

#define lock_task_rq(rq,p,flags) \
do { \
@@ -515,6 +487,7 @@
switch_tasks:
prev->need_resched = 0;

+ RCU_quiescent(prev->cpu)++;
if (likely(prev != next)) {
rq->nr_switches++;
rq->curr = next;
@@ -765,6 +738,20 @@
unlock_task_rq(rq, p, flags);
}

+void force_cpu_reschedule(int cpu)
+{
+ unsigned long flags;
+ struct runqueue *rq, *newrq;
+ struct task_struct *p;
+
+ rq = cpu_rq(cpu);
+ p = rq->curr;
+ newrq = lock_task_rq(p, &flags);
+ if (newrq == rq)
+ resched_task(p);
+ unlock_task_rq(newrq, &flags);
+}
+
#ifndef __alpha__

/*
-
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