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From
SubjectRe: your mail
Date
In message <Pine.GSO.4.21.0202242230370.1549-100000@weyl.math.psu.edu> you write:
> Honour or not, in this case your complaint is hardly deserved. To
> compress the above a bit:
>
> you: <false statement>
> me: RTFS. <short description of the reasons why statement is wrong; further
> details could be obtained by reading TFS>

Al, *please* read.

Rusty said:
> First, fd passing sucks: you can't leave an fd somewhere and wait for
> someone to pick it up, and they vanish when you exit. Secondly, you
> have some arbitrary limit on the number of semaphores. Thirdly,
> someone has to own them.

These are all true: I was criticising the "fd == semaphore" approach,
in the context of my "tied to mapped location" approach, and Linus's
"magic cookie" approach.

I went on to explain furthur:

> Consider tdb, the Trivial Database. There is no "master locking
> daemon". There is no way for the first opener (who then has to create
> the semaphores in your model) to pass them to other openers: this is a
> library.

You also managed to ignore my previous comment on the "fd ==
semaphore" approach:

> Implemented exactly that (and posted to l-k IIRC), and it's
> *horrible* to use.

And you came out assuming I had no idea how fd passing works:

> Yes, you can. Please, RTFS

...and then in the next mail you suggested I implement a "master
locking daemon".

I have taken the liberty of rewriting your reply as I might expect to
see from a peer:

================
From: Al Viro's Polite Twin
To: Rusty Russell
Subject: Re: [PATCH] Lightweight userspace semaphores...
Date: Two days after hell freezes over

On Mon, 25 Feb 2002, Rusty Russell wrote:
> First, fd passing sucks: you can't leave an fd somewhere and wait for
> someone to pick it up, and they vanish when you exit. Secondly, you

Have you considered using a daemon to hold the fds? It shouldn't be
that bad.

================

See how it doesn't assume that I am an idiot? It's not condescending,
and invites furthur consideration. It's also shorter than your other
two replies.

I might have replied as follows:

Yes, and for a "serious" database it's not a problem, as
it usually has some kind of daemon anyway. But for TDB, I
found that it's fragile and extremely unwieldy. Creating a
unix domain socket for each .tdb file may not be possible.
The tdb_open call would have to fork off a daemon if it's the
first process to access it. It starts to get fairly icky:
certainly when compared with the fairly trivial patch to
support the "semaphore tied to mapped region" approach.

You can try if you want (TDB enclosed).

Maybe I'm the only one who finds it *really* painful to continually
deal with your "Dan Bernstein of Linux" approach: enough that it
hinders my kernel work.

Genuinely hope this helps,
Rusty.
--
Taste: it's not just for source code anymore...

#ifndef __TDB_H__
#define __TDB_H__
/*
Unix SMB/Netbios implementation.
Version 3.0
Samba database functions
Copyright (C) Andrew Tridgell 1999

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
(at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
*/
#ifdef __cplusplus
extern "C" {
#endif

/* flags to tdb_store() */
#define TDB_REPLACE 1
#define TDB_INSERT 2
#define TDB_MODIFY 3

/* flags for tdb_open() */
#define TDB_DEFAULT 0 /* just a readability place holder */
#define TDB_CLEAR_IF_FIRST 1
#define TDB_INTERNAL 2 /* don't store on disk */
#define TDB_NOLOCK 4 /* don't do any locking */
#define TDB_NOMMAP 8 /* don't use mmap */
#define TDB_CONVERT 16 /* convert endian (internal use) */

#define TDB_ERRCODE(code, ret) ((tdb->ecode = (code)), ret)

/* error codes */
enum TDB_ERROR {TDB_SUCCESS=0, TDB_ERR_CORRUPT, TDB_ERR_IO, TDB_ERR_LOCK,
TDB_ERR_OOM, TDB_ERR_EXISTS, TDB_ERR_NOEXIST, TDB_ERR_NOLOCK };

#ifndef u32
#define u32 unsigned
#endif

typedef struct {
char *dptr;
size_t dsize;
} TDB_DATA;

typedef u32 tdb_len;
typedef u32 tdb_off;

/* this is stored at the front of every database */
struct tdb_header {
char magic_food[32]; /* for /etc/magic */
u32 version; /* version of the code */
u32 hash_size; /* number of hash entries */
tdb_off rwlocks;
tdb_off reserved[31];
};

struct tdb_lock_type {
u32 count;
u32 ltype;
};

struct tdb_traverse_lock {
struct tdb_traverse_lock *next;
u32 off;
u32 hash;
};

/* this is the context structure that is returned from a db open */
typedef struct tdb_context {
char *name; /* the name of the database */
void *map_ptr; /* where it is currently mapped */
int fd; /* open file descriptor for the database */
tdb_len map_size; /* how much space has been mapped */
int read_only; /* opened read-only */
struct tdb_lock_type *locked; /* array of chain locks */
enum TDB_ERROR ecode; /* error code for last tdb error */
struct tdb_header header; /* a cached copy of the header */
u32 flags; /* the flags passed to tdb_open */
u32 *lockedkeys; /* array of locked keys: first is #keys */
struct tdb_traverse_lock travlocks; /* current traversal locks */
struct tdb_context *next; /* all tdbs to avoid multiple opens */
dev_t device; /* uniquely identifies this tdb */
ino_t inode; /* uniquely identifies this tdb */
} TDB_CONTEXT;

typedef int (*tdb_traverse_func)(TDB_CONTEXT *, TDB_DATA, TDB_DATA, void *);
typedef void (*tdb_log_func)(TDB_CONTEXT *, int , const char *, ...);

TDB_CONTEXT *tdb_open(char *name, int hash_size, int tdb_flags,
int open_flags, mode_t mode);

enum TDB_ERROR tdb_error(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb);
const char *tdb_errorstr(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb);
TDB_DATA tdb_fetch(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, TDB_DATA key);
int tdb_delete(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, TDB_DATA key);
int tdb_store(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, TDB_DATA key, TDB_DATA dbuf, int flag);
int tdb_close(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb);
TDB_DATA tdb_firstkey(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb);
TDB_DATA tdb_nextkey(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, TDB_DATA key);
int tdb_traverse(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, tdb_traverse_func fn, void *state);
int tdb_exists(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, TDB_DATA key);
int tdb_lockkeys(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, u32 number, TDB_DATA keys[]);
void tdb_unlockkeys(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb);
int tdb_lockall(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb);
void tdb_unlockall(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb);

/* Low level locking functions: use with care */
int tdb_chainlock(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, TDB_DATA key);
void tdb_chainunlock(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, TDB_DATA key);

/* Debug functions. Not used in production. */
void tdb_dump_all(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb);
void tdb_printfreelist(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb);

extern TDB_DATA tdb_null;
#ifdef __cplusplus
}
#endif

#endif /* tdb.h */

/*
Unix SMB/Netbios implementation.
Version 3.0
Samba database functions
Copyright (C) Andrew Tridgell 1999-2000
Copyright (C) Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton 2000
Copyright (C) Paul `Rusty' Russell 2000
Copyright (C) Jeremy Allison 2000

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
(at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
*/
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <sys/mman.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include "tdb.h"

#define TDB_MAGIC_FOOD "TDB file\n"
#define TDB_VERSION (0x26011967 + 6)
#define TDB_MAGIC (0x26011999U)
#define TDB_FREE_MAGIC (~TDB_MAGIC)
#define TDB_DEAD_MAGIC (0xFEE1DEAD)
#define TDB_ALIGNMENT 4
#define MIN_REC_SIZE (2*sizeof(struct list_struct) + TDB_ALIGNMENT)
#define DEFAULT_HASH_SIZE 131
#define TDB_PAGE_SIZE 0x2000
#define FREELIST_TOP (sizeof(struct tdb_header))
#define TDB_ALIGN(x,a) (((x) + (a)-1) & ~((a)-1))
#define TDB_BYTEREV(x) (((((x)&0xff)<<24)|((x)&0xFF00)<<8)|(((x)>>8)&0xFF00)|((x)>>24))
#define TDB_DEAD(r) ((r)->magic == TDB_DEAD_MAGIC)
#define TDB_BAD_MAGIC(r) ((r)->magic != TDB_MAGIC && !TDB_DEAD(r))
#define TDB_HASH_TOP(hash) (FREELIST_TOP + (BUCKET(hash)+1)*sizeof(tdb_off))

/* lock offsets */
#define GLOBAL_LOCK 0
#define ACTIVE_LOCK 4

#ifndef MAP_FILE
#define MAP_FILE 0
#endif

#ifndef MAP_FAILED
#define MAP_FAILED ((void *)-1)
#endif

#define BUCKET(hash) ((hash) % tdb->header.hash_size)
TDB_DATA tdb_null;

/* all contexts, to ensure no double-opens (fcntl locks don't nest!) */
static TDB_CONTEXT *tdbs = NULL;

static void tdb_munmap(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb)
{
if (tdb->flags & TDB_INTERNAL)
return;

if (tdb->map_ptr)
munmap(tdb->map_ptr, tdb->map_size);
tdb->map_ptr = NULL;
}

static void tdb_mmap(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb)
{
if (tdb->flags & TDB_INTERNAL)
return;

if (!(tdb->flags & TDB_NOMMAP)) {
tdb->map_ptr = mmap(NULL, tdb->map_size,
PROT_READ|(tdb->read_only? 0:PROT_WRITE),
MAP_SHARED|MAP_FILE, tdb->fd, 0);

/*
* NB. When mmap fails it returns MAP_FAILED *NOT* NULL !!!!
*/

if (tdb->map_ptr == MAP_FAILED)
tdb->map_ptr = NULL;
} else {
tdb->map_ptr = NULL;
}
}

/* Endian conversion: we only ever deal with 4 byte quantities */
static void *convert(void *buf, u32 size)
{
u32 i, *p = buf;
for (i = 0; i < size / 4; i++)
p[i] = TDB_BYTEREV(p[i]);
return buf;
}
#define DOCONV() (tdb->flags & TDB_CONVERT)
#define CONVERT(x) (DOCONV() ? convert(&x, sizeof(x)) : &x)

/* the body of the database is made of one list_struct for the free space
plus a separate data list for each hash value */
struct list_struct {
tdb_off next; /* offset of the next record in the list */
tdb_len rec_len; /* total byte length of record */
tdb_len key_len; /* byte length of key */
tdb_len data_len; /* byte length of data */
u32 full_hash; /* the full 32 bit hash of the key */
u32 magic; /* try to catch errors */
/* the following union is implied:
union {
char record[rec_len];
struct {
char key[key_len];
char data[data_len];
}
u32 totalsize; (tailer)
}
*/
};

/* a byte range locking function - return 0 on success
this functions locks/unlocks 1 byte at the specified offset.

On error, errno is also set so that errors are passed back properly
through tdb_open(). */
static int tdb_brlock(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, tdb_off offset,
int rw_type, int lck_type)
{
struct flock fl;

if (tdb->flags & TDB_NOLOCK)
return 0;
if (tdb->read_only) {
errno = EACCES;
return -1;
}

fl.l_type = rw_type;
fl.l_whence = SEEK_SET;
fl.l_start = offset;
fl.l_len = 1;
fl.l_pid = 0;

if (fcntl(tdb->fd,lck_type,&fl)) {
/* errno set by fcntl */
return TDB_ERRCODE(TDB_ERR_LOCK, -1);
}
return 0;
}

/* lock a list in the database. list -1 is the alloc list */
static int tdb_lock(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, int list, int ltype)
{
if (list < -1 || list >= (int)tdb->header.hash_size) {
return -1;
}
if (tdb->flags & TDB_NOLOCK)
return 0;

/* Since fcntl locks don't nest, we do a lock for the first one,
and simply bump the count for future ones */
if (tdb->locked[list+1].count == 0) {
if (tdb_brlock(tdb,FREELIST_TOP+4*list,ltype,F_SETLKW)) {
return -1;
}
tdb->locked[list+1].ltype = ltype;
}
tdb->locked[list+1].count++;
return 0;
}

/* unlock the database: returns void because it's too late for errors. */
static void tdb_unlock(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, int list, int ltype)
{
if (tdb->flags & TDB_NOLOCK)
return;

/* Sanity checks */
if (list < -1 || list >= (int)tdb->header.hash_size)
return;
if (tdb->locked[list+1].count==0)
return;

if (tdb->locked[list+1].count == 1) {
/* Down to last nested lock: unlock underneath */
tdb_brlock(tdb, FREELIST_TOP+4*list, F_UNLCK, F_SETLKW);
}
tdb->locked[list+1].count--;
}

/* This is based on the hash agorithm from gdbm */
static u32 tdb_hash(TDB_DATA *key)
{
u32 value; /* Used to compute the hash value. */
u32 i; /* Used to cycle through random values. */

/* Set the initial value from the key size. */
for (value = 0x238F13AF * key->dsize, i=0; i < key->dsize; i++)
value = (value + (key->dptr[i] << (i*5 % 24)));

return (1103515243 * value + 12345);
}

/* check for an out of bounds access - if it is out of bounds then
see if the database has been expanded by someone else and expand
if necessary
note that "len" is the minimum length needed for the db
*/
static int tdb_oob(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, tdb_off len)
{
struct stat st;
if (len <= tdb->map_size)
return 0;
if (tdb->flags & TDB_INTERNAL) {
return TDB_ERRCODE(TDB_ERR_IO, -1);
}

if (fstat(tdb->fd, &st) == -1)
return TDB_ERRCODE(TDB_ERR_IO, -1);

if (st.st_size < (size_t)len) {
return TDB_ERRCODE(TDB_ERR_IO, -1);
}

/* Unmap, update size, remap */
tdb_munmap(tdb);
tdb->map_size = st.st_size;
tdb_mmap(tdb);
return 0;
}

/* write a lump of data at a specified offset */
static int tdb_write(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, tdb_off off, void *buf, tdb_len len)
{
if (tdb_oob(tdb, off + len) != 0)
return -1;

if (tdb->map_ptr)
memcpy(off + (char *)tdb->map_ptr, buf, len);
else if (lseek(tdb->fd, off, SEEK_SET) != off
|| write(tdb->fd, buf, len) != (ssize_t)len) {
return TDB_ERRCODE(TDB_ERR_IO, -1);
}
return 0;
}

/* read a lump of data at a specified offset, maybe convert */
static int tdb_read(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb,tdb_off off,void *buf,tdb_len len,int cv)
{
if (tdb_oob(tdb, off + len) != 0)
return -1;

if (tdb->map_ptr)
memcpy(buf, off + (char *)tdb->map_ptr, len);
else if (lseek(tdb->fd, off, SEEK_SET) != off
|| read(tdb->fd, buf, len) != (ssize_t)len) {
return TDB_ERRCODE(TDB_ERR_IO, -1);
}
if (cv)
convert(buf, len);
return 0;
}

/* read a lump of data, allocating the space for it */
static char *tdb_alloc_read(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, tdb_off offset, tdb_len len)
{
char *buf;

if (!(buf = malloc(len))) {
return TDB_ERRCODE(TDB_ERR_OOM, buf);
}
if (tdb_read(tdb, offset, buf, len, 0) == -1) {
free(buf);
return NULL;
}
return buf;
}

/* read/write a tdb_off */
static int ofs_read(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, tdb_off offset, tdb_off *d)
{
return tdb_read(tdb, offset, (char*)d, sizeof(*d), DOCONV());
}
static int ofs_write(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, tdb_off offset, tdb_off *d)
{
tdb_off off = *d;
return tdb_write(tdb, offset, CONVERT(off), sizeof(*d));
}

/* read/write a record */
static int rec_read(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, tdb_off offset, struct list_struct *rec)
{
if (tdb_read(tdb, offset, rec, sizeof(*rec),DOCONV()) == -1)
return -1;
if (TDB_BAD_MAGIC(rec)) {
return TDB_ERRCODE(TDB_ERR_CORRUPT, -1);
}
return tdb_oob(tdb, rec->next+sizeof(*rec));
}
static int rec_write(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, tdb_off offset, struct list_struct *rec)
{
struct list_struct r = *rec;
return tdb_write(tdb, offset, CONVERT(r), sizeof(r));
}

/* read a freelist record and check for simple errors */
static int rec_free_read(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, tdb_off off, struct list_struct *rec)
{
if (tdb_read(tdb, off, rec, sizeof(*rec),DOCONV()) == -1)
return -1;
if (rec->magic != TDB_FREE_MAGIC) {
return TDB_ERRCODE(TDB_ERR_CORRUPT, -1);
}
if (tdb_oob(tdb, rec->next+sizeof(*rec)) != 0)
return -1;
return 0;
}

/* update a record tailer (must hold allocation lock) */
static int update_tailer(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, tdb_off offset,
const struct list_struct *rec)
{
tdb_off totalsize;

/* Offset of tailer from record header */
totalsize = sizeof(*rec) + rec->rec_len;
return ofs_write(tdb, offset + totalsize - sizeof(tdb_off),
&totalsize);
}

static tdb_off tdb_dump_record(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, tdb_off offset)
{
struct list_struct rec;
tdb_off tailer_ofs, tailer;

if (tdb_read(tdb, offset, (char *)&rec, sizeof(rec), DOCONV()) == -1) {
printf("ERROR: failed to read record at %u\n", offset);
return 0;
}

printf(" rec: offset=%u next=%d rec_len=%d key_len=%d data_len=%d full_hash=0x%x magic=0x%x\n",
offset, rec.next, rec.rec_len, rec.key_len, rec.data_len, rec.full_hash, rec.magic);

tailer_ofs = offset + sizeof(rec) + rec.rec_len - sizeof(tdb_off);
if (ofs_read(tdb, tailer_ofs, &tailer) == -1) {
printf("ERROR: failed to read tailer at %u\n", tailer_ofs);
return rec.next;
}

if (tailer != rec.rec_len + sizeof(rec)) {
printf("ERROR: tailer does not match record! tailer=%u totalsize=%u\n", tailer, rec.rec_len + sizeof(rec));
}
return rec.next;
}

static void tdb_dump_chain(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, int i)
{
tdb_off rec_ptr, top;

top = TDB_HASH_TOP(i);

tdb_lock(tdb, i, F_WRLCK);

if (ofs_read(tdb, top, &rec_ptr) == -1) {
tdb_unlock(tdb, i, F_WRLCK);
return;
}

if (rec_ptr)
printf("hash=%d\n", i);

while (rec_ptr) {
rec_ptr = tdb_dump_record(tdb, rec_ptr);
}
tdb_unlock(tdb, i, F_WRLCK);
}

void tdb_dump_all(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb)
{
int i;
for (i=0;i<tdb->header.hash_size;i++) {
tdb_dump_chain(tdb, i);
}
printf("freelist:\n");
tdb_dump_chain(tdb, -1);
}

void tdb_printfreelist(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb)
{
long total_free = 0;
tdb_off offset, rec_ptr, last_ptr;
struct list_struct rec;

tdb_lock(tdb, -1, F_WRLCK);

last_ptr = 0;
offset = FREELIST_TOP;

/* read in the freelist top */
if (ofs_read(tdb, offset, &rec_ptr) == -1) {
return;
}

printf("freelist top=[0x%08x]\n", rec_ptr );
while (rec_ptr) {
if (tdb_read(tdb, rec_ptr, (char *)&rec, sizeof(rec), DOCONV()) == -1) {
return;
}

if (rec.magic != TDB_FREE_MAGIC) {
printf("bad magic 0x%08x in free list\n", rec.magic);
return;
}

printf("entry offset=[0x%08x], rec.rec_len = [0x%08x (%d)]\n", rec.next, rec.rec_len, rec.rec_len );
total_free += rec.rec_len;

/* move to the next record */
rec_ptr = rec.next;
}
printf("total rec_len = [0x%08x (%d)]\n", (int)total_free,
(int)total_free);

tdb_unlock(tdb, -1, F_WRLCK);
}

/* Remove an element from the freelist. Must have alloc lock. */
static int remove_from_freelist(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, tdb_off off, tdb_off next)
{
tdb_off last_ptr, i;

/* read in the freelist top */
last_ptr = FREELIST_TOP;
while (ofs_read(tdb, last_ptr, &i) != -1 && i != 0) {
if (i == off) {
/* We've found it! */
return ofs_write(tdb, last_ptr, &next);
}
/* Follow chain (next offset is at start of record) */
last_ptr = i;
}
return TDB_ERRCODE(TDB_ERR_CORRUPT, -1);
}

/* Add an element into the freelist. Merge adjacent records if
neccessary. */
static int tdb_free(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, tdb_off offset, struct list_struct *rec)
{
tdb_off right, left;

/* Allocation and tailer lock */
if (tdb_lock(tdb, -1, F_WRLCK) != 0)
return -1;

/* set an initial tailer, so if we fail we don't leave a bogus record */
update_tailer(tdb, offset, rec);

/* Look right first (I'm an Australian, dammit) */
right = offset + sizeof(*rec) + rec->rec_len;
if (right + sizeof(*rec) <= tdb->map_size) {
struct list_struct r;

if (tdb_read(tdb, right, &r, sizeof(r), DOCONV()) == -1) {
goto left;
}

/* If it's free, expand to include it. */
if (r.magic == TDB_FREE_MAGIC) {
if (remove_from_freelist(tdb, right, r.next) == -1) {
goto left;
}
rec->rec_len += sizeof(r) + r.rec_len;
}
}

left:
/* Look left */
left = offset - sizeof(tdb_off);
if (left > TDB_HASH_TOP(tdb->header.hash_size-1)) {
struct list_struct l;
tdb_off leftsize;

/* Read in tailer and jump back to header */
if (ofs_read(tdb, left, &leftsize) == -1) {
goto update;
}
left = offset - leftsize;

/* Now read in record */
if (tdb_read(tdb, left, &l, sizeof(l), DOCONV()) == -1) {
goto update;
}

/* If it's free, expand to include it. */
if (l.magic == TDB_FREE_MAGIC) {
if (remove_from_freelist(tdb, left, l.next) == -1) {
goto update;
} else {
offset = left;
rec->rec_len += leftsize;
}
}
}

update:
if (update_tailer(tdb, offset, rec) == -1) {
goto fail;
}

/* Now, prepend to free list */
rec->magic = TDB_FREE_MAGIC;

if (ofs_read(tdb, FREELIST_TOP, &rec->next) == -1 ||
rec_write(tdb, offset, rec) == -1 ||
ofs_write(tdb, FREELIST_TOP, &offset) == -1) {
goto fail;
}

/* And we're done. */
tdb_unlock(tdb, -1, F_WRLCK);
return 0;

fail:
tdb_unlock(tdb, -1, F_WRLCK);
return -1;
}


/* expand a file. we prefer to use ftruncate, as that is what posix
says to use for mmap expansion */
static int expand_file(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, tdb_off size, tdb_off addition)
{
char buf[1024];

if (ftruncate(tdb->fd, size+addition) != 0) {
return -1;
}

/* now fill the file with something. This ensures that the file isn't sparse, which would be
very bad if we ran out of disk. This must be done with write, not via mmap */
memset(buf, 0x42, sizeof(buf));
while (addition) {
int n = addition>sizeof(buf)?sizeof(buf):addition;
int ret;
if (lseek(tdb->fd, size, SEEK_SET) != size)
return -1;
ret = write(tdb->fd, buf, n);
if (ret != n) {
return -1;
}
addition -= n;
size += n;
}
return 0;
}


/* expand the database at least size bytes by expanding the underlying
file and doing the mmap again if necessary */
static int tdb_expand(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, tdb_off size)
{
struct list_struct rec;
tdb_off offset;

if (tdb_lock(tdb, -1, F_WRLCK) == -1) {
return -1;
}

/* must know about any previous expansions by another process */
tdb_oob(tdb, tdb->map_size + 1);

/* always make room for at least 10 more records, and round
the database up to a multiple of TDB_PAGE_SIZE */
size = TDB_ALIGN(tdb->map_size + size*10, TDB_PAGE_SIZE) - tdb->map_size;

if (!(tdb->flags & TDB_INTERNAL))
tdb_munmap(tdb);

/*
* We must ensure the file is unmapped before doing this
* to ensure consistency with systems like OpenBSD where
* writes and mmaps are not consistent.
*/

/* expand the file itself */
if (!(tdb->flags & TDB_INTERNAL)) {
if (expand_file(tdb, tdb->map_size, size) != 0)
goto fail;
}

tdb->map_size += size;

if (tdb->flags & TDB_INTERNAL)
tdb->map_ptr = realloc(tdb->map_ptr, tdb->map_size);
else {
/*
* We must ensure the file is remapped before adding the space
* to ensure consistency with systems like OpenBSD where
* writes and mmaps are not consistent.
*/

/* We're ok if the mmap fails as we'll fallback to read/write */
tdb_mmap(tdb);
}

/* form a new freelist record */
memset(&rec,'\0',sizeof(rec));
rec.rec_len = size - sizeof(rec);

/* link it into the free list */
offset = tdb->map_size - size;
if (tdb_free(tdb, offset, &rec) == -1)
goto fail;

tdb_unlock(tdb, -1, F_WRLCK);
return 0;
fail:
tdb_unlock(tdb, -1, F_WRLCK);
return -1;
}

/* allocate some space from the free list. The offset returned points
to a unconnected list_struct within the database with room for at
least length bytes of total data

0 is returned if the space could not be allocated
*/
static tdb_off tdb_allocate(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, tdb_len length,
struct list_struct *rec)
{
tdb_off rec_ptr, last_ptr, newrec_ptr;
struct list_struct newrec;

if (tdb_lock(tdb, -1, F_WRLCK) == -1)
return 0;

/* Extra bytes required for tailer */
length += sizeof(tdb_off);

again:
last_ptr = FREELIST_TOP;

/* read in the freelist top */
if (ofs_read(tdb, FREELIST_TOP, &rec_ptr) == -1)
goto fail;

/* keep looking until we find a freelist record big enough */
while (rec_ptr) {
if (rec_free_read(tdb, rec_ptr, rec) == -1)
goto fail;

if (rec->rec_len >= length) {
/* found it - now possibly split it up */
if (rec->rec_len > length + MIN_REC_SIZE) {
/* Length of left piece */
length = TDB_ALIGN(length, TDB_ALIGNMENT);

/* Right piece to go on free list */
newrec.rec_len = rec->rec_len
- (sizeof(*rec) + length);
newrec_ptr = rec_ptr + sizeof(*rec) + length;

/* And left record is shortened */
rec->rec_len = length;
} else
newrec_ptr = 0;

/* Remove allocated record from the free list */
if (ofs_write(tdb, last_ptr, &rec->next) == -1)
goto fail;

/* Update header: do this before we drop alloc
lock, otherwise tdb_free() might try to
merge with us, thinking we're free.
(Thanks Jeremy Allison). */
rec->magic = TDB_MAGIC;
if (rec_write(tdb, rec_ptr, rec) == -1)
goto fail;

/* Did we create new block? */
if (newrec_ptr) {
/* Update allocated record tailer (we
shortened it). */
if (update_tailer(tdb, rec_ptr, rec) == -1)
goto fail;

/* Free new record */
if (tdb_free(tdb, newrec_ptr, &newrec) == -1)
goto fail;
}

/* all done - return the new record offset */
tdb_unlock(tdb, -1, F_WRLCK);
return rec_ptr;
}
/* move to the next record */
last_ptr = rec_ptr;
rec_ptr = rec->next;
}
/* we didn't find enough space. See if we can expand the
database and if we can then try again */
if (tdb_expand(tdb, length + sizeof(*rec)) == 0)
goto again;
fail:
tdb_unlock(tdb, -1, F_WRLCK);
return 0;
}

/* initialise a new database with a specified hash size */
static int tdb_new_database(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, int hash_size)
{
struct tdb_header *newdb;
int size, ret = -1;

/* We make it up in memory, then write it out if not internal */
size = sizeof(struct tdb_header) + (hash_size+1)*sizeof(tdb_off);
if (!(newdb = calloc(size, 1)))
return TDB_ERRCODE(TDB_ERR_OOM, -1);

/* Fill in the header */
newdb->version = TDB_VERSION;
newdb->hash_size = hash_size;
if (tdb->flags & TDB_INTERNAL) {
tdb->map_size = size;
tdb->map_ptr = (char *)newdb;
memcpy(&tdb->header, newdb, sizeof(tdb->header));
/* Convert the `ondisk' version if asked. */
CONVERT(*newdb);
return 0;
}
if (lseek(tdb->fd, 0, SEEK_SET) == -1)
goto fail;

if (ftruncate(tdb->fd, 0) == -1)
goto fail;

/* This creates an endian-converted header, as if read from disk */
CONVERT(*newdb);
memcpy(&tdb->header, newdb, sizeof(tdb->header));
/* Don't endian-convert the magic food! */
memcpy(newdb->magic_food, TDB_MAGIC_FOOD, strlen(TDB_MAGIC_FOOD)+1);
if (write(tdb->fd, newdb, size) != size)
ret = -1;
else
ret = 0;

fail:
free(newdb);
return ret;
}

/* Returns 0 on fail. On success, return offset of record, and fills
in rec */
static tdb_off tdb_find(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, TDB_DATA key, u32 hash,
struct list_struct *r)
{
tdb_off rec_ptr;

/* read in the hash top */
if (ofs_read(tdb, TDB_HASH_TOP(hash), &rec_ptr) == -1)
return 0;

/* keep looking until we find the right record */
while (rec_ptr) {
if (rec_read(tdb, rec_ptr, r) == -1)
return 0;

if (!TDB_DEAD(r) && hash==r->full_hash && key.dsize==r->key_len) {
char *k;
/* a very likely hit - read the key */
k = tdb_alloc_read(tdb, rec_ptr + sizeof(*r),
r->key_len);
if (!k)
return 0;

if (memcmp(key.dptr, k, key.dsize) == 0) {
free(k);
return rec_ptr;
}
free(k);
}
rec_ptr = r->next;
}
return TDB_ERRCODE(TDB_ERR_NOEXIST, 0);
}

/* If they do lockkeys, check that this hash is one they locked */
static int tdb_keylocked(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, u32 hash)
{
u32 i;
if (!tdb->lockedkeys)
return 1;
for (i = 0; i < tdb->lockedkeys[0]; i++)
if (tdb->lockedkeys[i+1] == hash)
return 1;
return TDB_ERRCODE(TDB_ERR_NOLOCK, 0);
}

/* As tdb_find, but if you succeed, keep the lock */
static tdb_off tdb_find_lock(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, TDB_DATA key, int locktype,
struct list_struct *rec)
{
u32 hash, rec_ptr;

hash = tdb_hash(&key);
if (!tdb_keylocked(tdb, hash))
return 0;
if (tdb_lock(tdb, BUCKET(hash), locktype) == -1)
return 0;
if (!(rec_ptr = tdb_find(tdb, key, hash, rec)))
tdb_unlock(tdb, BUCKET(hash), locktype);
return rec_ptr;
}

enum TDB_ERROR tdb_error(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb)
{
return tdb->ecode;
}

static struct tdb_errname {
enum TDB_ERROR ecode; const char *estring;
} emap[] = { {TDB_SUCCESS, "Success"},
{TDB_ERR_CORRUPT, "Corrupt database"},
{TDB_ERR_IO, "IO Error"},
{TDB_ERR_LOCK, "Locking error"},
{TDB_ERR_OOM, "Out of memory"},
{TDB_ERR_EXISTS, "Record exists"},
{TDB_ERR_NOLOCK, "Lock exists on other keys"},
{TDB_ERR_NOEXIST, "Record does not exist"} };

/* Error string for the last tdb error */
const char *tdb_errorstr(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb)
{
u32 i;
for (i = 0; i < sizeof(emap) / sizeof(struct tdb_errname); i++)
if (tdb->ecode == emap[i].ecode)
return emap[i].estring;
return "Invalid error code";
}

/* update an entry in place - this only works if the new data size
is <= the old data size and the key exists.
on failure return -1
*/
static int tdb_update(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, TDB_DATA key, TDB_DATA dbuf)
{
struct list_struct rec;
tdb_off rec_ptr;
int ret = -1;

/* find entry */
if (!(rec_ptr = tdb_find_lock(tdb, key, F_WRLCK, &rec)))
return -1;

/* must be long enough key, data and tailer */
if (rec.rec_len < key.dsize + dbuf.dsize + sizeof(tdb_off)) {
tdb->ecode = TDB_SUCCESS; /* Not really an error */
goto out;
}

if (tdb_write(tdb, rec_ptr + sizeof(rec) + rec.key_len,
dbuf.dptr, dbuf.dsize) == -1)
goto out;

if (dbuf.dsize != rec.data_len) {
/* update size */
rec.data_len = dbuf.dsize;
ret = rec_write(tdb, rec_ptr, &rec);
} else
ret = 0;
out:
tdb_unlock(tdb, BUCKET(rec.full_hash), F_WRLCK);
return ret;
}

/* find an entry in the database given a key */
TDB_DATA tdb_fetch(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, TDB_DATA key)
{
tdb_off rec_ptr;
struct list_struct rec;
TDB_DATA ret;

/* find which hash bucket it is in */
if (!(rec_ptr = tdb_find_lock(tdb,key,F_RDLCK,&rec)))
return tdb_null;

ret.dptr = tdb_alloc_read(tdb, rec_ptr + sizeof(rec) + rec.key_len,
rec.data_len);
ret.dsize = rec.data_len;
tdb_unlock(tdb, BUCKET(rec.full_hash), F_RDLCK);
return ret;
}

/* check if an entry in the database exists

note that 1 is returned if the key is found and 0 is returned if not found
this doesn't match the conventions in the rest of this module, but is
compatible with gdbm
*/
int tdb_exists(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, TDB_DATA key)
{
struct list_struct rec;

if (tdb_find_lock(tdb, key, F_RDLCK, &rec) == 0)
return 0;
tdb_unlock(tdb, BUCKET(rec.full_hash), F_RDLCK);
return 1;
}

/* record lock stops delete underneath */
static int lock_record(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, tdb_off off)
{
return off ? tdb_brlock(tdb, off, F_RDLCK, F_SETLKW) : 0;
}
/*
Write locks override our own fcntl readlocks, so check it here.
Note this is meant to be F_SETLK, *not* F_SETLKW, as it's not
an error to fail to get the lock here.
*/

static int write_lock_record(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, tdb_off off)
{
struct tdb_traverse_lock *i;
for (i = &tdb->travlocks; i; i = i->next)
if (i->off == off)
return -1;
return tdb_brlock(tdb, off, F_WRLCK, F_SETLK);
}

/*
Note this is meant to be F_SETLK, *not* F_SETLKW, as it's not
an error to fail to get the lock here.
*/

static int write_unlock_record(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, tdb_off off)
{
return tdb_brlock(tdb, off, F_UNLCK, F_SETLK);
}
/* fcntl locks don't stack: avoid unlocking someone else's */
static int unlock_record(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, tdb_off off)
{
struct tdb_traverse_lock *i;
u32 count = 0;

if (off == 0)
return 0;
for (i = &tdb->travlocks; i; i = i->next)
if (i->off == off)
count++;
return (count == 1 ? tdb_brlock(tdb, off, F_UNLCK, F_SETLKW) : 0);
}

/* actually delete an entry in the database given the offset */
static int do_delete(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, tdb_off rec_ptr, struct list_struct*rec)
{
tdb_off last_ptr, i;
struct list_struct lastrec;

if (tdb->read_only) return -1;

if (write_lock_record(tdb, rec_ptr) == -1) {
/* Someone traversing here: mark it as dead */
rec->magic = TDB_DEAD_MAGIC;
return rec_write(tdb, rec_ptr, rec);
}
write_unlock_record(tdb, rec_ptr);

/* find previous record in hash chain */
if (ofs_read(tdb, TDB_HASH_TOP(rec->full_hash), &i) == -1)
return -1;
for (last_ptr = 0; i != rec_ptr; last_ptr = i, i = lastrec.next)
if (rec_read(tdb, i, &lastrec) == -1)
return -1;

/* unlink it: next ptr is at start of record. */
if (last_ptr == 0)
last_ptr = TDB_HASH_TOP(rec->full_hash);
if (ofs_write(tdb, last_ptr, &rec->next) == -1)
return -1;

/* recover the space */
if (tdb_free(tdb, rec_ptr, rec) == -1)
return -1;
return 0;
}

/* Uses traverse lock: 0 = finish, -1 = error, other = record offset */
static int tdb_next_lock(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, struct tdb_traverse_lock *tlock,
struct list_struct *rec)
{
int want_next = (tlock->off != 0);

/* No traversal allows if you've called tdb_lockkeys() */
if (tdb->lockedkeys)
return TDB_ERRCODE(TDB_ERR_NOLOCK, -1);

/* Lock each chain from the start one. */
for (; tlock->hash < tdb->header.hash_size; tlock->hash++) {
if (tdb_lock(tdb, tlock->hash, F_WRLCK) == -1)
return -1;

/* No previous record? Start at top of chain. */
if (!tlock->off) {
if (ofs_read(tdb, TDB_HASH_TOP(tlock->hash),
&tlock->off) == -1)
goto fail;
} else {
/* Otherwise unlock the previous record. */
unlock_record(tdb, tlock->off);
}

if (want_next) {
/* We have offset of old record: grab next */
if (rec_read(tdb, tlock->off, rec) == -1)
goto fail;
tlock->off = rec->next;
}

/* Iterate through chain */
while( tlock->off) {
tdb_off current;
if (rec_read(tdb, tlock->off, rec) == -1)
goto fail;
if (!TDB_DEAD(rec)) {
/* Woohoo: we found one! */
lock_record(tdb, tlock->off);
return tlock->off;
}
/* Try to clean dead ones from old traverses */
current = tlock->off;
tlock->off = rec->next;
do_delete(tdb, current, rec);
}
tdb_unlock(tdb, tlock->hash, F_WRLCK);
want_next = 0;
}
/* We finished iteration without finding anything */
return TDB_ERRCODE(TDB_SUCCESS, 0);

fail:
tlock->off = 0;
tdb_unlock(tdb, tlock->hash, F_WRLCK);
return -1;
}

/* traverse the entire database - calling fn(tdb, key, data) on each element.
return -1 on error or the record count traversed
if fn is NULL then it is not called
a non-zero return value from fn() indicates that the traversal should stop
*/
int tdb_traverse(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, tdb_traverse_func fn, void *state)
{
TDB_DATA key, dbuf;
struct list_struct rec;
struct tdb_traverse_lock tl = { NULL, 0, 0 };
int ret, count = 0;

/* This was in the initializaton, above, but the IRIX compiler
* did not like it. crh
*/
tl.next = tdb->travlocks.next;

/* fcntl locks don't stack: beware traverse inside traverse */
tdb->travlocks.next = &tl;

/* tdb_next_lock places locks on the record returned, and its chain */
while ((ret = tdb_next_lock(tdb, &tl, &rec)) > 0) {
count++;
/* now read the full record */
key.dptr = tdb_alloc_read(tdb, tl.off + sizeof(rec),
rec.key_len + rec.data_len);
if (!key.dptr) {
tdb_unlock(tdb, tl.hash, F_WRLCK);
unlock_record(tdb, tl.off);
tdb->travlocks.next = tl.next;
return -1;
}
key.dsize = rec.key_len;
dbuf.dptr = key.dptr + rec.key_len;
dbuf.dsize = rec.data_len;

/* Drop chain lock, call out */
tdb_unlock(tdb, tl.hash, F_WRLCK);
if (fn && fn(tdb, key, dbuf, state)) {
/* They want us to terminate traversal */
unlock_record(tdb, tl.off);
tdb->travlocks.next = tl.next;
free(key.dptr);
return count;
}
free(key.dptr);
}
tdb->travlocks.next = tl.next;
if (ret < 0)
return -1;
else
return count;
}

/* find the first entry in the database and return its key */
TDB_DATA tdb_firstkey(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb)
{
TDB_DATA key;
struct list_struct rec;

/* release any old lock */
unlock_record(tdb, tdb->travlocks.off);
tdb->travlocks.off = tdb->travlocks.hash = 0;

if (tdb_next_lock(tdb, &tdb->travlocks, &rec) <= 0)
return tdb_null;
/* now read the key */
key.dsize = rec.key_len;
key.dptr =tdb_alloc_read(tdb,tdb->travlocks.off+sizeof(rec),key.dsize);
tdb_unlock(tdb, BUCKET(tdb->travlocks.hash), F_WRLCK);
return key;
}

/* find the next entry in the database, returning its key */
TDB_DATA tdb_nextkey(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, TDB_DATA oldkey)
{
u32 oldhash;
TDB_DATA key = tdb_null;
struct list_struct rec;
char *k = NULL;

/* Is locked key the old key? If so, traverse will be reliable. */
if (tdb->travlocks.off) {
if (tdb_lock(tdb,tdb->travlocks.hash,F_WRLCK))
return tdb_null;
if (rec_read(tdb, tdb->travlocks.off, &rec) == -1
|| !(k = tdb_alloc_read(tdb,tdb->travlocks.off+sizeof(rec),
rec.key_len))
|| memcmp(k, oldkey.dptr, oldkey.dsize) != 0) {
/* No, it wasn't: unlock it and start from scratch */
unlock_record(tdb, tdb->travlocks.off);
tdb_unlock(tdb, tdb->travlocks.hash, F_WRLCK);
tdb->travlocks.off = 0;
}

if (k)
free(k);
}

if (!tdb->travlocks.off) {
/* No previous element: do normal find, and lock record */
tdb->travlocks.off = tdb_find_lock(tdb, oldkey, F_WRLCK, &rec);
if (!tdb->travlocks.off)
return tdb_null;
tdb->travlocks.hash = BUCKET(rec.full_hash);
lock_record(tdb, tdb->travlocks.off);
}
oldhash = tdb->travlocks.hash;

/* Grab next record: locks chain and returned record,
unlocks old record */
if (tdb_next_lock(tdb, &tdb->travlocks, &rec) > 0) {
key.dsize = rec.key_len;
key.dptr = tdb_alloc_read(tdb, tdb->travlocks.off+sizeof(rec),
key.dsize);
/* Unlock the chain of this new record */
tdb_unlock(tdb, tdb->travlocks.hash, F_WRLCK);
}
/* Unlock the chain of old record */
tdb_unlock(tdb, BUCKET(oldhash), F_WRLCK);
return key;
}

/* delete an entry in the database given a key */
int tdb_delete(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, TDB_DATA key)
{
tdb_off rec_ptr;
struct list_struct rec;
int ret;

if (!(rec_ptr = tdb_find_lock(tdb, key, F_WRLCK, &rec)))
return -1;
ret = do_delete(tdb, rec_ptr, &rec);
tdb_unlock(tdb, BUCKET(rec.full_hash), F_WRLCK);
return ret;
}

/* store an element in the database, replacing any existing element
with the same key

return 0 on success, -1 on failure
*/
int tdb_store(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, TDB_DATA key, TDB_DATA dbuf, int flag)
{
struct list_struct rec;
u32 hash;
tdb_off rec_ptr;
char *p = NULL;
int ret = 0;

/* find which hash bucket it is in */
hash = tdb_hash(&key);
if (!tdb_keylocked(tdb, hash))
return -1;
if (tdb_lock(tdb, BUCKET(hash), F_WRLCK) == -1)
return -1;

/* check for it existing, on insert. */
if (flag == TDB_INSERT) {
if (tdb_exists(tdb, key)) {
tdb->ecode = TDB_ERR_EXISTS;
goto fail;
}
} else {
/* first try in-place update, on modify or replace. */
if (tdb_update(tdb, key, dbuf) == 0)
goto out;
if (flag == TDB_MODIFY && tdb->ecode == TDB_ERR_NOEXIST)
goto fail;
}
/* reset the error code potentially set by the tdb_update() */
tdb->ecode = TDB_SUCCESS;

/* delete any existing record - if it doesn't exist we don't
care. Doing this first reduces fragmentation, and avoids
coalescing with `allocated' block before it's updated. */
if (flag != TDB_INSERT)
tdb_delete(tdb, key);

/* Copy key+value *before* allocating free space in case malloc
fails and we are left with a dead spot in the tdb. */

if (!(p = (char *)malloc(key.dsize + dbuf.dsize))) {
tdb->ecode = TDB_ERR_OOM;
goto fail;
}

memcpy(p, key.dptr, key.dsize);
memcpy(p+key.dsize, dbuf.dptr, dbuf.dsize);

/* now we're into insert / modify / replace of a record which
* we know could not be optimised by an in-place store (for
* various reasons). */
if (!(rec_ptr = tdb_allocate(tdb, key.dsize + dbuf.dsize, &rec)))
goto fail;

/* Read hash top into next ptr */
if (ofs_read(tdb, TDB_HASH_TOP(hash), &rec.next) == -1)
goto fail;

rec.key_len = key.dsize;
rec.data_len = dbuf.dsize;
rec.full_hash = hash;
rec.magic = TDB_MAGIC;

/* write out and point the top of the hash chain at it */
if (rec_write(tdb, rec_ptr, &rec) == -1
|| tdb_write(tdb, rec_ptr+sizeof(rec), p, key.dsize+dbuf.dsize)==-1
|| ofs_write(tdb, TDB_HASH_TOP(hash), &rec_ptr) == -1) {
fail:
/* Need to tdb_unallocate() here */
ret = -1;
}
out:
if (p)
free(p);
tdb_unlock(tdb, BUCKET(hash), F_WRLCK);
return ret;
}

static int tdb_already_open(dev_t device,
ino_t ino)
{
TDB_CONTEXT *i;

for (i = tdbs; i; i = i->next) {
if (i->device == device && i->inode == ino) {
return 1;
}
}

return 0;
}

/* open the database, creating it if necessary

The open_flags and mode are passed straight to the open call on the
database file. A flags value of O_WRONLY is invalid. The hash size
is advisory, use zero for a default value.

Return is NULL on error, in which case errno is also set. Don't
try to call tdb_error or tdb_errname, just do strerror(errno).

@param name may be NULL for internal databases. */
TDB_CONTEXT *tdb_open(char *name, int hash_size, int tdb_flags,
int open_flags, mode_t mode)
{
TDB_CONTEXT *tdb;
struct stat st;
int rev = 0, locked;

if (!(tdb = calloc(1, sizeof *tdb))) {
/* Can't log this */
errno = ENOMEM;
goto fail;
}
tdb->fd = -1;
tdb->name = NULL;
tdb->map_ptr = NULL;
tdb->lockedkeys = NULL;
tdb->flags = tdb_flags;

if ((open_flags & O_ACCMODE) == O_WRONLY) {
errno = EINVAL;
goto fail;
}

if (hash_size == 0)
hash_size = DEFAULT_HASH_SIZE;
if ((open_flags & O_ACCMODE) == O_RDONLY) {
tdb->read_only = 1;
/* read only databases don't do locking or clear if first */
tdb->flags |= TDB_NOLOCK;
tdb->flags &= ~TDB_CLEAR_IF_FIRST;
}

/* internal databases don't mmap or lock, and start off cleared */
if (tdb->flags & TDB_INTERNAL) {
tdb->flags |= (TDB_NOLOCK | TDB_NOMMAP);
tdb->flags &= ~TDB_CLEAR_IF_FIRST;
tdb_new_database(tdb, hash_size);
goto internal;
}

if ((tdb->fd = open(name, open_flags, mode)) == -1) {
goto fail; /* errno set by open(2) */
}

/* ensure there is only one process initialising at once */
if (tdb_brlock(tdb, GLOBAL_LOCK, F_WRLCK, F_SETLKW) == -1) {
goto fail; /* errno set by tdb_brlock */
}

/* we need to zero database if we are the only one with it open */
if ((locked = (tdb_brlock(tdb, ACTIVE_LOCK, F_WRLCK, F_SETLK) == 0))
&& (tdb_flags & TDB_CLEAR_IF_FIRST)) {
open_flags |= O_CREAT;
if (ftruncate(tdb->fd, 0) == -1) {
goto fail; /* errno set by ftruncate */
}
}

if (read(tdb->fd, &tdb->header, sizeof(tdb->header)) != sizeof(tdb->header)
|| strcmp(tdb->header.magic_food, TDB_MAGIC_FOOD) != 0
|| (tdb->header.version != TDB_VERSION
&& !(rev = (tdb->header.version==TDB_BYTEREV(TDB_VERSION))))) {
/* its not a valid database - possibly initialise it */
if (!(open_flags & O_CREAT) || tdb_new_database(tdb, hash_size) == -1) {
errno = EIO; /* ie bad format or something */
goto fail;
}
rev = (tdb->flags & TDB_CONVERT);
}
if (!rev)
tdb->flags &= ~TDB_CONVERT;
else {
tdb->flags |= TDB_CONVERT;
convert(&tdb->header, sizeof(tdb->header));
}
if (fstat(tdb->fd, &st) == -1)
goto fail;

/* Is it already in the open list? If so, fail. */
if (tdb_already_open(st.st_dev, st.st_ino)) {
errno = EBUSY;
goto fail;
}

if (!(tdb->name = (char *)strdup(name))) {
errno = ENOMEM;
goto fail;
}

tdb->map_size = st.st_size;
tdb->device = st.st_dev;
tdb->inode = st.st_ino;
tdb->locked = calloc(tdb->header.hash_size+1, sizeof(tdb->locked[0]));
if (!tdb->locked) {
errno = ENOMEM;
goto fail;
}
tdb_mmap(tdb);
if (locked) {
if (tdb_brlock(tdb, ACTIVE_LOCK, F_UNLCK, F_SETLK) == -1) {
goto fail;
}
}
/* leave this lock in place to indicate it's in use */
if (tdb_brlock(tdb, ACTIVE_LOCK, F_RDLCK, F_SETLKW) == -1)
goto fail;

internal:
/* Internal (memory-only) databases skip all the code above to
* do with disk files, and resume here by releasing their
* global lock and hooking into the active list. */
if (tdb_brlock(tdb, GLOBAL_LOCK, F_UNLCK, F_SETLKW) == -1)
goto fail;
tdb->next = tdbs;
tdbs = tdb;
return tdb;

fail:
{ int save_errno = errno;

if (!tdb)
return NULL;

if (tdb->map_ptr) {
if (tdb->flags & TDB_INTERNAL)
free(tdb->map_ptr);
else
tdb_munmap(tdb);
}
if (tdb->name)
free(tdb->name);
if (tdb->fd != -1)
close(tdb->fd);
if (tdb->locked)
free(tdb->locked);
errno = save_errno;
return NULL;
}
}

/* close a database */
int tdb_close(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb)
{
TDB_CONTEXT **i;
int ret = 0;

if (tdb->map_ptr) {
if (tdb->flags & TDB_INTERNAL)
free(tdb->map_ptr);
else
tdb_munmap(tdb);
}
if (tdb->name)
free(tdb->name);
if (tdb->fd != -1)
ret = close(tdb->fd);
if (tdb->locked)
free(tdb->locked);
if (tdb->lockedkeys)
free(tdb->lockedkeys);

/* Remove from contexts list */
for (i = &tdbs; *i; i = &(*i)->next) {
if (*i == tdb) {
*i = tdb->next;
break;
}
}

memset(tdb, 0, sizeof(*tdb));
free(tdb);

return ret;
}

/* lock/unlock entire database */
int tdb_lockall(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb)
{
u32 i;

/* There are no locks on read-only dbs */
if (tdb->read_only)
return TDB_ERRCODE(TDB_ERR_LOCK, -1);
if (tdb->lockedkeys)
return TDB_ERRCODE(TDB_ERR_NOLOCK, -1);
for (i = 0; i < tdb->header.hash_size; i++)
if (tdb_lock(tdb, i, F_WRLCK))
break;

/* If error, release locks we have... */
if (i < tdb->header.hash_size) {
u32 j;

for ( j = 0; j < i; j++)
tdb_unlock(tdb, j, F_WRLCK);
return TDB_ERRCODE(TDB_ERR_NOLOCK, -1);
}

return 0;
}
void tdb_unlockall(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb)
{
u32 i;
for (i=0; i < tdb->header.hash_size; i++)
tdb_unlock(tdb, i, F_WRLCK);
}

int tdb_lockkeys(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, u32 number, TDB_DATA keys[])
{
u32 i, j, hash;

/* Can't lock more keys if already locked */
if (tdb->lockedkeys)
return TDB_ERRCODE(TDB_ERR_NOLOCK, -1);
if (!(tdb->lockedkeys = malloc(sizeof(u32) * (number+1))))
return TDB_ERRCODE(TDB_ERR_OOM, -1);
/* First number in array is # keys */
tdb->lockedkeys[0] = number;

/* Insertion sort by bucket */
for (i = 0; i < number; i++) {
hash = tdb_hash(&keys[i]);
for (j = 0; j < i && BUCKET(tdb->lockedkeys[j+1]) < BUCKET(hash); j++);
memmove(&tdb->lockedkeys[j+2], &tdb->lockedkeys[j+1], sizeof(u32) * (i-j));
tdb->lockedkeys[j+1] = hash;
}
/* Finally, lock in order */
for (i = 0; i < number; i++)
if (tdb_lock(tdb, i, F_WRLCK))
break;

/* If error, release locks we have... */
if (i < number) {
for ( j = 0; j < i; j++)
tdb_unlock(tdb, j, F_WRLCK);
free(tdb->lockedkeys);
tdb->lockedkeys = NULL;
return TDB_ERRCODE(TDB_ERR_NOLOCK, -1);
}
return 0;
}

/* Unlock the keys previously locked by tdb_lockkeys() */
void tdb_unlockkeys(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb)
{
u32 i;
for (i = 0; i < tdb->lockedkeys[0]; i++)
tdb_unlock(tdb, tdb->lockedkeys[i+1], F_WRLCK);
free(tdb->lockedkeys);
tdb->lockedkeys = NULL;
}

/* lock/unlock one hash chain. This is meant to be used to reduce
contention - it cannot guarantee how many records will be locked */
int tdb_chainlock(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, TDB_DATA key)
{
return tdb_lock(tdb, BUCKET(tdb_hash(&key)), F_WRLCK);
}
void tdb_chainunlock(TDB_CONTEXT *tdb, TDB_DATA key)
{
tdb_unlock(tdb, BUCKET(tdb_hash(&key)), F_WRLCK);
}
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