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SubjectRe: [PATCH] C undefined behavior fix
On Thu, Jan 10, 2002 at 07:18:45AM -0500, dewar@gnat.com wrote:
> <<Note that this is not too much of a problem for system programming, as you
> have a way to be sure they are not combined: just use intermediate variables
> and set them separately; the nice thing there is that as you use these
> intermediate variables just once, the compiler will eliminate them. But be
> careful: the sequence point MUST BE RETAINED, and then the two loads cannot
> be combined (in case 1 of course).
> >>
>
> Of course we all understand that sequence points myust be retained, but this
> is a weak condition compared to the rule that all loads and stores for
> volatile variables must not be resequenced, and in particular, you seem to
> agree that two loads *can* be combined if they both appear between two
> sequence points. I think that's unfortunate, and it is why in Ada we
> adopted a stricter point of view that avoids the notion of sequence points.
>
> It even seems that if you have two stores between two sequence points then
> the compiler is free to omit one, and again that seems the wrong decision
> for the case of volatile variables. If it can omit a store in this way, can
> it omit a load, i.e. if we have:
>
> x := v - v;
>
> can someone read the sequence point rule to mean that the compiler is
> free to do only one load here? I hope not, but we have already seen how
> much confusion there is on this point.

The compiler is not free to do only one load there if v is declared
volatile.
The relevant part of the C standard would be the following paragraph:

[6.7.3]
[#6] An object that has volatile-qualified type may be
modified in ways unknown to the implementation or have other
unknown side effects. Therefore any expression referring to
such an object shall be evaluated strictly according to the
rules of the abstract machine, as described in 5.1.2.3.
Furthermore, at every sequence point the value last stored
in the object shall agree with that prescribed by the
abstract machine, except as modified by the unknown factors
mentioned previously.105) What constitutes an access to an
object that has volatile-qualified type is implementation-
defined.


footnote 105:

105A volatile declaration may be used to describe an object
corresponding to a memory-mapped input/output port or an
object accessed by an asynchronously interrupting
function. Actions on objects so declared shall not be
`optimized out'' by an implementation or reordered
except as permitted by the rules for evaluating
expressions.


[Quotes taken from a draft of the final standard, so it is possible,
but unlikely, that this was changed for the final standard.]

--
<Insert your favourite quote here.>
Erik Trulsson
ertr1013@student.uu.se
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