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Subject[PATCH] sound documentation updates
this patch updates the documentation in Documentation/sound
to reflect the changes that were made in Linux 2.3.
I've also added a NEWS file that contains a very short
descrption of the changes from 2.2 to 2.4 (no, it's not a
ChangeLog) ...


Always remember that you are unique. Just like everyone else.

diff -uNr linux.orig/Documentation/sound/AD1816 linux/Documentation/sound/AD1816
--- linux.orig/Documentation/sound/AD1816 Mon May 10 22:00:10 1999
+++ linux/Documentation/sound/AD1816 Mon Sep 25 20:09:53 2000
@@ -1,52 +1,15 @@
Documentation for the AD1816(A) sound driver

-NOTE: This driver is still EXPERIMENTAL, so don't use it on production

-To get your AD1816(A) based sound card work, you'll have to enable
-module support ("Enable loadable module support") and support for
-experimental code ("Prompt for development and/or incomplete
-code/drivers") during kernel configuration. Enable "Sound card
-support", "OSS modules support" and "Support for AD1816(A) based cards
-(EXPERIMENTAL)" in the sound configuration menu, too. Be sure, that
-you build "Support for AD1816(A) based cards (EXPERIMENTAL)" as a MODULE,
-otherwise you may run into problems later.
-Now build, install and reboot the new kernel as usual.
-Since the AD1816(A) is a P'n'P sound chip you'll usually have to
-configure it using the isapnptools. See isapnptools documentation for
-details on configuring P'n'P cards.
-After you have successfully configured the card using isapnp, you may
-load the AD1816 driver using modprobe. A typical modprobe call should
-look like this:
- modprobe ad1816 io=0x530 irq=5 dma=1 dma2=3 ad1816_clockfreq=33000
-if your isapnp.conf file looks like this (relevant lines only):
- (INT 0 (IRQ 5 (MODE +E)))
- (DMA 0 (CHANNEL 1))
- (DMA 1 (CHANNEL 3))
- (IO 0 (BASE 0x0220))
- (IO 1 (BASE 0x0388))
- (IO 2 (BASE 0x0530))
-NOTE: Be sure, that you use the address IO 2 (in our example 0x530) when
-loading the module!
-If your setup was correct, you should see the following messages in
-/var/log/messages (numbers may be different):
-Nov 6 17:07:26 tek01 kernel: ad1816_detect(530)
-Nov 6 17:07:26 tek01 kernel: ad1816_detect() - Detected OK
-Nov 6 17:07:26 tek01 kernel: AD1816 Version: 3
+To get your AD1816(A) based sound card work, you'll have to enable support for
+experimental code ("Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers")
+and isapnp ("Plug and Play support", "ISA Plug and Play support"). Enable
+"Sound card support", "OSS modules support" and "Support for AD1816(A) based
+cards (EXPERIMENTAL)" in the sound configuration menu, too. Now build, install
+and reboot the new kernel as usual.

@@ -86,13 +49,7 @@

First of all you should check, if the driver has been loaded
-properly. If you get the following message in your /var/log/messages:
-Nov 6 17:06:31 tek01 kernel: ad1816_detect(530)
-Nov 6 17:06:31 tek01 kernel: Chip is not an AD1816 or chip is not active
-you either used the wrong address for loading the driver, your chip is
-not an AD1816 or you forgot to initialize the card with isapnp.

If loading of the driver succeeds, but playback/capture fails, check
if you used the correct values for irq, dma and dma2 when loading the module.
@@ -122,6 +79,6 @@
Bugreports, bugfixes and related questions should be sent via E-Mail to:

Thorsten Knabe <>
- Last modified: 1999/05/02
+Christoph Hellwig <>
+ Last modified: 2000/09/20
diff -uNr linux.orig/Documentation/sound/ESS linux/Documentation/sound/ESS
--- linux.orig/Documentation/sound/ESS Tue Sep 5 20:31:44 2000
+++ linux/Documentation/sound/ESS Mon Sep 25 14:20:59 2000
@@ -1,9 +1,10 @@
Documentation for the ESS AudioDrive chips

-In 2.2 kernels the SoundBlaster driver not only tries to detect an ESS chip, it
+In 2.4 kernels the SoundBlaster driver not only tries to detect an ESS chip, it
tries to detect the type of ESS chip too. The correct detection of the chip
-doesn't always succeed however, so the default behaviour is 2.0 behaviour
-which means: only detect ES688 and ES1688.
+doesn't always succeed however, so unless you use the kernel isapnp facilities
+(and you chip is pnp capable) the default behaviour is 2.0 behaviour which
+means: only detect ES688 and ES1688.

All ESS chips now have a recording level setting. This is a need-to-have for
people who want to use their ESS for recording sound.
diff -uNr linux.orig/Documentation/sound/ESS1868 linux/Documentation/sound/ESS1868
--- linux.orig/Documentation/sound/ESS1868 Wed Dec 16 21:52:00 1998
+++ linux/Documentation/sound/ESS1868 Mon Sep 25 20:30:24 2000
@@ -2,17 +2,21 @@

The ESS1868 sound card is a PnP ESS1688-compatible 16-bit sound card.

-Notes about configuring the sound card:
+It should be automatically detected by the Linux Kernel isapnp support when you
+load the sb.o module. Otherwise you should take care of:

* The ESS1868 does not allow use of a 16-bit DMA, thus DMA 0, 1, 2, and 3
may only be used.

* isapnptools version 1.14 does work with ESS1868. Earlier versions might
* Sound support MUST be compiled as MODULES, not statically linked
into the kernel.
+NOTE: this is only needed when not using the kernel isapnp support!
For configuring the sound card's I/O addresses, IRQ and DMA, here is a
sample copy of the isapnp.conf directives regarding the ESS1868:

@@ -47,38 +51,5 @@
/sbin/insmod opl3 io=0x388
/sbin/insmod v_midi

-opl3 is the FM synthesizer--I have not tried the SoftOSS wavetable
-synthesizer yet, but I assume it would work as well. Also, doing:
-/sbin/insmod opl3
-/sbin/insmod adlib_card io=0x388
-works, but I believe the sound quality is a bit distorted when playing MIDI
-When using the above setup, my /proc/sound gives the following:
-Load type: Driver loaded as a module
-Kernel: Linux 2.1.104 #1 SMP Sun May 24 11:04:27 EDT 1998 i486
-Config options: 0
-Installed drivers:
-Card config:
-Audio devices:
-0: ESS ES1688 AudioDrive (rev 11) (3.1)
-Synth devices:
-0: Yamaha OPL-3
-Midi devices:
-0: Loopback MIDI Port 1
-1: Loopback MIDI Port 2
-0: System clock
-0: Sound Blaster
+opl3 is the FM synthesizer
+/sbin/insmod opl3 io=0x388
diff -uNr linux.orig/Documentation/sound/INSTALL.awe linux/Documentation/sound/INSTALL.awe
--- linux.orig/Documentation/sound/INSTALL.awe Thu Apr 29 20:53:41 1999
+++ linux/Documentation/sound/INSTALL.awe Mon Sep 25 20:30:45 2000
@@ -9,12 +9,9 @@
If you're using PnP cards, the initialization of PnP is required
before loading this driver. You have now three options:
1. Use isapnptools.
- 2. Install PnP kernel driver patch.
+ 2. Use in-kernel isapnp support.
3. Initialize PnP on DOS/Windows, then boot linux by loadlin.
In this document, only the case 1 case is treated.
-For the case 2, please refer to the instruction in PnP driver project.
-The home page of PnP driver project is the following URL:

* Installation on Red Hat 5.0 Sound Driver
diff -uNr linux.orig/Documentation/sound/Introduction linux/Documentation/sound/Introduction
--- linux.orig/Documentation/sound/Introduction Tue Sep 5 20:31:44 2000
+++ linux/Documentation/sound/Introduction Mon Sep 25 20:32:58 2000
@@ -27,6 +27,8 @@
added info on OSS and ALSA.
1.1.1 19991031 Added notes on sound-slot- and sound-service.
(Alan Cox)
+1.1.2 20000920 Modified for Kernel 2.4 (Christoph Hellwig)

Modular Sound Drivers:
@@ -46,17 +48,13 @@
forums for bug reporting.

The modular sound drivers may be loaded via insmod or modprobe.
-To support all the various sound modules, there are three general
+To support all the various sound modules, there are two general
support modules that must be loaded first:

soundcore.o: Top level handler for the sound system, provides
a set of functions for registration of devices
by type.

- soundlow.o: Low-level sound drivers which are not part of
- OSS/Lite (Open Sound System), including SB32/AWE
- synthesizer, etc.
sound.o: Common sound functions required by all modules.

For the specific sound modules (e.g., sb.o for the Soundblaster),
@@ -255,6 +253,9 @@
Since this was originally release, I have received a couple of
mails from people who have accomplished this!

+NOTE: In Linux 2.4 the Sound Blaster driver (and only this one yet)
+supports multiple cards with one module by default.
+Read the file 'Soundblaster' in this directory for details.

Sound Problems:
@@ -277,8 +278,7 @@
and /proc/dma. Are you trying to use an address,
IRQ or DMA port that another device is using?

- C) Check (cat) /proc/sys/pnp (if this exists, you
- may need a kernel patch to get this device).
+ C) Check (cat) /proc/isapnp

D) Inspect your /var/log/messages file. Often that will
indicate what IRQ or IO port could not be obtained.
@@ -332,8 +332,9 @@

There are several ways of configuring your sound:

-1) Hardcoded in the kernel at compile time (not applicable when
- using sound modules). This was the OLD way!
+1) On the kernel command line (when using the sound driver(s)
+ compiled in the kernel). Check the driver source and
+ documentation for details.

2) On the command line when using insmod or in a bash script
using command line calls to load sound.
@@ -344,6 +345,10 @@

5) Via the OSS soundconf program (with the commercial version
of the OSS driver.
+6) By just loading the module and let isapnp do everything relevant
+ for you. This works only with a few drivers yet and - of course -
+ only with isapnp hardware.

And I am sure, several other ways.

diff -uNr linux.orig/Documentation/sound/NEWS linux/Documentation/sound/NEWS
--- linux.orig/Documentation/sound/NEWS Thu Jan 1 01:00:00 1970
+++ linux/Documentation/sound/NEWS Mon Sep 25 20:34:06 2000
@@ -0,0 +1,42 @@
+Linux 2.4 Sound Changes
+Christoph Hellwig, <>
+=== isapnp support
+The Linux 2.4 Kernel does have reliable in-kernel isapnp support.
+Some drivers (sb.o, ad1816.o awe_wave.o) do now support automatically
+detecting and configuring isapnp devices.
+If you have a not yet supported isapnp soundcard, mail me the content
+of '/proc/isapnp' on your system and some information about your card
+and its driver(s) so I can try to get isapnp working for it.
+=== soundcard resources on kernel commandline
+Before Linux 2.4 you had to specify the resources for sounddrivers
+statically linked into the kernel at compile time
+(in make config/menuconfig/xconfig). In Linux 2.4 the ressources are
+now specified at the boot-time kernel commandline (e.g. the lilo
+'append=' line or everything that's after the kernel name in grub).
+Read the entry for your card for the parameters.
+=== softoss is gone
+In Linux 2.4 the softoss in-kernel software synthesizer is no more aviable.
+Use a user space software synthesizer like timidity instead.
+=== /dev/sndstat and /proc/sound are gone
+In older Linux versions those files exported some information about the
+OSS/Free configuration to userspace. In Linux 2.3 they were removed because
+they did not support the growing number of pci soundcards and there were
+some general problems with this interface.
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