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SubjectRe: Installing kernel 2.4


David Relson wrote:
>
> It seems to me that kernel/cpu matching can be broken into two relatively
> simple parts.
>
> 1 - Put a cpu "signature" in the kernel image indicating cpu requirements; and
> 2 - Have the bootloader (lilo) detect cpu type and match it against the cpu
> "signature".
>
> The bootloader would then load the kernel, or could give an informative
> diagnostic.
>

The PE model uses flags to identify CPU type and capbilities and create
a table in the RVA section header that describes all the segments, i.e.

#define IMAGE_SIZEOF_FILE_HEADER 20

#define IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_UNKNOWN 0
#define IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_I860 0x14d
#define IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_I386 0x14c
#define IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_R3000 0x162
#define IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_R4000 0x166
#define IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_R10000 0x168
#define IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_ALPHA 0x184
#define IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_POWERPC 0x1F0

typedef struct _IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY
{
DWORD VirtualAddress;
DWORD Size;
} IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY,*PIMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY;

#define IMAGE_NUMBEROF_DIRECTORY_ENTRIES 16

/* Optional coff header - used by NT to provide additional information.
*/
typedef struct _IMAGE_OPTIONAL_HEADER
{
/*
* Standard fields.
*/

WORD Magic;
BYTE MajorLinkerVersion;
BYTE MinorLinkerVersion;
DWORD SizeOfCode;
DWORD SizeOfInitializedData;
DWORD SizeOfUninitializedData;
DWORD AddressOfEntryPoint;
DWORD BaseOfCode;
DWORD BaseOfData;

/*
* NT additional fields.
*/

DWORD ImageBase;
DWORD SectionAlignment;
DWORD FileAlignment;
WORD MajorOperatingSystemVersion;
WORD MinorOperatingSystemVersion;
WORD MajorImageVersion;
WORD MinorImageVersion;
WORD MajorSubsystemVersion;
WORD MinorSubsystemVersion;
DWORD Reserved1;
DWORD SizeOfImage;
DWORD SizeOfHeaders;
DWORD CheckSum;
WORD Subsystem;
WORD DllCharacteristics;
DWORD SizeOfStackReserve;
DWORD SizeOfStackCommit;
DWORD SizeOfHeapReserve;
DWORD SizeOfHeapCommit;
DWORD LoaderFlags;
DWORD NumberOfRvaAndSizes;
IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY DataDirectory[IMAGE_NUMBEROF_DIRECTORY_ENTRIES];
} IMAGE_OPTIONAL_HEADER,*PIMAGE_OPTIONAL_HEADER;

/* These are indexes into the DataDirectory array */
#define IMAGE_FILE_EXPORT_DIRECTORY 0
#define IMAGE_FILE_IMPORT_DIRECTORY 1
#define IMAGE_FILE_RESOURCE_DIRECTORY 2
#define IMAGE_FILE_EXCEPTION_DIRECTORY 3
#define IMAGE_FILE_SECURITY_DIRECTORY 4
#define IMAGE_FILE_BASE_RELOCATION_TABLE 5
#define IMAGE_FILE_DEBUG_DIRECTORY 6
#define IMAGE_FILE_DESCRIPTION_STRING 7
#define IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_VALUE 8 /* Mips */
#define IMAGE_FILE_THREAD_LOCAL_STORAGE 9
#define IMAGE_FILE_CALLBACK_DIRECTORY 10

/* Directory Entries, indices into the DataDirectory array */

#define IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_EXPORT 0
#define IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_IMPORT 1
#define IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_RESOURCE 2
#define IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_EXCEPTION 3
#define IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_SECURITY 4
#define IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_BASERELOC 5
#define IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_DEBUG 6
#define IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_COPYRIGHT 7
#define IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_GLOBALPTR 8 /* (MIPS GP) */
#define IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_TLS 9
#define IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_LOAD_CONFIG 10
#define IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_BOUND_IMPORT 11
#define IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_IAT 12 /* Import Address Table */

/* Subsystem Values */

#define IMAGE_SUBSYSTEM_UNKNOWN 0
#define IMAGE_SUBSYSTEM_NATIVE 1
#define IMAGE_SUBSYSTEM_WINDOWS_GUI 2 /* Windows GUI subsystem */
#define IMAGE_SUBSYSTEM_WINDOWS_CUI 3 /* Windows character subsystem*/
#define IMAGE_SUBSYSTEM_OS2_CUI 5
#define IMAGE_SUBSYSTEM_POSIX_CUI 7

typedef struct _IMAGE_NT_HEADERS {
DWORD Signature;
IMAGE_FILE_HEADER FileHeader;
IMAGE_OPTIONAL_HEADER OptionalHeader;
} IMAGE_NT_HEADERS,*PIMAGE_NT_HEADERS;

/* Section header format */

#define IMAGE_SIZEOF_SHORT_NAME 8

typedef struct _IMAGE_SECTION_HEADER {
BYTE Name[IMAGE_SIZEOF_SHORT_NAME];
union {
DWORD PhysicalAddress;
DWORD VirtualSize;
} Misc;
DWORD VirtualAddress;
DWORD SizeOfRawData;
DWORD PointerToRawData;
DWORD PointerToRelocations;
DWORD PointerToLinenumbers;
WORD NumberOfRelocations;
WORD NumberOfLinenumbers;
DWORD Characteristics;
} IMAGE_SECTION_HEADER,*PIMAGE_SECTION_HEADER;

#define IMAGE_SIZEOF_SECTION_HEADER 40

/* These defines are for the Characteristics bitfield. */
/* #define IMAGE_SCN_TYPE_REG 0x00000000 - Reserved */
/* #define IMAGE_SCN_TYPE_DSECT 0x00000001 - Reserved */
/* #define IMAGE_SCN_TYPE_NOLOAD 0x00000002 - Reserved */
/* #define IMAGE_SCN_TYPE_GROUP 0x00000004 - Reserved */
/* #define IMAGE_SCN_TYPE_NO_PAD 0x00000008 - Reserved */
/* #define IMAGE_SCN_TYPE_COPY 0x00000010 - Reserved */

#define IMAGE_SCN_CNT_CODE 0x00000020
#define IMAGE_SCN_CNT_INITIALIZED_DATA 0x00000040
#define IMAGE_SCN_CNT_UNINITIALIZED_DATA 0x00000080

#define IMAGE_SCN_LNK_OTHER 0x00000100
#define IMAGE_SCN_LNK_INFO 0x00000200
#define IMAGE_SCN_LNK_OVERLAY 0x00000400
#define IMAGE_SCN_LNK_REMOVE 0x00000800
#define IMAGE_SCN_LNK_COMDAT 0x00001000

/* 0x00002000 - Reserved */
/* #define IMAGE_SCN_MEM_PROTECTED 0x00004000 - Obsolete */
#define IMAGE_SCN_MEM_FARDATA 0x00008000

/* #define IMAGE_SCN_MEM_SYSHEAP 0x00010000 - Obsolete */
#define IMAGE_SCN_MEM_PURGEABLE 0x00020000
#define IMAGE_SCN_MEM_16BIT 0x00020000
#define IMAGE_SCN_MEM_LOCKED 0x00040000
#define IMAGE_SCN_MEM_PRELOAD 0x00080000

#define IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_1BYTES 0x00100000
#define IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_2BYTES 0x00200000
#define IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_4BYTES 0x00300000
#define IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_8BYTES 0x00400000
#define IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_16BYTES 0x00500000 /* Default */
#define IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_32BYTES 0x00600000
#define IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_64BYTES 0x00700000
/* 0x00800000 - Unused */

#define IMAGE_SCN_LNK_NRELOC_OVFL 0x01000000


#define IMAGE_SCN_MEM_DISCARDABLE 0x02000000
#define IMAGE_SCN_MEM_NOT_CACHED 0x04000000
#define IMAGE_SCN_MEM_NOT_PAGED 0x08000000
#define IMAGE_SCN_MEM_SHARED 0x10000000
#define IMAGE_SCN_MEM_EXECUTE 0x20000000
#define IMAGE_SCN_MEM_READ 0x40000000
#define IMAGE_SCN_MEM_WRITE 0x80000000

/* Import name entry */
typedef struct _IMAGE_IMPORT_BY_NAME {
WORD Hint;
BYTE Name[1];
} IMAGE_IMPORT_BY_NAME,*PIMAGE_IMPORT_BY_NAME;

/* Import thunk */
typedef struct _IMAGE_THUNK_DATA {
union
{
LPBYTE ForwarderString;
LPDWORD Function;
DWORD Ordinal;
PIMAGE_IMPORT_BY_NAME AddressOfData;
} u1;
} IMAGE_THUNK_DATA,*PIMAGE_THUNK_DATA;

/* Import module directory */

typedef struct _IMAGE_IMPORT_DESCRIPTOR {
union
{
DWORD Characteristics; /* 0 for terminating null import descriptor
*/
PIMAGE_THUNK_DATA OriginalFirstThunk; /* RVA to original unbound IAT
*/
} u;
DWORD TimeDateStamp; /* 0 if not bound,
* -1 if bound, and real date\time stamp
* in IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_BOUND_IMPORT
* (new BIND)
* otherwise date/time stamp of DLL bound to
* (Old BIND)
*/
DWORD ForwarderChain; /* -1 if no forwarders */
DWORD Name;
/* RVA to IAT (if bound this IAT has actual addresses) */
PIMAGE_THUNK_DATA FirstThunk;
} IMAGE_IMPORT_DESCRIPTOR,*PIMAGE_IMPORT_DESCRIPTOR;

#define IMAGE_ORDINAL_FLAG 0x80000000
#define IMAGE_SNAP_BY_ORDINAL(Ordinal) ((Ordinal & IMAGE_ORDINAL_FLAG)
!= 0)
#define IMAGE_ORDINAL(Ordinal) (Ordinal & 0xffff)

/* Export module directory */

typedef struct _IMAGE_EXPORT_DIRECTORY {
DWORD Characteristics;
DWORD TimeDateStamp;
WORD MajorVersion;
WORD MinorVersion;
DWORD Name;
DWORD Base;
DWORD NumberOfFunctions;
DWORD NumberOfNames;
LPDWORD *AddressOfFunctions;
LPDWORD *AddressOfNames;
LPWORD *AddressOfNameOrdinals;
/* u_char ModuleName[1]; */
} IMAGE_EXPORT_DIRECTORY,*PIMAGE_EXPORT_DIRECTORY;


/*
* Resource directory stuff
*/
typedef struct _IMAGE_RESOURCE_DIRECTORY {
DWORD Characteristics;
DWORD TimeDateStamp;
WORD MajorVersion;
WORD MinorVersion;
WORD NumberOfNamedEntries;
WORD NumberOfIdEntries;
/* IMAGE_RESOURCE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY DirectoryEntries[]; */
} IMAGE_RESOURCE_DIRECTORY,*PIMAGE_RESOURCE_DIRECTORY;

#define IMAGE_RESOURCE_NAME_IS_STRING 0x80000000
#define IMAGE_RESOURCE_DATA_IS_DIRECTORY 0x80000000

typedef struct _IMAGE_RESOURCE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY {
union {
struct {
// DWORD NameOffset:31;
// DWORD NameIsString:1;
// fix jmerkey!
DWORD NameOffset;
} s;
DWORD Name;
WORD Id;
} u1;
union {
DWORD OffsetToData;
struct {
// DWORD OffsetToDirectory:31;
// DWORD DataIsDirectory:1;
// fix jmerkey!
//
DWORD OffsetToDirectory;
} s;
} u2;
} IMAGE_RESOURCE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY,*PIMAGE_RESOURCE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY;

typedef struct tagImportDirectory {
DWORD RVAFunctionNameList;
DWORD UseLess1;
DWORD UseLess2;
DWORD RVAModuleName;
DWORD RVAFunctionAddressList;
} IMAGE_IMPORT_MODULE_DIRECTORY, *PIMAGE_IMPORT_MODULE_DIRECTORY;

typedef struct _IMAGE_RESOURCE_DIRECTORY_STRING {
WORD Length;
CHAR NameString[1];
} IMAGE_RESOURCE_DIRECTORY_STRING,*PIMAGE_RESOURCE_DIRECTORY_STRING;

typedef struct _IMAGE_RESOURCE_DIR_STRING_U {
WORD Length;
WCHAR NameString[1];
} IMAGE_RESOURCE_DIR_STRING_U,*PIMAGE_RESOURCE_DIR_STRING_U;

typedef struct _IMAGE_RESOURCE_DATA_ENTRY {
DWORD OffsetToData;
DWORD Size;
DWORD CodePage;
DWORD Reserved;
} IMAGE_RESOURCE_DATA_ENTRY,*PIMAGE_RESOURCE_DATA_ENTRY;

typedef struct _IMAGE_BASE_RELOCATION
{
DWORD VirtualAddress;
DWORD SizeOfBlock;
WORD TypeOffset[1];
} IMAGE_BASE_RELOCATION,*PIMAGE_BASE_RELOCATION;

typedef struct _IMAGE_LOAD_CONFIG_DIRECTORY {
DWORD Characteristics;
DWORD TimeDateStamp;
WORD MajorVersion;
WORD MinorVersion;
DWORD GlobalFlagsClear;
DWORD GlobalFlagsSet;
DWORD CriticalSectionDefaultTimeout;
DWORD DeCommitFreeBlockThreshold;
DWORD DeCommitTotalFreeThreshold;
LPVOID LockPrefixTable;
DWORD MaximumAllocationSize;
DWORD VirtualMemoryThreshold;
DWORD ProcessHeapFlags;
DWORD Reserved[4];
} IMAGE_LOAD_CONFIG_DIRECTORY,*PIMAGE_LOAD_CONFIG_DIRECTORY;

typedef VOID (*PIMAGE_TLS_CALLBACK)(
LPVOID DllHandle,DWORD Reason,LPVOID Reserved
);

typedef struct _IMAGE_TLS_DIRECTORY {
DWORD StartAddressOfRawData;
DWORD EndAddressOfRawData;
LPDWORD AddressOfIndex;
PIMAGE_TLS_CALLBACK *AddressOfCallBacks;
DWORD SizeOfZeroFill;
DWORD Characteristics;
} IMAGE_TLS_DIRECTORY,*PIMAGE_TLS_DIRECTORY;

/*
* The IMAGE_DEBUG_DIRECTORY data directory points to an array of
* these structures.
*/
typedef struct _IMAGE_DEBUG_DIRECTORY {
DWORD Characteristics;
DWORD TimeDateStamp;
WORD MajorVersion;
WORD MinorVersion;
DWORD Type;
DWORD SizeOfData;
DWORD AddressOfRawData;
DWORD PointerToRawData;
} IMAGE_DEBUG_DIRECTORY,*PIMAGE_DEBUG_DIRECTORY;

/*
* The type field above can take these (plus a few other
* irrelevant) values.
*/
#define IMAGE_DEBUG_TYPE_UNKNOWN 0
#define IMAGE_DEBUG_TYPE_COFF 1
#define IMAGE_DEBUG_TYPE_CODEVIEW 2
#define IMAGE_DEBUG_TYPE_FPO 3
#define IMAGE_DEBUG_TYPE_MISC 4
#define IMAGE_DEBUG_TYPE_EXCEPTION 5
#define IMAGE_DEBUG_TYPE_FIXUP 6
#define IMAGE_DEBUG_TYPE_OMAP_TO_SRC 7
#define IMAGE_DEBUG_TYPE_OMAP_FROM_SRC 8


#define IMAGE_REL_BASED_ABSOLUTE 0
#define IMAGE_REL_BASED_HIGH 1
#define IMAGE_REL_BASED_LOW 2
#define IMAGE_REL_BASED_HIGHLOW 3
#define IMAGE_REL_BASED_HIGHADJ 4
#define IMAGE_REL_BASED_MIPS_JMPADDR 5

/*
* This is the structure that appears at the very start of a .DBG file.
*/
typedef struct _IMAGE_SEPARATE_DEBUG_HEADER {
WORD Signature;
WORD Flags;
WORD Machine;
WORD Characteristics;
DWORD TimeDateStamp;
DWORD CheckSum;
DWORD ImageBase;
DWORD SizeOfImage;
DWORD NumberOfSections;
DWORD ExportedNamesSize;
DWORD DebugDirectorySize;
DWORD Reserved[3 ];
} IMAGE_SEPARATE_DEBUG_HEADER,*PIMAGE_SEPARATE_DEBUG_HEADER;

#define IMAGE_SEPARATE_DEBUG_SIGNATURE 0x4944

#define IMAGE_LIBRARY_PROCESS_INIT 1
#define IMAGE_LIBRARY_PROCESS_TERM 8
#define IMAGE_LIBRARY_THREAD_INIT 4
#define IMAGE_LIBRARY_THREAD_TERM 2

#define IMAGE_LOADER_FLAGS_BREAK_ON_LOAD 1
#define IMAGE_LOADER_FLAGS_DEBUG_ON_LOAD 2

#define IMAGE_SYM_UNDEFINED (short) 0
#define IMAGE_SYM_ABSOLUTE (short) -1
#define IMAGE_SYM_DEBUG (short) -2

//
// Type (derived) values.
//

#define IMAGE_SYM_DTYPE_NULL 0 // no derived type.
#define IMAGE_SYM_DTYPE_POINTER 1 // pointer.
#define IMAGE_SYM_DTYPE_FUNCTION 2 // function.
#define IMAGE_SYM_DTYPE_ARRAY 3 // array.

//
// Storage classes.
//

#define IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_END_OF_FUNCTION (BYTE )-1
#define IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_NULL 0x0000
#define IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_AUTOMATIC 0x0001
#define IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_EXTERNAL 0x0002
#define IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_STATIC 0x0003
#define IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_REGISTER 0x0004
#define IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_EXTERNAL_DEF 0x0005
#define IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_LABEL 0x0006
#define IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_UNDEFINED_LABEL 0x0007
#define IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_MEMBER_OF_STRUCT 0x0008
#define IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_ARGUMENT 0x0009
#define IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_STRUCT_TAG 0x000A
#define IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_MEMBER_OF_UNION 0x000B
#define IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_UNION_TAG 0x000C
#define IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_TYPE_DEFINITION 0x000D
#define IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_UNDEFINED_STATIC 0x000E
#define IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_ENUM_TAG 0x000F
#define IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_MEMBER_OF_ENUM 0x0010
#define IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_REGISTER_PARAM 0x0011
#define IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_BIT_FIELD 0x0012

#define IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_FAR_EXTERNAL 0x0044 //

#define IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_BLOCK 0x0064
#define IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_FUNCTION 0x0065
#define IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_END_OF_STRUCT 0x0066
#define IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_FILE 0x0067
// new
#define IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_SECTION 0x0068
#define IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_WEAK_EXTERNAL 0x0069

As you can see, theirs is quite complete and well thought out. Thanks
to Mr. Bill Gates for the wonderful source code license and the freedom
to use residulas in MANOS for whatever we please.

Extend ELF to use the ELF-LPE format (a new term for what we will invent
- the ELF Linux Portable Executable Format). This would also allow us
to combine Sparc, Alpha, x86 segments into a single executable so the
customer won't have to recompile the kernel every time they want to
change something. SMP, non-SMP coud be handled the same as well.

Jeff

> David
>
> At 06:59 PM 11/7/00, Jeff Garzik wrote:
> >Sven Koch wrote:
> > >
> > > On Tue, 7 Nov 2000, David Lang wrote:
> > >
> > > > depending on what CPU you have the kernel (and compiler) can use
> > different
> > > > commands/opmizations/etc, if you want to do this on boot you have two
> > > > options.
> > >
> > > Wouldn't it be possible to compile the parts of the kernel needed to
> > > uncompress and to detect the cpu with lower optimizations and then abort
> > > with an error message?
> > >
> > > "Error: Kernel needs a PIII" sounds much better than just stoping dead.
> >
> >I agree... maybe we can solve this simply by giving the CPU detection
> >module the -march=i386 flag hardcoded, or editing the bootstrap, or
> >something like that...
> >
> > Jeff
>
> --------------------------------------------------------
> David Relson Osage Software Systems, Inc.
> relson@osagesoftware.com 514 W. Keech Ave.
> www.osagesoftware.com Ann Arbor, MI 48103
> voice: 734.821.8800 fax: 734.821.8800
>
> -
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