Messages in this thread | | | Date | Sun, 9 May 1999 13:46:04 +0200 | From | Peter Steiner <> | Subject | Re: Hash functions (was Re: 2.2.6_andrea2.bz2) |
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>BTW: 2**32*(sqrt(5)-1)/2 is 2654435770 and not 2654425957UL that you are >using in your hashfn. So were does 2654425957UL came from?
2654425957UL was an early multiplier (40499 * 65543). Kind of quick way to get an almost prime near the golden ratio. Later it changed to 2654435761 which is a real prime (read Chucks page, section "A Little Theory" for more information).
The golden ratio isn't really necessary. Instead of using the 'correct' shift value:
(hash * 0x9E3779B1) >> (32 - HASH_BITS)
he uses a general:
(hash * 0x9E3779B1) >> SHIFT
where SHIFT can be (32 - HASH_BITS) but may be varied.
- --
Why using (32 - HASH_BITS) is 'correct' (in theory):
The golden ratio method uses no integer multiplier but an irrational one (m), with m = (sqrt(5) - 1) / 2 = 0.618033988
Calculation of the hash index goes
h: hash table size i: index into the hash table x: position in the hash buffer x = [0;1) i: index into the hash table k: hash key
x = frac(m * k) i = int(x * h)
Doing that in integer an integer representation of m is needed. However there obviously is no integer representation for an irrational number, so it has to be rounded.
X: integer representation of x M: integer representation of m
For 32 bit systems:
M = m * 2^32 = 2654435770
Getting X is easy since 'fract' is automatically done by overflowing the range of an integer:
X = M * k
To get i:
i = int( x * h ) = int( X * h / 2^32 )
using h = 2^HASH_BITS:
i = int( X * 2^HASH_BITS / 2^32 ) = int( X / 2^(32 - HASH_BITS) ) = X >> (32 - HASH_BITS)
So we get:
i = (M * k) >> (32 - HASH_BITS)
- --
At this point it should be clear, why M doesn't need to be a prime. It represents a number between 0 and 1 which obviously never is a prime at all.
However, according to Chuck's benchmarks SHIFT = (32 - HASH_BITS) does not necessarily give the best results. It's often better to to use a SHIFT smaller than (32 - HASH_BITS).
I really don't understand why. For example the hashfn for SHIFT=11 (best SHIFT for the buffer cache) could be written as ('normalized'):
i = (hash * 0x1BBCD880 ) >> (32 - HASH_BITS)
This is not even near the golden ratio nor in one of Knuth's recommended intervals...
Peter -- _ x ___ / \_/_\_ /,--' p.steiner@t-online.de (Peter Steiner) \/>'~~~~// \_____/ signature V0.2 alpha - To unsubscribe from this list: send the line "unsubscribe linux-kernel" in the body of a message to majordomo@vger.rutgers.edu Please read the FAQ at http://www.tux.org/lkml/
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