[lkml]   [1997]   [May]   [2]   [last100]   RSS Feed
Views: [wrap][no wrap]   [headers]  [forward] 
Messages in this thread
    Subject[FAQ] Kernel Mailing List FAQ and Policy V1.16
    Kernel Mailing List FAQ and Policy V1.16 

    This FAQ is posted to the linux kernel mailing list monthly, it is
    available on the world wide web on <URL:>,
    and it will be sent to new subscribers to the linux kernel mailing list

    Please comment on the kernel mailing list FAQ; your input will make
    this document reflect the wishes of the list members exactly. Lots of
    thanks to the people that already did, your comments were invaluable
    for creation of this document.

    Please send all communications regarding this document (such as
    suggenstions, corrections etc.) to; I'll try to include
    all suggestions and corrections in the next version of the FAQ.

    Frohwalt Egerer
    ICONSULT Tandogan Egerer GbR

    ---------- cut here ----------

    $Revision: 1.16 $ (See Appendix C for a change log.)

    = CONTENTS =
    = 0. = Introduction
    = 1. = The kernel mailing list
    = 1.1. = How do I get off of this mailing list ???
    = 1.2. = Topic
    = 1.3. = Off-topic
    = 1.4. = Etiquette
    = 1.5. = Bug Reports
    = 1.6. = Kernel patches
    = 1.7. = Be ready to get spammed
    = 2. = On- and off-line resources
    = 2.1. = Kernel resources
    = 2.1.1. = The Linux Kernel HOWTO - How to compile a kernel
    = 2.1.2. = Linux v2 Information HQ
    = 2.1.3. = The kernel hackers guide
    = 2.1.4 = LXR
    = 2.1.5 = Mailing lists
    = 2.1.6. = Writing device drivers
    = 2.1.7. = The Linux Wish List
    = 2.1.8. = Periodicals
    = 2.1.9. = Books
    = 2.2. = Other points of interest
    = 2.2.1. = The Linux Home Page
    = 2.2.2. = The Linux documentation project
    = 2.2.3. = The Linux Software Map
    = 2.2.4. = IRC
    = 2.2.5. = Linux news groups
    = 2.2.6. = Linux Gazette
    = 2.2.7. = Other URLs
    = 3. = The kernel
    = 3.1. = Common problems
    = 3.1.1. = What do I need to do to make to activate a kernel feature?
    = 3.1.2. = Before you dive into it
    = 3.1.3. = File system corruption
    = 3.1.4. = Signal 11
    = 3.1.5. = Seasonal Problems
    = = Warning: possible SYN flooding. Sending cookies.
    = = Kernel hangs / no output after "Now booting the kernel ..."
    = = Ignoring P6 Local APIC Spurious Interrupt Bug
    = = nfs warning: mount version older than kernel
    = = Objdump problems ... can't compile a zImage
    = = kernel nfsd: "nfssvc: Function not implemented"
    = = New kernels block in the fcntl() call
    = 3.2. = Is there a ... ?
    = 3.2.1 = ... encrypted file system?
    = 3.2.2 = ... a kernel suitable for embedding?
    = 3.2.3 = ... a kernel regression test suite?
    = 3.2.4. = ... a decent auto mounter?
    = 3.2.5. = ... ACL implementation?
    = 3.2.6. = ... better numbering scheme for SCSI devices?
    = 3.2.7. = ... a lofs?
    = 3.3. = Kernel development
    = 3.3.1. = Tips
    = = How to find your way around the kernel
    = 3.3.2. = How to get started
    = A. = Appendix A - Maintainers
    = B. = Appendix B - Linux Kernel Mailing List Bug Report Form
    = C. = Appendix C - Unresolved Issues
    = D. = Appendix D - Change Log

    = 0. = Introduction

    This is the Linux kernel mailing list FAQ and usage policy. It is
    posted to the mailing list regularly. On the World Wide Web it is
    available on <URL:>. This document
    will also be sent to new subscribers to the mailing list.

    Note that this FAQ is not so much a FAQ but more a collection of
    "frequent answers".

    The first section contains information about the kernel mailing
    list. Please read it before posting to the list to make sure
    you're using everyone's time in the most efficient manner.

    = 1. = The kernel mailing list

    = 1.1. = How do I get off of this mailing list ???

    Send mail containing "unsubscribe linux-kernel" (without the quote
    marks) in the body of the message (not the subject line) to

    (echo "unsubscribe linux-kernel" | mail

    If that doesn't work you probably are subscribed using another
    email address than the one you're using now. In that case the
    first thing to do is to find out the email address you subscribed
    with. (You're on your own here, but your system administrator
    might help you by checking the mail transfer agent's log files)

    When you found out the address use:

    (echo "unsubscribe linux-kernel" "the address you subscribed with"
    | mail

    By the way, a small tip for mailing lists in general: On some
    mailing lists the "unsubscribe <list> <address>" syntax doesn't
    work. In that case use Netscape Navigator to send a mail with
    faked sender address: Enter your "address you subscribed with" in
    Netscape's "Options/Mail and News preferences/Your Email" field,
    fill in your current address in the "Reply-to Address" and send
    the unsubscribe mail from Netscape. Normally the mailing list
    software will believe the faked "From:" field in the mail.

    = 1.2. = Topic

    This list discusses Linux kernel development. All submissions
    relevant to that, such as bug reports, enhancement ideas, kernel
    patches or reports that a patch fixed a bug are appropriate.
    Please note the emphasis on kernel development as opposed to
    development of Linux systems in general.

    = 1.3. = Off-topic

    Please do not ask basic installation or non-kernel related
    configuration questions on this list. If you are unclear of the
    distinction between the Linux kernel and other parts of a Linux
    system, please do not post here until you have learned somewhere
    else; just have a look at the Linux resources in Section 2 of
    this document. In particular, if you don't know the difference
    between XFree86 and the Linux kernel, please do not ask about it
    here. (If you don't know what I'm talking about, this means you.)

    = 1.4. = Etiquette

    As Linux grows in popularity, it is inevitable that subscriptions
    to the list will greatly increase. The list is already quite
    large and beginning to suffer from the classic Usenet signal to
    noise ratio problem. Reading the list daily gives a sense of
    involvement and excitement at being so close to the cutting edge of
    a compelling and rapidly evolving technology. It is important to
    note that your post will go out to many, many people and that
    "send" key is so very close... A good idea to consider: "My
    opinions really don't matter, but my _code_ most certainly does!"
    Please help us to prove that this list can scale well to such a
    large audience.

    - Questions

    Before posting a question to this list, think twice about
    whether it is indeed kernel-related. Perhaps another newsgroup
    or mailing list is better suited for the question. See Section
    2 for a list of on-line resources.

    In any event have a quick look at the Documentation/Changes
    file, and ensure that your software is up-to-date. Sometimes
    things change within the kernel which stop user-level code from
    working. You'll feel a little silly if the answer to the
    problem is in the documentation that comes with the kernel, but
    you just didn't read it.

    A good strategy is to wait a day after writing something before
    posting. The very same information may hit the list during that
    time, especially if the problem you are experiencing is one
    which many people will find (e.g., "ps and top have stopped
    working!"). Probably someone else will ask about it too;
    there's nothing more annoying than seeing the same question on
    the list over and over again.

    - Answers

    Before posting an answer to this list, also think twice! When
    off-topic mail arrives (e.g., "I can't build the kernel", "how
    do I convert ASCII to EBCDIC" or "Make money fast"), it is best
    to answer directly (i.e., off this list). Despite our best
    efforts, these questions will always appear; there is no easy
    way to avoid this without moving away from creative anarchy.
    Dumb questions are at least a positive sign of usage and growth.
    We all hate spam, but flaming to the list just makes it worse.

    Before you post an answer to a legitimate question, think twice
    again. If possible try to give an answer that might help more
    people than the original poster. For example posting generic
    strategies helps a lot of people (especially newbies). Some
    great examples of such posts by Cameron McKinnon (how to get
    started) and Doug Ledford (on extfs problems) have ended up in
    this document.

    I know all those 'think twice' are more easily said than done, but
    remember _everyone_ that even tries to think will make the kernel
    mailing list a more enjoyable place for all.

    "Most people think about twice a year. I got famous by thinking
    once a week." - George B. Shaw (see Appendix A)

    = 1.5. = Bug Reports

    There are a few things to consider before reporting kernel error

    - Try to have a clue

    A good rule of thumb that applies to everything in life - even
    to linux kernel development. Think of things that might be of
    interest to the developers, things that are redundant. Find out
    how other people's report bugs look and what the reaction in the
    list is.

    - The developers don't have access to your system.

    This means they don't have much information on how your kernel
    was built, which addresses certain routines were compiled to or
    which hardware you run. To get a rough idea what information
    might be relevant to the developers read the following
    paragraphs, then have a look at the bug report form and data
    collection shell script in Appendix B.

    The most complicated thing to do is to add symbolic information
    to your kernel error message. Once (back in the good old days)
    this was quite an ordeal, but with modern klogd/syslogd install
    this gets quite easy. Make sure your kernel's is
    installed in the right place (/boot/, / or
    /usr/src/linux/ and from now on klogd will
    automatically add symbolic information to the kernel messages it
    logs. See 'man klogd' to check whether the version of klogd you
    run does already support that feature.

    For similar functionality look at the ksymoops program in the
    kernel source tree, which can be used when klogd/syslogd logged
    a 'raw' kernel Oops.. message to your disk (or if you copied it
    down by hand, because the system froze before being able to
    write to the hard disk.)

    When symbolic information is added to the report you'll have to
    provide everything else relevant to the problem. A general rule
    of thumb is: Too much information won't hurt, not enough will.
    Be sure to include at least some general description of your
    hardware like processor, RAM, how many and what kind of disks,
    disk controllers (IDE? SCSI?) and expansion board. In
    particular, make sure you mention which kernel you are trying to
    use. Use the bug report form and data collection shell script
    from Appendix B.

    If you feel you should include your .config file, please send
    the output of "grep '^[^#]' .config" instead of the whole thing,
    as this saves a lot of wasted space.

    - The developers are busy developing

    Often the developers are so busy developing, they will read your
    mail but not have the time to answer it. While you might say
    'it does not take much time to answer an email' you might
    overlook the fact that developers often get flooded with email,
    so much that they get nightmares about it. Answering an email
    does in fact not take much time, answering 100 emails does.

    - Trying to help the developers makes the bug vanish faster ...

    If you like to be of great help to the developers you might find
    out if other people have the same problem. Finding the general
    patterns of a bug is a job that does not take months, and it is
    a job that you can perform if you have never seen a single line
    of C source.

    Try to find some conditions that reliably trigger the problem,
    this includes asking other people if they have similar problems.
    If yes, which hard- and software do they use? For example you
    might find out your ext2fs file system errors are limited to
    users of the brand xyz SCSI controller Mark 42. _Such_ a result
    will alert the developer of the xyz SCSI driver, while a message
    like 'My ext2fs got bad! Linux sucks!' probably won't.

    - Try to reach the appropriate people.

    Sometimes it is better to communicate to the developers directly
    by email instead of posting to the mailing list. See the
    MAINTAINERS file in the Linux source tree to find out the
    maintainer for a specific Linux subsystem. In addition, there
    are a number of mailing lists for specific parts of the kernel
    (e.g. scsi, net, etc.); you might want to join those lists as
    well, since that is where the experts hang out.

    - Use the Linux kernel mailing list bug report form from Appendix
    B of this document. This form will ask the right questions.

    = 1.6. = Kernel patches

    A little bit of consideration first: If possible create patches
    that change _one_ thing in the kernel. Doing so enables people to
    choose which part of your changes they use (or even include in the
    distribution kernel.) While your SCSI driver fixes might be
    perfectly sane, people might not like your change to the network
    layers changing network addresses from being big-endian to

    Always use unified (-u) diff format when submitting kernel
    patches. The unified diff format is very readable and allows
    'reverse' application for undoing a patch (which is extremely
    useful when the patch provider 'diffed' the sources the wrong way
    round). Oh, and don't uuencode patches, but keep them in textual
    format that is readable right there in the messages. If the patch
    is real big then post the URL of the patch.

    Assuming you have two source trees of the _same_ version of Linux,
    an original one {original-source-tree} and one with your personal
    changes {your-source-tree}, the recommended procedure for creating
    patch files is:

    $ make -C {original-source-tree} distclean
    $ make -C {your-source-tree} distclean
    $ diff -urN {original-source-tree} {your-source-tree} >/tmp/linux-patch

    The patch file will then be in /tmp/linux-patch waiting to be
    deployed on the Linux kernel mailing list. When posting your
    patch, don't forget to mention what it does.

    Of course you need to set up two identical source directories to
    be able to diff the tree later. A nice trick -- it requires a
    little bit of consideration, though -- is to create the
    'your-source-tree' from hard links to the 'original-source-tree':

    $ tar xzvf linux-2.1.anything.tar.gz
    $ mv linux linux-2.1.anything.orig
    $ cp -av --link linux-2.1.anything.orig linux-2.1.anything

    This will hardlink every source file from the original tree to a
    new location; it is very fast, since it does not need to create
    more than 20 megabytes of files.

    You can now apply patches to the linux-2.1.anything source tree,
    since patch does not change the original files but move them to
    <filename>.orig, so the contents of the hard-linked file will not
    be changed.

    Assuming that your editor does the same thing, too (moving
    original files to backup files before writing out changed ones)
    you can freely edit within the hardlinked tree.

    Now the changed tree can be diffed at high speed, since most files
    don't just have identical contents, they are identical files in
    both trees. Naturally removing that tree is quite fast, too.

    Thanks to Janos Farkas <> for
    that trick.

    = 1.7. = Be ready to get spammed

    Some "nice guys" are obviously monitoring the kernel mailing list
    to get email addresses. Every time I post to the mailing list I
    get a bunch of "Earn $800 a week extra income" mails. Be ready to
    ignore or handle this (maybe using procmail).

    = 2. = On- and off-line resources

    If you think something should be listed here, please send an e-mail
    to the current list maintainer (<>).
    Resources will be listed in "URL embedded in text file" syntax to
    ease transition to these resources.

    = 2.1. = Kernel resources

    = 2.1.1. = The Linux Kernel HOWTO - How to compile a kernel

    You definitely ought to look at this unless you can cite every
    line of the kernel Makefile from memory.

    This document describes how to obtain, unpack, compile and install
    a new kernel and shows some of the pitfalls that lurk on the road
    of upgrading.


    If you are looking for all the other HOWTOS and mini-HOWTOS just
    check out LDP itself:


    = 2.1.2. = Linux v2 Information HQ


    A very useful site that lists Linux V2 information including, but
    not limited to, "what's new", "how to upgrade", source code,
    official and unofficial kernel patches for V2.0 and V2.1 and
    archives of the Linux mailing lists. Two thumbs up.

    Please note that this was known as <URL:> for
    some time, and while the latter URL will continue to be valid for
    a while, it will eventually go away; it might be wise to update
    bookmarks to reflect the new location.

    = 2.1.3. = The kernel hackers guide


    Once upon a time it was a paper document but due to the 'moving
    target' nature of a constantly developed kernel it is now
    completely web-based, using a hyper-news system so users can
    add input.

    = 2.1.4 = LXR


    LXR is the application of a cross reference tool currently being
    developed to the Linux kernel source. The main features are:

    - Comprehensive cross-indexing
    - Freetext search (using glimpse)
    - Support for multiple versions/architectures
    - On-the-fly diff-generation
    - Updated sources

    = 2.1.5 = Mailing lists

    As mentioned above, there are a number of more specialized Linux
    mailing lists. Many of these are run from To
    get a listing of those running at vger, send an e-mail to
    <>, containing the single
    word "lists". Some of the lists are mentioned in the MAINTAINERS
    file in the Linux source code.

    A lot of mailing lists are archived at the Linux v2 Information HQ

    Having a close look at the linux-admin list would be
    worth-wile. Many of the off-topic questions on linux-kernel are
    appropriate for linux-admin and the latter list seems to be pretty
    well behaved. The admin list is approaching the amount of traffic
    on the kernel list.

    = 2.1.6. = Writing device drivers


    A paper of a talk by Michael K. Johnson given at Spring DECUS'95.
    According to the author this is probably a bit dated but might be
    still worth reading.

    = 2.1.7. = The Linux Wish List


    The Linux Wish List, compiled from the contents of the kernel
    mailing list. Check this before posting enhancement requests to
    the mailing list or to get some inspiration for your kernel

    = 2.1.8. = Periodicals

    - Linux Journal


    Linux Journal has had a long-running series of articles called
    Kernel Korner which, has had quite a bit useful information in
    it. Four articles on writing runtime-loadable character device
    drivers in issues 23 - 26 have been made available on Linux
    Journal's WWW Site:


    = 2.1.9. = Books

    There aren't any book reviews in this section, just pointers to
    those. First you might want to look at Cameron McKinnon's article
    on getting started with kernel development, which also mentions
    some books.

    The next place to stop is the Linux Reading List Mini-HOWTO, which
    although being a bit dated list a lot of the books useful to
    kernel programmers:


    Cameron McKinnon's Article mentions 'The Magic Garden Explained',
    here's some more information about it:

    Author: Goodheart, Berny
    Full Title: The Magic Garden Explained, the internal of UNIX System V
    Release 4, an open system design, Berny Goodheart and James Cox
    Publisher: Prentice-Hall (New York)
    Released: 1994

    Another suggestion was sent to me:

    Also, in your draft, you requested for books titles. I only know
    of a very good one, in French :-0 (hope that someone will realize
    it's a good move to translate it):

    - Programmation Linux 2.0 - API systeme et fonctionnement
    du noyau de Remy Card, Eric Dumas et Franck Mevel
    Editions Eyrolles

    It discusses all the kernel behaviour and structures (based on
    2.0.X) with many bits of sources. It discusses the API system,

    = 2.2. = Other points of interest

    = 2.2.1. = The Linux Home Page


    A very good starting point for the new and old Linux user. It
    contains many starting points including information on the history
    and creation of Linux, FAQ's and HOWTOs, Linux Software Map,
    Manual Pages, Usenet Newsgroups, Where To Get Linux, Linux
    Documentation Map, Linux International, Linux On The World Wide
    Web, Hot Linux News, Linux Gazette, and Linux Journal.

    = 2.2.2. = The Linux documentation project

    The Linux documentation project:


    The LDP contains _loads_ of Linux documentation, including, but
    not limited to the HOWTOS, FAQs, man pages and various guides.

    = 2.2.3. = The Linux Software Map

    There are a few different web frontends for the Linux Software Map:


    If you prefer downloading the whole database and browsing it
    offline get it at:


    = 2.2.4. = IRC

    There is said to be online support on IRC, namely servers ( or Look for
    the channels #help or #natter.

    An IRC client is required to connect to the many IRC networks
    available on the Internet. A good place to find IRC clients is:


    = 2.2.5. = Linux news groups

    Benefits of Linux compared to other operating systems

    Announcements important to the Linux community. (Moderated)

    FAQs, HOWTOs, READMEs, etc. about Linux. (Moderated)

    Writing Linux applications, porting to Linux

    Linux kernels, device drivers, modules

    Hardware compatibility with the Linux operating system

    Linux operating system on 680x0 Amiga, Atari, VME

    Linux-specific topics not covered by other groups

    Networking and communications under Linux

    Linux installation and system administration

    Linux X Window System servers, clients, libs and fonts

    = 2.2.6. = Linux Gazette


    The Linux Gazette is a monthly compilation of basic tips, tricks,
    suggestions, ideas, and short articles about Linux designed to
    make using Linux fun and easy. LG began as a personal project of
    John M. Fisk, and grew to include contributions freely provided by
    a growing number of authors.

    = 2.2.7. = Other URLs

    - Linux kernel

    - Linux on the web

    - Sunsite Linux archive

    - Find new files on Sunsite

    - Linux kernel change summary

    - Linux Source Navigator

    - Linux archive search

    - Linux network drivers

    - Linux SMP project

    - Linux NOW!

    - Linux applications and utilities page

    - Woven goods for linux - a collection of WWW applications and
    hypertext-based information about Linux.

    = 3. = The kernel

    = 3.1. = Common problems

    = 3.1.1. = What do I need to do to make to activate a kernel feature?

    This is a quite frequent question, but one that is quite easily
    answered: Typically such features will be listed in the Changes
    file or elsewhere in the Documentation directory. If not
    documented there, the feature probably is in early stages of
    development (or old and badly maintained) so it is not suitable
    for public consumption. In the latter case look at the source, the
    the Maintainers file or the Resources Section of this document,
    since many brand new kernel features have specialized discussion

    = 3.1.2. = Before you dive into it

    Read up on all strategies for error recovery. Your file system
    corruption might be caused by the same problem that causes another
    user's Signal 11 trouble; a kernel is a complex piece of software,
    and errors happening in the kernel or in hardware below might
    cause every thinkable and unthinkable kind of problem. Errors
    propagate in unforseeable ways. There are hardware problems which
    show up only on Linux while Win95, NT, OS/2, Doom and Quake run
    fine on the same computer. You are dealing with software handling
    hardware, this is extremely complex and right next to black magic.
    Flipping one bit of memory in the kernel creates strange results,
    just like adding a drop of tabasco sauce to a witches cauldron
    might make her conjure up a horde of croaking frogs instead of the
    (by her) desired white prince.

    = 3.1.3. = File system corruption

    "On a block device (block size 1024 bytes) with ext2fs, I don't
    reliably get back from a file what I first wrote in."

    Normally any kind of file system corruption is a sign of hardware
    problems or problems with a low level I/O driver. Ext2fs is a
    quite tested and stable file system, but due to its high
    performance it is likely to dig out problems in the lower levels
    of the system.

    When I experienced ext2fs file system corruption myself, a query
    on the linux newsgroups showed others had experienced similar
    problems. It turned out to be a firmware problem in the Conner
    CFP1060S hard drive, when data was read _really fast_ the buffer
    cache algorithm in the drive firmware failed.

    There are a lot of things to try when you get ext2fs corruption:

    - Use tune2fs to set your file system to drop into read only mode
    when an error occurs. This will prevent small errors causing
    catastrophes. The command is:

    tune2fs -e remount-ro /dev/???

    You should also use that command to set a time interval between
    file systems checks, because (especially on long running
    servers) it can take eons to reach the maximum mount count.

    - Check the partition tables

    Especially on the Intel x86 platform partition tables can easily
    be broken. Such a problem can occur when the drives were
    partitioned using another disk controller than they are used
    with. Use fdisk dump the tables and ensure partitions are set
    up correctly.

    - Tune Linux and your BIOS to slow and safe parameters. Turn off
    bus (PCI) optimizations.

    - Use an empty partition to check if the problem lurks in the
    kernel levels below the file system. Probably the most simple
    test is to copy /dev/zero to the partition (using dd) and
    comparing the partition and /dev/zero afterwards (using cmp) if
    there are any differences.

    A very thorough test has been suggested on the mailing list by
    Doug Ledford <>:

    "I'll go one step further with this. I would recommend that
    the people having problems with ext2fs corruption run the
    following test (if possible):

    Let's say you have a hard drive partition of decent size that
    you don't mind losing the data on (or even if you do mind,
    this test can turn up a lot of errors so if you have an
    inconvenient way of getting back, then you should probably do
    this anyway)

    First, get the exact size of the partition (or the whole drive
    as the case may be in some circumstances) in 1K blocks.

    Divide this total number of blocks into 4 equal chunks (most
    drives do this easily, some may have a few odd sized chunks).

    Write a script like this:

    badblocks -w -s -b 1024 -o /tmp/list.1 /dev/??? (blocks * .25) 0 &
    badblocks -w -s -b 1024 -o /tmp/list.2 /dev/??? (blocks * .5) (blocks * .25) &
    badblocks -w -s -b 1024 -o /tmp/list.3 /dev/??? (blocks * .75) (blocks * .5) &
    badblocks -w -s -b 1024 -o /tmp/list.4 /dev/??? (blocks) (blocks * .75) &

    A simple shell script like this will run four simultaneous
    badblocks programs on the drive. A person can then check the
    files in the /tmp directory to see if any were returned as
    bad. With modern IDE or SCSI drives, all of these files
    should have a zero length unless one of two things is true.
    One, you have a drive developing too many bad sectors to be
    mapped out (which is cause for alarm in itself) or two, you
    have corruption in your low level driver (or other low level
    hardware such as memory or cache or bus transfer problems).
    If these test return all 0 length files, then we should start
    looking elsewhere for the problem. Run the test several
    times, as a single pass may not show the problem. If you are
    really courageous, you can try doubling the tests by splitting
    the drive into 8 equal chunks (or if you have two drives you
    can do both drives at four chunks each at the same time).
    This is a standard test I use with the aic7xxx driver to find
    problems with tagged queueing and high commands per lun
    values. It seems to show problems much quicker than any
    file system activity would (in my case, I had as many as 24 of
    these running simultaneously on 6 drives in order to test this
    out, talk about a dog slow machine, it took about 5 minutes
    just to start X windows under this load).

    In any case, running tests like these to rule out hardware
    corruption would help greatly in increasing the level of
    confidence that somehow the ext2fs layer is at fault (which I
    personally don't think it is except under very rare occasions
    since I have a hard hit news server running that file system
    without problems, but I've taken the care and gone to the
    lengths to run these tests on the particular hardware in that
    machine and identified bad combinations that can cause
    problems and worked around them at the driver level)."

    Later on Doug followed up to another article on the ext2fs
    corruption thread:

    "Correct. And it's very useful information to have at that.
    If you can produce corruption problems without going through
    the ext2fs code, then you have hardware corruption of some
    sort. An example of some of the things in the past that I
    have personally seen cause hardware corruption which made one
    *THINK* that something was wrong with the ext2fs code when
    there wasn't:

    1. Bad CPU fans on pentium and high speed 486 machines
    2. Bad SCSI cables
    3. Memory timing settings in BIOS being just a tad too
    4. Bad memory
    5. Bad Pipeline Burst (or other) cache
    6. Too long of a SCSI or IDE cable
    7. Interference between SCSI and IDE cables running in
    close proximity to each other
    8. Flaky CPU (had been overclocked and partially burnt out)
    9. Esoteric BIOS options being enabled when they shouldn't be
    (this takes some experimentation to find and fix, a change
    BIOS settings, test to see if problem is gone, if not, reboot
    and change settings again type thing)

    These are a few examples. A second thing to keep in mind is
    that the ext2fs is a rather fast filesystem by unix standards
    (it beats the hell out of the EAFS HTFS DTFS etc filesystems
    from SCO, but who's comparing SCO to linux anyway :) so if you
    have hardware corruption problems that don't show up except
    under heavy load, ext2fs is a good filesystem to bring those
    out :)

    And of course, the very reason I posted my original email as
    part of this thread. A person needs to always keep in mind
    that if they are getting ext2fs errors about corruption, this
    does *NOT* always mean the ext2fs is at fault. It means that
    somewhere along the way, either due to code in the ext2fs, or
    code in the block driver you are using, or code in the low
    level driver you are using, or somewhere between the CPU, RAM,
    cache, bus, controller, drive bus, drive, and magnetic media,
    something is getting corrupted. It is important in these
    cases to try and isolate software faults from hardware faults.
    The purpose of the "script" I posted was to give a convenient
    way of trying to narrow down the line between hardware and
    software. There is still software involved with that script,
    but not as much. You are down to just the badblocks program,
    the various buffer mechanisms, and the block driver itself
    (with its underlying low level driver). Generally speaking,
    the buffer cache is considered to be safe code, so you can
    rule that out. Most of the block drivers are considered to be
    the same, so they can be ruled out. This leaves the
    underlying low level driver and the badblocks program as
    suspect. The badblocks program is rather simple in design,
    and an inspection of the source will result in the conclusion
    that it too can be ruled out (not to mention how many times
    it's been used to find these problems, yet I've never once
    heard of it causing sectors that are fine to be mapped as bad
    unless the underlying driver had problems). That means that
    the script I posted is really stressing hardware and your
    underlying low level driver. All in all, that greatly reduces
    the number of variables to look at. So, a failure during the
    testing by the badblocks program gives a person somewhere to
    look. They can either fiddle with compile options for their
    low level driver, or they can start the process of trying to
    enable/disable things in the computer's BIOS to try and find a
    culprit (disable cache this run, delay memory timings that
    run, etc) which then allows a person to try and pinpoint the
    exact problem, get it fixed, and be on their way :) Further,
    as long as you fail this test, there is no sense at all in
    even looking at the ext2fs code since you won't know if you've
    fixed anything by changing it unless something you did just
    happened to slow things down enough to keep the problem from
    showing up. In this case, instead of slowing the machine down
    to be reliable and leaving fast code in place, you've slowed
    the code down so it doesn't break your faulty hardware."

    - Use debugging tools to check your system.

    Memtest-86, a thorough, stand alone memory tet for 386, 486 and
    586 systems:


    If you think a particular tool shall be listed please mail to

    = 3.1.4. = Signal 11

    If your processes frequently die because of a signal 11, there
    might be a problem with your hard- or software. There's a FAQ
    regarding signal 11 at <URL:>.

    You should read the Signal 11 FAQ even if you have a different
    problem; the procedures mentioned in the FAQ will probably help
    finding that one, too.

    = 3.1.5. = Seasonal Problems

    = = Warning: possible SYN flooding. Sending cookies.

    > I got 44 of these 2 days ago, then another 35 more.
    > " Warning: possible SYN flooding. Sending cookies."

    This need not be an attack. It _does_ mean that your backlog has
    become full. This can be a consequence of crummy network
    connections between you and legitimate remote sites. If you
    normally don't see 67 connection attempts per second then it's
    probably an attack.

    > My interpretation is that somebody has flooded the irc port to
    > kill the server, am I right? What are the chances that this is
    > not an attack, but just "one of those things?"

    It very much depends on how busy your irc port is and how bad
    network conditions are between you and the users of your irc. To
    really find out if you are being attacked you would need to start
    taking TCP dumps and look for streams of SYN packets with
    addresses that are unreachable. Large numbers of packets from the
    same unreachable address would be a give away.

    Answered by Eric Schenk <>

    = = Kernel hangs / no output after "Now booting the kernel ..."

    > The kernel is loaded, uncompressed and it hangs after the
    message "Now booting the kernel...".

    Are you sure you have VTs enabled? They became optional in
    2.1.31, and default to being disabled.

    = = Ignoring P6 Local APIC Spurious Interrupt Bug

    > Is there a problem with the P6? Or with the board? If it's a
    > problem with the P6, do all P6's have this problem? Does this
    > bug affect the system in any way?

    It's a problem with the Local APIC on most steppings of the
    Pentium Pro CPU. Specifically, a spurious interrupt is delivered
    as an exception 15 (a reserved code) rather than as interrupt 15.
    The bug is benign, so long as the kernel ignores the exception 15.

    > Is it a problem to comment out the line in the kernel that shows
    > this message? It's messing up the display.

    You can safely comment it out.

    Answered by Leonard N. Zubkoff <>

    = = nfs warning: mount version older than kernel

    > I'm using 2.1.32 [...]
    > Apr 10 11:32:17 terror kernel: nfs warning: mount version older
    > than kernel

    Jakub Jelinek, <> answered:

    If you use <URL:
    okir/linux-nfs-0.4.21.tar.gz> (or at least the enclosed mount),
    you'll be fine...

    = = Objdump problems ... can't compile a zImage

    > I've got Intel binutils, and
    > and 2.1.32. Objdump no longer seems to have the -k -q and -o
    > flags. This means I can't compile a zImage. What am I missing ?

    Duncan Hill <> answered:

    Move encaps to a different name, or even remove it and try again.

    = = kernel nfsd: "nfssvc: Function not implemented"

    > I would love to start pounding on the new kernel-level nfsd,
    > however under 2.1.33 the user-space nfsd program fails the
    > nfssvc ctl call. It looks like everything is getting built, but
    > my knowledge of the kernel syscall mechanism is somewhat
    > limited. I am not building nfsd as a module, BTW.
    > The message is simply:
    > nfssvc: Function not implemented

    Andi Kleen <> answered:

    I used knfsd as a module and it seems to work even without any
    change in entry.S :)

    Steven N. Hirsch <> answered:

    The following patch enables the new nfsservctl system call in

    *** linux/arch/i386/entry.S.orig Sat Apr 5 21:40:16 1997
    --- linux/arch/i386/entry.S Fri Apr 11 22:58:01 1997
    *** 524,529 ****
    .long SYMBOL_NAME(sys_vm86)
    .long SYMBOL_NAME(sys_query_module)
    .long SYMBOL_NAME(sys_poll)
    ! .rept NR_syscalls-168
    .long SYMBOL_NAME(sys_ni_syscall)
    --- 524,530 ----
    .long SYMBOL_NAME(sys_vm86)
    .long SYMBOL_NAME(sys_query_module)
    .long SYMBOL_NAME(sys_poll)
    ! .long SYMBOL_NAME(sys_nfsservctl)
    ! .rept NR_syscalls-169
    .long SYMBOL_NAME(sys_ni_syscall)

    = = New kernels block in the fcntl() call

    > But the new kernels block in the fcntl() call because the server
    > doesn't implement network locking. Upgrading our NFS server is no
    > possibility (I'll be murdered if the thing crashes because it's a
    > production machine). Is there any possibility to restore the old
    > NFS client behaviour, even it's a crude hack, for the time
    > being?

    My patched mount command provides the nolock option for exactly this kind
    of problem. (*).

    Answered by Olaf Kirch <>

    = 3.2. = Is there a ... ?

    = 3.2.1 = ... encrypted file system?

    > I have recently found a need for an encrypted fs, I have however
    > had trouble finding any ones that meet my needs. Is anyone
    > currently working on any encrypted file systems, and if not
    > would anyone be interested on working on one with me?

    Since you didn't mention any by name, I don't know if you have
    seen any of the following:

    check out cfs (crypted filesystem) which does things nfs-like, and
    for the loop device within linux:

    Answered by

    = 3.2.2 = ... a kernel suitable for embedding?

    > I've got a 68HC360 based device that is being developed and we
    > are looking into O/S options. Has anyone done work towards
    > slimming the kernel for embedding in small memory footprint
    > devices?

    These Web sites are HOT! Er, may be relevant, I mean.

    Memory Savers

    ELKS - The Embeddable Linux Kernel subset

    The Linux/m68k Home Pages

    Answered by Trevor Johnson <>

    = 3.2.3 = ... a kernel regression test suite?

    No, not yet, but people seem to be very interested in that. Anyone
    who starts such a project might have a look at the following

    Posix conformance test suite, for detecting strange behaviour

    Other program suggested for a kernel test suite are stress tools,
    such as lmbench, crashme, bonnie, fork bombs, NFS stress tools and
    tty stress tools. (ttystress might need a null modem adapter)

    = 3.2.4. = ... a decent auto mounter?

    You can still use amd if you want, but if you want to use autofs,
    get the tools from;
    there is a mailing list too that you probably want to subscribe

    Please note that autofs is currently not very featureful; although
    we do use what there is so far in a production environment here at

    = 3.2.5. = ... ACL implementation?

    Well, as the "maintainer" of the Linux ACL project, I suppose it's
    my job to announce to everyone that I've hacked (remember that
    word) together a quick design spec. I've also put up a small set
    of the code for everyone to take a look at. I said, the
    spec is a real hack job (done for a class where paperwork is
    everything...), and I'd appreciate any feedback I can get on it.
    The code too is a combination of Artem Belevich's (the old
    maintainer) work and my own. I haven't had time to really get it
    all pretty yet, so if anyone wants to contribute some effort it
    would be welcome. All this said...

    design spec:
    basic code:{c,h}

    I'll be posting a diff to the latest kernel version as soon as I
    get a chance to update my working set (should be around 2.1.94 or
    so ;-) Any feedback/thoughts are more than welcome.

    -- And in a later article: --

    Well, as I've been promising, I finally got around to setting up a
    list for the ACL project. As far as I know, no one else has
    already set one up. Anyway, the address is, amazingly enough,
    <>. It's a majordomo list, so subscription
    etc. is just like with vger (I hope...).

    Announce by Peter Rival <>

    = 3.2.6. = ... better numbering scheme for SCSI devices?

    > If we do that, we _definitely_ have to adopt something like the
    > Solaris /dev/dsk/c0t0d0s3 scheme. It gets really tiring trying
    > to out- > guess what the kernel is going to name a new disk when
    > it's put online.

    Eric Youngdale wrote a nice utility which does exactly this! Try
    scsidev. I couldn't live without it. Not sure why it never
    caught on with any of the distributions..

    Answered by Steven N. Hirsch <>

    (By the way, Eric Youngdale himself considers scsidev a hack, not
    as a long term solution. On the other hand, scsidev is said to
    work nicely around some current real life problems. -- froh)

    = 3.2.7. = ... a lofs?

    > Now is a very good time to tell me if someone else has already got a
    > working lofs :-)

    I wrote one quite some time ago, and finally made patches against
    2.0.30 last week. They're at
    <URL:> It's not
    perfect, but it works. (I do have a fancier 2.1.x version, but
    it'll be a while before i get anymore work done on it.)

    Answered by Benjamin C R LaHaise <>

    = 3.3. = Kernel development

    = 3.3.1. = Tips

    = = How to find your way around the kernel

    > Kernel code includes many include files. Those include files
    > often include other include files and so on. If I am looking at
    > a variable name in a *.c file which is in another file, how do I
    > easily find it?

    Have a look at the 'etags' or 'ctags' programs. Those programs
    scan C, C++, Assembler, Tex and many other source formats and
    generate 'tags tables' that tell the emacs or vi editors where
    symbols are defined. The programs should be bundled with most
    Linux distributions.

    Also have a look at your nearest sunsite mirror in the
    /devel/lang/c directory, there are a lot of other C cross
    referencing tools in there.

    = 3.3.2. = How to get started

    Cameron MacKinnon <> wrote a wonderful
    article on that topic:

    "... I'm not a pro, but I generally know what's going on for
    least part of the time. Here's what I did:

    I bought books. Here's reviews: LINUX Kernel Internals, Beck et
    al, Addison Wesley, 0-201-87741-4. I read about a third of
    it. It's dated (1.2 kernels) and doesn't have anything about
    SCSI in it, but it's the only Linux kernel book out
    there. There's a new version out for 2.0 kernels, but only in
    the original German. 'The Design and Implementation of the 4.4
    BSD Operating System', McKusick et al, Addison Wesley,
    0-201-54979-4. A much more readable book, IMHO. It talks about
    the BSD design in general, why things changed over time, why and
    how specific performance tradeoffs were made, etcetera. Also,
    'The Magic Garden Explained' or something like that, borrowed,
    pub. and ISBN unknown. <See Section 2.1.8 -- froh> This book is
    a very thorough coverage of the design of System 5 Release 4
    (SVR4), but not as easy to read as the BSD book. Bottom line:
    Beg, borrow, check out or steal one book, any book, on the
    design of the UNIX operating system. Sit in a library or a
    bookstore reading it, if you haven't got the money. You need to
    understand how schedulers, pagers, swappers, top and bottom
    halves, wait queues, inodes, ttys, the boot process, init and
    some other stuff work. Most of this stuff will be applicable to
    Linux at the concept level, regardless of the book (ignore
    anything on SysV STREAMS). Unless you're extremely gifted, the
    concepts won't reveal themselves to you from kernel source
    code. LEARN THE CONCEPTS. The Linux community is not a good
    place to do this - this list assumes that if you're here, you
    already know them. If you're one of those truly unlucky people
    with no access to such a book, try to find this info on the
    net. I've never really looked. If all else fails, proceed to
    step two:

    I read Michael Johnson's Kernel Hackers' Guide. It wasn't
    perfect when I read it, but that was a while ago. 1) It's
    probably perfect by now. 2) It's free. You can get it anywhere,
    including here: <URL:>
    It does a good job of mapping the concepts you just learned to
    actual kernel function calls and processes in Linux. Also, many
    kernel functions have man pages, though they're horribly out of

    I subscribed to mailing lists. Initially I was all over: gcc,
    kernel, a few scsi lists, security... Now I've got it down to a
    core of kernel, two SCSI driver lists, DIALD, security and
    SMP. Don't be afraid to subscribe to a lot of lists (read-only!)
    for a few weeks to see what interests you. You can always
    unsubscribe later. Some people prefer reading the lists via
    news, but I'd recommend mail: You SAVE the mail on your hard
    disk. It becomes your personal reference library (N.B. UNIX has
    some really great text search and processing tools). You read
    all the mail. This gives you a feel for what's being worked on
    and what's not, who knows what they're talking about and who
    doesn't, and what snags are troubling other users. This is
    important so you can ask senior developers PRIVATELY when you
    have questions relating to The Code - unless you genuinely
    believe that a lot of list subscribers also want the
    answer. Also, some of the news gateways appear to be brutally
    broken, randomly mixing messages from different linux lists like
    a cypherpunk remailer gone mad. I recommend going straight to
    the source: send 'help' to

    I quickly got over the idea that I could learn everything about
    the kernel. Last time I looked, it was over 600,000 lines of
    source. I can muck around with SCSI and network device drivers,
    I understand the mid level SCSI code, and I've got a reasonably
    good handle on the scheduler. That leaves high level
    networking, filesystems, the buffer cache and memory management,
    to name a few, ABOUT WHICH I HAVEN'T A CLUE. Pick an area you
    want to diddle with, and concentrate on that. If you don't
    believe me, grab a dictionary and look up 'hubris'.

    I read most (some?) of the important stuff in Documentation/
    (you should read it all) and then: I dove into the code,
    wholeheartedly, for nights (days?) at a time. Pick
    drivers. Concentrate on the simple ones - you want concepts, not
    nasty workarounds for buggy hardware. Try 'wc *.c|sort' in your
    favorite directory. Pick ones that look well formatted and well
    commented, and see how they're written and how they interact
    with the higher level stuff. Go into each subdirectory in the
    whole linux/ tree, and learn what lives there. You should be
    able to identify what's what from the stuff you read in those
    books. Note especially mm/ and kernel/, along with their
    counterparts under arch/. Here lie most of the important
    functions for juggling memory, interrupts, processes
    etcetera. Learn to use grep, find and xargs effectively. If you
    have a strong constitution, look in the scripts/ directory and
    the Makefiles everywhere to see how the kernel actually gets
    built. If you're a bit twiddler at heart, look at the low level
    stuff for your favorite architecture under arch/.

    If you've still got the lust for knowledge at this point, you
    will probably have found 'that special something' that interests
    you in the kernel. You will know generally how things work from
    the source, and you will know the right people to ask from the
    source and the mailing lists. If you have a question, go ahead
    and ask it. I've found developers to be very helpful when asked
    questions by someone who's obviously studied the sources. Play
    around. Recompile. Benchmark. Test.

    One thing that's probably overlooked by a lot of Linux people:
    BSD, 'the other free UNIX'. I can't even tell you the difference
    between FreeBSD and NetBSD, but for my purposes, I don't
    care. They're available free on the net or a CD, just like Linux
    <URL:> and <URL:>.
    If you're stumped by something in Linux, seeing how BSD does it
    is often helpful, especially for device drivers. Also (ahem) BSD
    code sometimes seems to be commented and formatted somewhat
    better. I don't run it, I just look at the source.

    At this stage your hats will no longer fit, and your dog will
    have run off with your girlfriend. No matter, because you'll be
    able to ask, and sometimes answer, intelligent questions about
    kernel design, in your particular specialty areas. You'll be
    fixing insidious bugs, improving performance, and posting things
    like 'this patch is from memory and untested, but it will solve
    your problem on 2.1.87: [proper patch syntax]'

    I'm not at this stage yet, and I've been working at it for a
    while. That's why I usually post answers to questions like
    'where do I begin' rather than 'why did it hang'. The above is
    working for me, it might work for you. May the Source be With
    You, Always."

    = A. = Appendix A - Maintainers

    This policy and FAQ is currently maintained by Frohwalt Egerer
    <>. For communication concerning this
    document please use <>, that mail
    alias will always point to the current maintainer.

    The policy is created from input on the linux kernel mailing list.
    If desired by members of the list a vote will be held to ratify
    the policy.

    Thanks to David A Rusling <>
    for providing the foundation to section one. Thanks to Colin
    Plumb <> who refined my proposal for
    section one using his fine taste of language.

    Thanks to Cameron MacKinnon <> for
    his really great article on getting started with kernel
    development which I adopted into this document.

    Thanks to Doug Ledford <> for his
    excellent description on how to hunt down filesystem corruption

    Thanks to Eric Hoeltzel <>
    for the enormous amount of suggestions.

    Thanks to Evgeny Rodichev <> for providing
    the ver_linux shell script.

    And thanks to W. Reilly Cooley, Kevin Fenzi, Gabriel Paubert, Marc
    Merlin, Tethys, Antoine Reid, Sebastian Benoit, Regis Duchesne,
    Riccardo Facchetti, J. Sean Connel, Seth M. Landsman, Martin
    Radford, James Mastros, Nicholas J. Leon, E.Rodichev, Antoine
    Reid, Ben Clifford, Melissa Johnson, Dave Wreski, Greg Patterson,
    Keith Rohrer, Roch-Alexandre Nomine-Beguin, Raymo, Elliot Lee,
    Greg Alexander, Billy Harvey, Harald Milz, John Carter, Janos
    Farkas, Tony Gale, Garst R. Reese, Peter P. Eiserloh, Axel Boldt,
    Jakub Jelinek, Duncan Hill, Andi Kleen, Steven N. Hirsch, Lars
    Wirzenius, Donald R. Harter, Tuomas Heino, Miguel de Icaza,, Trevor Johnson, Peter Eiserloh, Torbjorn Lindgren,
    Mike Wangsmo, Antony Stuckey, Herve Regad-Pellagru, David
    S. Miller, Peter Rival, Steven N. Hirsch, Benjamin C R LaHaise and
    all that I forgot to mention for their input, suggestions and
    articles on the mailing list. This FAQ would not exist without
    their help.

    The quote of George B. Shaw in section 1.4 might not be
    accurate. I heard it on German TV, remembered it for a few weeks
    and translated it back to English for this FAQ.

    = B. = Appendix B - Linux Kernel Mailing List Bug Report Form

    Please use the following form to report bugs to the Linux kernel
    mailing list. Having a standardized bug report form makes it
    easier for you not to overlook things, and easier for the
    developers to find just the little tad of information they're
    really interested in.

    First run the ver_linux script included at the end of this
    Appendix or at <URL:>
    It checks out the version of some important subsystems.

    Use that information to fill in all fields of the bug report form,
    and post it to the mailing list with a subject of "ISSUE: <one
    line summary from [1.]>" for easy identification by the developers

    [1.] One line summary of the problem:
    [2.] Full description of the problem/report:
    [3.] Keywords (i.e., modules, networking, kernel):
    [4.] Kernel version (from /proc/version):
    [5.] Output of Oops.. message with symbolic information resolved
    (see Kernel Mailing List FAQ, Section 1.5):
    [6.] A small shell script or example program which triggers the
    problem (if possible)
    [7.] Environment
    [7.1.] Software (add the output of the ver_linux script here)
    [7.2.] Processor information (from /proc/cpuinfo):
    [7.3.] Module information (from /proc/modules):
    [7.4.] SCSI information (from /proc/scsi/scsi):
    [7.5.] Other information that might be relevant to the problem
    (please look in /proc and include all information that you
    think to be relevant):
    [X.] Other notes, patches, fixes, workarounds:

    ver_linux (by Evgeny Rodichev <>

    # Before running this script please ensure that your PATH is
    # typical as you use for compilation/istallation. I use
    # /bin /sbin /usr/bin /usr/sbin /usr/local/bin, but it may
    # differs on your system.
    echo '-- Versions installed: (if some fields are empty or looks'
    echo '-- unusual then possibly you have very old versions)'
    uname -a
    insmod -V 1>/tmp/ver_linux.tmp 2>>/tmp/ver_linux.tmp
    awk 'NR==1{print "Kernel modules ",$NF}' /tmp/ver_linux.tmp
    rm -f /tmp/ver_linux.tmp
    echo "Gnu C " `gcc --version`
    ld -v 2>&1 | awk -F\) '{print $1}' | awk \
    '/BFD/{print "Binutils ",$NF}'
    ls -l `ldd /bin/sh | awk '/libc/{print $3}'` | awk -F. \
    '{print "Linux C Library " $(NF-2)"."$(NF-1)"."$NF}'
    ldd -v | awk '{print "Dynamic Linker (", $3}'
    ls -l /usr/lib/ | awk -F. \
    '{print "Linux C++ Library " $4"."$5"."$6}'
    ps --version 2>&1 | awk 'NR==1{print "Procps ", $NF}'
    mount --version | awk -F\- '{print "Mount ", $NF}'
    netstat --version | awk \
    'NR==1{if ($5 != "") { n=split($5,buf,"-"); ver=buf[n]; done=1 }}
    NR==2{if (done != 1) ver=$3 }
    END{print "Net-tools ",ver}'
    loadkeys -h 2>&1 | awk 'NR==1{print "Kbd ",$3}'
    expr --v | awk '{print "Sh-utils ", $NF}'

    = C. = Appendix C - Unresolved Issues

    > "I have recently found a need for an encrypted fs, I have
    > however had trouble finding any ones that meet my needs."

    => Which encrypted fs implementations are out there, kernel
    and user space versions?

    Mention RFC 1925 section 11 in the policy.

    = D. = Appendix D - Change Log

    $Log: draft,v $
    Revision 1.16 1997/05/02 22:07:04 cvs
    Added a lot of stuff accumulted in my mail box.

    Revision 1.15 1997/04/12 22:19:43 cvs
    Minor changes. Removed a resource on request.

    Revision 1.14 1997/04/12 16:52:30 cvs
    Added general 'kernel development' subsection, moved the getting
    started below it and added a tips section together with some blurb on
    cross referencing C.

    Revision 1.13 1997/04/12 16:15:29 cvs
    Added subsection on kernel nfsd compile problems

    Revision 1.12 1997/04/11 14:18:13 cvs
    Added "seasonal problems" sections for "NFS warning" and "Objdump

    Revision 1.11 1997/04/10 10:24:01 cvs
    Consistent layout (use 2 spaces between sentences)
    Added more information on unsubscribing
    Added examples how to do kernel diffs
    Added SYN Flooding information
    Added P6 Local APIC Information
    Imported ver_linux update by Evgeny Rodichev

    Revision 1.10 1997/04/10 07:29:19 cvs
    Contents updated automatically

    Revision 1.9 1997/04/07 05:44:23 cvs
    Added a revision header to the top of the draft. Otherwise 1.9 is
    equivalent to 1.8

    Revision 1.8 1997/04/07 05:40:09 cvs
    Imported yet another set of suggestions by Eric.
    Imported the ver_linux data collection script of Evgeny Rodichev.

    Revision 1.7 1997/04/07 04:32:48 cvs
    FAQ is available on from now on.

    Revision 1.6 1997/04/06 22:05:07 cvs
    Imported lots of e-mailed spelling changes for the parts added in 1.5
    Elaborated a bit more on some sections
    First draft of the Bug Report Form
    Included, updated and corrected a number of resources
    Started to use '=' markers so grep will build the table of contents for me

    Revision 1.5 1997/04/06 02:43:07 cvs
    Fixed typo in Newsgroups: line. Feeling sheepish.

    Revision 1.4 1997/04/06 02:41:29 cvs
    Imported spelling and stylistic corrections
    Elaborated on bug reports (section 1.5.)
    Included section 1.6. "Kernel patches"
    Added some new resources to section 2
    Added section 3, and 3.1 (common problems) and move the 'getting
    started' text to 3.2.
    Added a change log (maintained by cvs)

    Revision 1.1-1.3 "long ago"
    Early drafts, 1.3 was not released to the public.

    ;;; Local Variables:
    ;;; mode:indented-text
    ;;; compile-command: ""
    ;;; mode:auto-fill
    ;;; End:

     \ /
      Last update: 2005-03-22 13:39    [W:0.117 / U:55.340 seconds]
    ©2003-2017 Jasper Spaans. hosted at Digital OceanAdvertise on this site