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SubjectRe: [PATCH v2 1/1] mm: initialize pages on demand during boot
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Hi Andrew,

Thank you for your comments. My replies below:

>> +
>> +/*
>> + * Protects some early interrupt threads, and also for a short period of time
>> + * from smp_init() to page_alloc_init_late() when deferred pages are
>> + * initialized.
>> + */
>> +static __initdata DEFINE_SPINLOCK(deferred_zone_grow_lock);
>
> Comment is a little confusing. Locks don't protect "threads" - they
> protect data. Can we be specific about which data is being protected?

I will update the comment, explaining that this lock protects
first_deferred_pfn in all zones. The lock is discarded after boot, hence
it is in __initdata.

>
> Why is a new lock needed here? Those data structures already have
> designated locks, don't they?

No, there is no lock for this particular purpose. Before this commit,
first_deferred_pfn was only updated early in boot before the boot thread
can be preempted. And, only once after all pages are initialized to mark
that there are no deferred pages anymore. With this commit, the number
of deferred pages can change later in boot, this is why we need this new
lock, but for a relatively short period of boot time.

>
> If the lock protects "early interrupt threads" then it's surprising to
> see it taken with spin_lock() and not spin_lock_irqsave()?

Yes, I will update the code to use spin_lock_irqsave(), thank you.

>
>> +DEFINE_STATIC_KEY_TRUE(deferred_pages);
>> +
>> +/*
>> + * If this zone has deferred pages, try to grow it by initializing enough
>> + * deferred pages to satisfy the allocation specified by order, rounded up to
>> + * the nearest PAGES_PER_SECTION boundary. So we're adding memory in increments
>> + * of SECTION_SIZE bytes by initializing struct pages in increments of
>> + * PAGES_PER_SECTION * sizeof(struct page) bytes.
>> + */
>
> Please also document the return value.
>
>> +static noinline bool __init
>
> Why was noinline needed?

To save space after boot. We want the body of this function to be
unloaded after the boot when __init pages are unmapped, and we do not
want this function to be inlined into : _deferred_grow_zone() which is
__ref function.

>
>> +deferred_grow_zone(struct zone *zone, unsigned int order)
>> +{
>> + int zid = zone_idx(zone);
>> + int nid = zone->node;
>> + pg_data_t *pgdat = NODE_DATA(nid);
>> + unsigned long nr_pages_needed = ALIGN(1 << order, PAGES_PER_SECTION);
>> + unsigned long nr_pages = 0;
>> + unsigned long first_init_pfn, first_deferred_pfn, spfn, epfn, t;
>> + phys_addr_t spa, epa;
>> + u64 i;
>> +
>> + /* Only the last zone may have deferred pages */
>> + if (zone_end_pfn(zone) != pgdat_end_pfn(pgdat))
>> + return false;
>> +
>> + first_deferred_pfn = READ_ONCE(pgdat->first_deferred_pfn);
>
> It would be nice to have a little comment explaining why READ_ONCE was
> needed.
>
> Would it still be needed if this code was moved into the locked region?

No, we would need to use READ_ONCE() if we grabbed
deferred_zone_grow_lock before this code. In fact I do not even think we
strictly need READ_ONCE() here, as it is a single load anyway. But,
because we are outside of the lock, and we want to quickly fetch the
data with a single load, I think it makes sense to emphasize it using
READ_ONCE() without expected compiler to simply do the write thing for us.

>
>> + first_init_pfn = max(zone->zone_start_pfn, first_deferred_pfn);
>> +
>> + if (first_init_pfn >= pgdat_end_pfn(pgdat))
>> + return false;
>> +
>> + spin_lock(&deferred_zone_grow_lock);
>> + /*
>> + * Bail if we raced with another thread that disabled on demand
>> + * initialization.
>> + */
>> + if (!static_branch_unlikely(&deferred_pages)) {
>> + spin_unlock(&deferred_zone_grow_lock);
>> + return false;
>> + }
>> +
>> + for_each_free_mem_range(i, nid, MEMBLOCK_NONE, &spa, &epa, NULL) {
>> + spfn = max_t(unsigned long, first_init_pfn, PFN_UP(spa));
>> + epfn = min_t(unsigned long, zone_end_pfn(zone), PFN_DOWN(epa));
>> +
>> + while (spfn < epfn && nr_pages < nr_pages_needed) {
>> + t = ALIGN(spfn + PAGES_PER_SECTION, PAGES_PER_SECTION);
>> + first_deferred_pfn = min(t, epfn);
>> + nr_pages += deferred_init_pages(nid, zid, spfn,
>> + first_deferred_pfn);
>> + spfn = first_deferred_pfn;
>> + }
>> +
>> + if (nr_pages >= nr_pages_needed)
>> + break;
>> + }
>> +
>> + for_each_free_mem_range(i, nid, MEMBLOCK_NONE, &spa, &epa, NULL) {
>> + spfn = max_t(unsigned long, first_init_pfn, PFN_UP(spa));
>> + epfn = min_t(unsigned long, first_deferred_pfn, PFN_DOWN(epa));
>> + deferred_free_pages(nid, zid, spfn, epfn);
>> +
>> + if (first_deferred_pfn == epfn)
>> + break;
>> + }
>> + WRITE_ONCE(pgdat->first_deferred_pfn, first_deferred_pfn);
>> + spin_unlock(&deferred_zone_grow_lock);
>> +
>> + return nr_pages >= nr_pages_needed;
>> +}
>> +
>> +/*
>> + * deferred_grow_zone() is __init, but it is called from
>> + * get_page_from_freelist() during early boot until deferred_pages permanently
>> + * disables this call. This is why, we have refdata wrapper to avoid warning,
>> + * and ensure that the function body gets unloaded.
>
> s/why,/why/
> s/ensure/to ensure/

OK, thank you.

>
>> + */
>> +static bool __ref
>> +_deferred_grow_zone(struct zone *zone, unsigned int order)
>> +{
>> + return deferred_grow_zone(zone, order);
>> +}
>> +
>> #endif /* CONFIG_DEFERRED_STRUCT_PAGE_INIT */
>>
>> void __init page_alloc_init_late(void)
>> @@ -1613,6 +1665,14 @@ void __init page_alloc_init_late(void)
>> #ifdef CONFIG_DEFERRED_STRUCT_PAGE_INIT
>> int nid;
>>
>> + /*
>> + * We are about to initialize the rest of deferred pages, permanently
>> + * disable on-demand struct page initialization.
>> + */
>> + spin_lock(&deferred_zone_grow_lock);
>> + static_branch_disable(&deferred_pages);
>> + spin_unlock(&deferred_zone_grow_lock);
>
> Ah, so the new lock is to protect the static branch machinery only?

This lock is needed when several threads are trying to allocate memory
simultaneously, and there is no enough pages in the zone to do so, but
there are still deferred pages available.

Thank you,
Pavel

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