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SubjectRe: [PATCH v2 1/1] mm: initialize pages on demand during boot
On Thu,  8 Feb 2018 13:45:55 -0500 Pavel Tatashin <pasha.tatashin@oracle.com> wrote:

> Deferred page initialization allows the boot cpu to initialize a small
> subset of the system's pages early in boot, with other cpus doing the rest
> later on.
>
> It is, however, problematic to know how many pages the kernel needs during
> boot. Different modules and kernel parameters may change the requirement,
> so the boot cpu either initializes too many pages or runs out of memory.
>
> To fix that, initialize early pages on demand. This ensures the kernel
> does the minimum amount of work to initialize pages during boot and leaves
> the rest to be divided in the multithreaded initialization path
> (deferred_init_memmap).
>
> The on-demand code is permanently disabled using static branching once
> deferred pages are initialized. After the static branch is changed to
> false, the overhead is up-to two branch-always instructions if the zone
> watermark check fails or if rmqueue fails.
>
> ...
>
> @@ -1604,6 +1566,96 @@ static int __init deferred_init_memmap(void *data)
> pgdat_init_report_one_done();
> return 0;
> }
> +
> +/*
> + * Protects some early interrupt threads, and also for a short period of time
> + * from smp_init() to page_alloc_init_late() when deferred pages are
> + * initialized.
> + */
> +static __initdata DEFINE_SPINLOCK(deferred_zone_grow_lock);

Comment is a little confusing. Locks don't protect "threads" - they
protect data. Can we be specific about which data is being protected?

Why is a new lock needed here? Those data structures already have
designated locks, don't they?

If the lock protects "early interrupt threads" then it's surprising to
see it taken with spin_lock() and not spin_lock_irqsave()?

> +DEFINE_STATIC_KEY_TRUE(deferred_pages);
> +
> +/*
> + * If this zone has deferred pages, try to grow it by initializing enough
> + * deferred pages to satisfy the allocation specified by order, rounded up to
> + * the nearest PAGES_PER_SECTION boundary. So we're adding memory in increments
> + * of SECTION_SIZE bytes by initializing struct pages in increments of
> + * PAGES_PER_SECTION * sizeof(struct page) bytes.
> + */

Please also document the return value.

> +static noinline bool __init

Why was noinline needed?

> +deferred_grow_zone(struct zone *zone, unsigned int order)
> +{
> + int zid = zone_idx(zone);
> + int nid = zone->node;
> + pg_data_t *pgdat = NODE_DATA(nid);
> + unsigned long nr_pages_needed = ALIGN(1 << order, PAGES_PER_SECTION);
> + unsigned long nr_pages = 0;
> + unsigned long first_init_pfn, first_deferred_pfn, spfn, epfn, t;
> + phys_addr_t spa, epa;
> + u64 i;
> +
> + /* Only the last zone may have deferred pages */
> + if (zone_end_pfn(zone) != pgdat_end_pfn(pgdat))
> + return false;
> +
> + first_deferred_pfn = READ_ONCE(pgdat->first_deferred_pfn);

It would be nice to have a little comment explaining why READ_ONCE was
needed.

Would it still be needed if this code was moved into the locked region?

> + first_init_pfn = max(zone->zone_start_pfn, first_deferred_pfn);
> +
> + if (first_init_pfn >= pgdat_end_pfn(pgdat))
> + return false;
> +
> + spin_lock(&deferred_zone_grow_lock);
> + /*
> + * Bail if we raced with another thread that disabled on demand
> + * initialization.
> + */
> + if (!static_branch_unlikely(&deferred_pages)) {
> + spin_unlock(&deferred_zone_grow_lock);
> + return false;
> + }
> +
> + for_each_free_mem_range(i, nid, MEMBLOCK_NONE, &spa, &epa, NULL) {
> + spfn = max_t(unsigned long, first_init_pfn, PFN_UP(spa));
> + epfn = min_t(unsigned long, zone_end_pfn(zone), PFN_DOWN(epa));
> +
> + while (spfn < epfn && nr_pages < nr_pages_needed) {
> + t = ALIGN(spfn + PAGES_PER_SECTION, PAGES_PER_SECTION);
> + first_deferred_pfn = min(t, epfn);
> + nr_pages += deferred_init_pages(nid, zid, spfn,
> + first_deferred_pfn);
> + spfn = first_deferred_pfn;
> + }
> +
> + if (nr_pages >= nr_pages_needed)
> + break;
> + }
> +
> + for_each_free_mem_range(i, nid, MEMBLOCK_NONE, &spa, &epa, NULL) {
> + spfn = max_t(unsigned long, first_init_pfn, PFN_UP(spa));
> + epfn = min_t(unsigned long, first_deferred_pfn, PFN_DOWN(epa));
> + deferred_free_pages(nid, zid, spfn, epfn);
> +
> + if (first_deferred_pfn == epfn)
> + break;
> + }
> + WRITE_ONCE(pgdat->first_deferred_pfn, first_deferred_pfn);
> + spin_unlock(&deferred_zone_grow_lock);
> +
> + return nr_pages >= nr_pages_needed;
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * deferred_grow_zone() is __init, but it is called from
> + * get_page_from_freelist() during early boot until deferred_pages permanently
> + * disables this call. This is why, we have refdata wrapper to avoid warning,
> + * and ensure that the function body gets unloaded.

s/why,/why/
s/ensure/to ensure/

> + */
> +static bool __ref
> +_deferred_grow_zone(struct zone *zone, unsigned int order)
> +{
> + return deferred_grow_zone(zone, order);
> +}
> +
> #endif /* CONFIG_DEFERRED_STRUCT_PAGE_INIT */
>
> void __init page_alloc_init_late(void)
> @@ -1613,6 +1665,14 @@ void __init page_alloc_init_late(void)
> #ifdef CONFIG_DEFERRED_STRUCT_PAGE_INIT
> int nid;
>
> + /*
> + * We are about to initialize the rest of deferred pages, permanently
> + * disable on-demand struct page initialization.
> + */
> + spin_lock(&deferred_zone_grow_lock);
> + static_branch_disable(&deferred_pages);
> + spin_unlock(&deferred_zone_grow_lock);

Ah, so the new lock is to protect the static branch machinery only?

> /* There will be num_node_state(N_MEMORY) threads */
> atomic_set(&pgdat_init_n_undone, num_node_state(N_MEMORY));
> for_each_node_state(nid, N_MEMORY) {
>
> ...
>

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