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Subject[PATCH v4 2/6] riscv/ftrace: Add dynamic function tracer support
Date
We now have dynamic ftrace with the following added items:

* ftrace_make_call, ftrace_make_nop (in kernel/ftrace.c)
The two functions turn each recorded call site of filtered functions
into a call to ftrace_caller or nops

* ftracce_update_ftrace_func (in kernel/ftrace.c)
turns the nops at ftrace_call into a call to a generic entry for
function tracers.

* ftrace_caller (in kernel/mcount-dyn.S)
The entry where each _mcount call sites calls to once they are
filtered to be traced.

Also, this patch fixes the semantic problems in mcount.S, which will be
treated as only a reference implementation once we have the dynamic
ftrace.

Cc: Greentime Hu <greentime@andestech.com>
Signed-off-by: Alan Kao <alankao@andestech.com>
---
arch/riscv/Kconfig | 1 +
arch/riscv/include/asm/ftrace.h | 54 +++++++++++++++++++++
arch/riscv/kernel/Makefile | 5 +-
arch/riscv/kernel/ftrace.c | 103 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-
arch/riscv/kernel/mcount-dyn.S | 50 +++++++++++++++++++
arch/riscv/kernel/mcount.S | 22 +++++----
6 files changed, 223 insertions(+), 12 deletions(-)
create mode 100644 arch/riscv/kernel/mcount-dyn.S

diff --git a/arch/riscv/Kconfig b/arch/riscv/Kconfig
index 570af19a54ea..df05acbb53d3 100644
--- a/arch/riscv/Kconfig
+++ b/arch/riscv/Kconfig
@@ -121,6 +121,7 @@ config ARCH_RV64I
select HAVE_FUNCTION_TRACER
select HAVE_FUNCTION_GRAPH_TRACER
select HAVE_FTRACE_MCOUNT_RECORD
+ select HAVE_DYNAMIC_FTRACE

endchoice

diff --git a/arch/riscv/include/asm/ftrace.h b/arch/riscv/include/asm/ftrace.h
index 66d4175eb13e..078743aacfd3 100644
--- a/arch/riscv/include/asm/ftrace.h
+++ b/arch/riscv/include/asm/ftrace.h
@@ -8,3 +8,57 @@
#if defined(CONFIG_FUNCTION_GRAPH_TRACER) && defined(CONFIG_FRAME_POINTER)
#define HAVE_FUNCTION_GRAPH_FP_TEST
#endif
+
+#ifndef __ASSEMBLY__
+void _mcount(void);
+static inline unsigned long ftrace_call_adjust(unsigned long addr)
+{
+ return addr;
+}
+
+struct dyn_arch_ftrace {
+};
+#endif
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE
+/*
+ * A general call in RISC-V is a pair of insts:
+ * 1) auipc: setting high-20 pc-related bits to ra register
+ * 2) jalr: setting low-12 offset to ra, jump to ra, and set ra to
+ * return address (original pc + 4)
+ *
+ * Dynamic ftrace generates probes to call sites, so we must deal with
+ * both auipc and jalr at the same time.
+ */
+
+#define MCOUNT_ADDR ((unsigned long)_mcount)
+#define JALR_SIGN_MASK (0x00000800)
+#define JALR_OFFSET_MASK (0x00000fff)
+#define AUIPC_OFFSET_MASK (0xfffff000)
+#define AUIPC_PAD (0x00001000)
+#define JALR_SHIFT 20
+#define JALR_BASIC (0x000080e7)
+#define AUIPC_BASIC (0x00000097)
+#define NOP4 (0x00000013)
+
+#define make_call(caller, callee, call) \
+do { \
+ call[0] = to_auipc_insn((unsigned int)((unsigned long)callee - \
+ (unsigned long)caller)); \
+ call[1] = to_jalr_insn((unsigned int)((unsigned long)callee - \
+ (unsigned long)caller)); \
+} while (0)
+
+#define to_jalr_insn(offset) \
+ (((offset & JALR_OFFSET_MASK) << JALR_SHIFT) | JALR_BASIC)
+
+#define to_auipc_insn(offset) \
+ ((offset & JALR_SIGN_MASK) ? \
+ (((offset & AUIPC_OFFSET_MASK) + AUIPC_PAD) | AUIPC_BASIC) : \
+ ((offset & AUIPC_OFFSET_MASK) | AUIPC_BASIC))
+
+/*
+ * Let auipc+jalr be the basic *mcount unit*, so we make it 8 bytes here.
+ */
+#define MCOUNT_INSN_SIZE 8
+#endif
diff --git a/arch/riscv/kernel/Makefile b/arch/riscv/kernel/Makefile
index 196f62ffc428..d7bdf888f1ca 100644
--- a/arch/riscv/kernel/Makefile
+++ b/arch/riscv/kernel/Makefile
@@ -34,7 +34,8 @@ CFLAGS_setup.o := -mcmodel=medany
obj-$(CONFIG_SMP) += smpboot.o
obj-$(CONFIG_SMP) += smp.o
obj-$(CONFIG_MODULES) += module.o
-obj-$(CONFIG_FUNCTION_TRACER) += mcount.o
-obj-$(CONFIG_FUNCTION_GRAPH_TRACER) += ftrace.o
+
+obj-$(CONFIG_FUNCTION_TRACER) += mcount.o ftrace.o
+obj-$(CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE) += mcount-dyn.o

clean:
diff --git a/arch/riscv/kernel/ftrace.c b/arch/riscv/kernel/ftrace.c
index d0de68d144cb..be4b24332d97 100644
--- a/arch/riscv/kernel/ftrace.c
+++ b/arch/riscv/kernel/ftrace.c
@@ -6,9 +6,109 @@
*/

#include <linux/ftrace.h>
+#include <linux/uaccess.h>
+#include <asm/cacheflush.h>

+#ifdef CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE
+static int ftrace_check_current_call(unsigned long hook_pos,
+ unsigned int *expected)
+{
+ unsigned int replaced[2];
+ unsigned int nops[2] = {NOP4, NOP4};
+
+ /* we expect nops at the hook position */
+ if (!expected)
+ expected = nops;
+
+ /*
+ * Read the text we want to modify;
+ * return must be -EFAULT on read error
+ */
+ if (probe_kernel_read(replaced, (void *)hook_pos, MCOUNT_INSN_SIZE))
+ return -EFAULT;
+
+ /*
+ * Make sure it is what we expect it to be;
+ * return must be -EINVAL on failed comparison
+ */
+ if (memcmp(expected, replaced, sizeof(replaced))) {
+ pr_err("%p: expected (%08x %08x) but get (%08x %08x)",
+ (void *)hook_pos, expected[0], expected[1], replaced[0],
+ replaced[1]);
+ return -EINVAL;
+ }
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static int __ftrace_modify_call(unsigned long hook_pos, unsigned long target,
+ bool enable)
+{
+ unsigned int call[2];
+ unsigned int nops[2] = {NOP4, NOP4};
+ int ret = 0;
+
+ make_call(hook_pos, target, call);
+
+ /* replace the auipc-jalr pair at once */
+ ret = probe_kernel_write((void *)hook_pos, enable ? call : nops,
+ MCOUNT_INSN_SIZE);
+ /* return must be -EPERM on write error */
+ if (ret)
+ return -EPERM;
+
+ smp_mb();
+ flush_icache_range((void *)hook_pos, (void *)hook_pos + MCOUNT_INSN_SIZE);
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+int ftrace_make_call(struct dyn_ftrace *rec, unsigned long addr)
+{
+ int ret = ftrace_check_current_call(rec->ip, NULL);
+
+ if (ret)
+ return ret;
+
+ return __ftrace_modify_call(rec->ip, addr, true);
+}
+
+int ftrace_make_nop(struct module *mod, struct dyn_ftrace *rec,
+ unsigned long addr)
+{
+ unsigned int call[2];
+ int ret;
+
+ make_call(rec->ip, addr, call);
+ ret = ftrace_check_current_call(rec->ip, call);
+
+ if (ret)
+ return ret;
+
+ return __ftrace_modify_call(rec->ip, addr, false);
+}
+
+int ftrace_update_ftrace_func(ftrace_func_t func)
+{
+ int ret = __ftrace_modify_call((unsigned long)&ftrace_call,
+ (unsigned long)func, true);
+ if (!ret) {
+ ret = __ftrace_modify_call((unsigned long)&ftrace_regs_call,
+ (unsigned long)func, true);
+ }
+
+ return ret;
+}
+
+int __init ftrace_dyn_arch_init(void)
+{
+ return 0;
+}
+#endif
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_FUNCTION_GRAPH_TRACER
/*
- * Most of this file is copied from arm64.
+ * Most of this function is copied from arm64.
*/
void prepare_ftrace_return(unsigned long *parent, unsigned long self_addr,
unsigned long frame_pointer)
@@ -39,3 +139,4 @@ void prepare_ftrace_return(unsigned long *parent, unsigned long self_addr,
return;
*parent = return_hooker;
}
+#endif
diff --git a/arch/riscv/kernel/mcount-dyn.S b/arch/riscv/kernel/mcount-dyn.S
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..a3ebeadbe698
--- /dev/null
+++ b/arch/riscv/kernel/mcount-dyn.S
@@ -0,0 +1,50 @@
+/* SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0 */
+/* Copyright (C) 2017 Andes Technology Corporation */
+
+#include <linux/init.h>
+#include <linux/linkage.h>
+#include <asm/asm.h>
+#include <asm/csr.h>
+#include <asm/unistd.h>
+#include <asm/thread_info.h>
+#include <asm/asm-offsets.h>
+#include <asm-generic/export.h>
+#include <asm/ftrace.h>
+
+ .text
+
+ .macro SAVE_ABI_STATE
+ addi sp, sp, -16
+ sd s0, 0(sp)
+ sd ra, 8(sp)
+ addi s0, sp, 16
+ .endm
+
+ .macro RESTORE_ABI_STATE
+ ld ra, 8(sp)
+ ld s0, 0(sp)
+ addi sp, sp, 16
+ .endm
+
+ENTRY(ftrace_caller)
+ /*
+ * a0: the address in the caller when calling ftrace_caller
+ * a1: the caller's return address
+ */
+ ld a1, -8(s0)
+ addi a0, ra, -MCOUNT_INSN_SIZE
+ SAVE_ABI_STATE
+ftrace_call:
+ .global ftrace_call
+ /*
+ * For the dynamic ftrace to work, here we should reserve at least
+ * 8 bytes for a functional auipc-jalr pair. The following call
+ * serves this purpose.
+ *
+ * Calling ftrace_update_ftrace_func would overwrite the nops below.
+ * Check ftrace_modify_all_code for details.
+ */
+ call ftrace_stub
+ RESTORE_ABI_STATE
+ ret
+ENDPROC(ftrace_caller)
diff --git a/arch/riscv/kernel/mcount.S b/arch/riscv/kernel/mcount.S
index c46a778627be..ce9bdc57a2a1 100644
--- a/arch/riscv/kernel/mcount.S
+++ b/arch/riscv/kernel/mcount.S
@@ -32,13 +32,13 @@
addi s0, sp, 32
.endm

- .macro STORE_ABI_STATE
+ .macro RESTORE_ABI_STATE
ld ra, 8(sp)
ld s0, 0(sp)
addi sp, sp, 16
.endm

- .macro STORE_RET_ABI_STATE
+ .macro RESTORE_RET_ABI_STATE
ld ra, 24(sp)
ld s0, 16(sp)
ld a0, 8(sp)
@@ -46,6 +46,10 @@
.endm

ENTRY(ftrace_stub)
+#ifdef CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE
+ .global _mcount
+ .set _mcount, ftrace_stub
+#endif
ret
ENDPROC(ftrace_stub)

@@ -66,15 +70,15 @@ ENTRY(return_to_handler)
#ifdef HAVE_FUNCTION_GRAPH_FP_TEST
mv a0, t6
#endif
- la t0, ftrace_return_to_handler
- jalr t0
+ call ftrace_return_to_handler
mv a1, a0
- STORE_RET_ABI_STATE
+ RESTORE_RET_ABI_STATE
jalr a1
ENDPROC(return_to_handler)
EXPORT_SYMBOL(return_to_handler)
#endif

+#ifndef CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE
ENTRY(_mcount)
la t4, ftrace_stub
#ifdef CONFIG_FUNCTION_GRAPH_TRACER
@@ -104,9 +108,8 @@ do_ftrace_graph_caller:
ld a2, -16(s0)
#endif
SAVE_ABI_STATE
- la t0, prepare_ftrace_return
- jalr t0
- STORE_ABI_STATE
+ call prepare_ftrace_return
+ RESTORE_ABI_STATE
ret
#endif

@@ -120,7 +123,8 @@ do_trace:

SAVE_ABI_STATE
jalr t5
- STORE_ABI_STATE
+ RESTORE_ABI_STATE
ret
ENDPROC(_mcount)
EXPORT_SYMBOL(_mcount)
+#endif
--
2.15.1
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