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SubjectRe: [PATCH] blk-mq: Start to fix memory ordering...
On Mon, Sep 04, 2017 at 11:09:32AM +0200, Peter Zijlstra wrote:
>
> Attempt to untangle the ordering in blk-mq. The patch introducing the
> single smp_mb__before_atomic() is obviously broken in that it doesn't
> clearly specify a pairing barrier and an obtained guarantee.
>
> The comment is further misleading in that it hints that the
> deadline store and the COMPLETE store also need to be ordered, but
> AFAICT there is no such dependency. However what does appear to be
> important is the clear happening _after_ the store, and that worked by
> pure accident.
>
> This clarifies blk_mq_start_request() -- we should not get there with
> STARTING set -- this simplifies the code and makes the barrier usage
> sane (the old code could be read to allow not having _any_ atomic after
> the barrier, in which case the barrier hasn't got anything to order). We
> then also introduce the missing pairing barrier for it.
>
> And it documents the STARTING vs COMPLETE ordering. Although I've not
> been entirely successful in reverse engineering the blk-mq state
> machine so there might still be more funnies around timeout vs
> requeue.
>
> If I got anything wrong, feel free to educate me by adding comments to
> clarify things ;-)
>
> Cc: Alan Stern <stern@rowland.harvard.edu>
> Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
> Cc: Ming Lei <tom.leiming@gmail.com>
> Cc: Jens Axboe <axboe@fb.com>
> Cc: Andrea Parri <parri.andrea@gmail.com>
> Cc: Boqun Feng <boqun.feng@gmail.com>
> Cc: "Paul E. McKenney" <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
> Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
> Cc: Bart Van Assche <bart.vanassche@wdc.com>
> Fixes: 538b75341835 ("blk-mq: request deadline must be visible before marking rq as started")
> Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
> ---
> block/blk-mq.c | 48 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-----------
> 1 file changed, 37 insertions(+), 11 deletions(-)
>
> --- a/block/blk-mq.c
> +++ b/block/blk-mq.c
> @@ -558,22 +558,29 @@ void blk_mq_start_request(struct request
>
> blk_add_timer(rq);
>
> - /*
> - * Ensure that ->deadline is visible before set the started
> - * flag and clear the completed flag.
> - */
> - smp_mb__before_atomic();
> + WARN_ON_ONCE(test_bit(REQ_ATOM_STARTED, &rq->atomic_flags));
>
> /*
> * Mark us as started and clear complete. Complete might have been
> * set if requeue raced with timeout, which then marked it as
> * complete. So be sure to clear complete again when we start
> * the request, otherwise we'll ignore the completion event.
> + *
> + * Ensure that ->deadline is visible before set STARTED, such that
> + * blk_mq_check_expired() is guaranteed to observe our ->deadline
> + * when it observes STARTED.
> */
> - if (!test_bit(REQ_ATOM_STARTED, &rq->atomic_flags))
> - set_bit(REQ_ATOM_STARTED, &rq->atomic_flags);
> - if (test_bit(REQ_ATOM_COMPLETE, &rq->atomic_flags))
> + smp_mb__before_atomic();

I am wondering whether we should be using smp_wmb() instead: this would
provide the above guarantee and save a full barrier on powerpc/arm64.


> + set_bit(REQ_ATOM_STARTED, &rq->atomic_flags);
> + if (test_bit(REQ_ATOM_COMPLETE, &rq->atomic_flags)) {
> + /*
> + * Coherence order guarantees these consequtive stores to a
> + * singe variable propagate in the specified order. Thus the
> + * clear_bit() is ordered _after_ the set bit. See
> + * blk_mq_check_expired().
> + */
> clear_bit(REQ_ATOM_COMPLETE, &rq->atomic_flags);

It could be useful to stress that set_bit(), clear_bit() must "act" on
the same subword of the unsigned long (whatever "subword" means at this
level...) to rely on the coherence order (c.f., alpha's implementation).


> + }
>
> if (q->dma_drain_size && blk_rq_bytes(rq)) {
> /*
> @@ -744,11 +751,20 @@ static void blk_mq_check_expired(struct
> struct request *rq, void *priv, bool reserved)
> {
> struct blk_mq_timeout_data *data = priv;
> + unsigned long deadline;
>
> if (!test_bit(REQ_ATOM_STARTED, &rq->atomic_flags))
> return;
>
> /*
> + * Ensures that if we see STARTED we must also see our
> + * up-to-date deadline, see blk_mq_start_request().
> + */
> + smp_rmb();
> +
> + deadline = READ_ONCE(rq->deaedline);
> +
> + /*
> * The rq being checked may have been freed and reallocated
> * out already here, we avoid this race by checking rq->deadline
> * and REQ_ATOM_COMPLETE flag together:
> @@ -761,10 +777,20 @@ static void blk_mq_check_expired(struct
> * and clearing the flag in blk_mq_start_request(), so
> * this rq won't be timed out too.
> */
> - if (time_after_eq(jiffies, rq->deadline)) {
> - if (!blk_mark_rq_complete(rq))
> + if (time_after_eq(jiffies, deadline)) {
> + if (!blk_mark_rq_complete(rq)) {
> + /*
> + * Relies on the implied MB from test_and_clear() to
> + * order the COMPLETE load against the STARTED load.
> + * Orders against the coherence order in
> + * blk_mq_start_request().

I understand "from test_and_set_bit()" (in blk_mark_rq_complete()) and
that the interested cycle is:

/* in blk_mq_start_request() */
[STORE STARTED bit = 1 into atomic_flags]
-->co [STORE COMPLETE bit = 0 into atomic_flags]
/* in blk_mq_check_expired() */
-->rf [LOAD COMPLETE bit = 0 from atomic_flags]
-->po-loc [LOAD STARTED bit = 0 from atomic_flags]
/* in blk_mq_start_request() again */
-->fr [STORE STARTED bit = 1 into atomic_flags]

(N.B. Assume all accesses happen to/from the same subword.)

This cycle being forbidden by the "coherence check", I'd say we do not
need to rely on the MB mentioned by the comment; what am I missing?

Andrea


> + *
> + * This ensures that if we see !COMPLETE we must see
> + * STARTED and ignore this timeout.
> + */
> blk_mq_rq_timed_out(rq, reserved);
> - } else if (!data->next_set || time_after(data->next, rq->deadline)) {
> + }
> + } else if (!data->next_set || time_after(data->next, deadline)) {
> data->next = rq->deadline;
> data->next_set = 1;
> }

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