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SubjectRe: Abysmal scheduler performance in Linus' tree?
On Wed, Sep 06, 2017 at 10:15:33AM +0100, Chris Wilson wrote:
> Quoting Andy Lutomirski (2017-09-06 06:13:39)
> > I'm running e7d0c41ecc2e372a81741a30894f556afec24315 from Linus' tree
> > today, and I'm seeing abysmal scheduler performance. Running make -j4
> > ends up with all the tasks on CPU 3 most of the time (on my
> > 4-logical-thread laptop). taskset -c 0 whatever puts whatever on CPU
> > 0, but plain while true; do true; done puts the infinite loop on CPU 3
> > right along with the make -j4 tasks.
> >
> > This is on Fedora 26, and I don't think I'm doing anything weird.
> > systemd has enabled the cpu controller, but it doesn't seem to have
> > configured anything or created any non-root cgroups.
> >
> > Just a heads up. I haven't tried to diagnose it at all.
>
> There is an issue on !llc machines arising from numa_wake_wide() where
> processes are not spread widely across the low-power cores:
> https://patchwork.kernel.org/patch/9875581/
>
> The patch we are using to fix the regression is
> https://cgit.freedesktop.org/drm-intel/commit/?h=topic/core-for-CI&id=6c362d9657293d700a8299acbeb2f1e24378f488


Urgh. that's the broken one, note how it has:

+static void get_llc_stats(struct llc_stats *stats, int cpu)
+{
+ struct sched_domain_shared *sds = rcu_dereference(per_cpu(sd_llc_shared, cpu));
+
+ if (!sds) {
+ memset(&stats, 0, sizeof(*stats));
^

0-day reported that that exploded with gcc-4.8 but worked with newer
compilers. But either way its fairly broken code.

The one that we committed and hit Linus' tree already (if my git-foo is
any good today) is:


commit 90001d67be2fa2acbe3510d1f64fa6533efa30ef
Author: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Date: Mon Jul 31 17:50:05 2017 +0200

sched/fair: Fix wake_affine() for !NUMA_BALANCING

In commit:

3fed382b46ba ("sched/numa: Implement NUMA node level wake_affine()")

Rik changed wake_affine to consider NUMA information when balancing
between LLC domains.

There are a number of problems here which this patch tries to address:

- LLC < NODE; in this case we'd use the wrong information to balance
- !NUMA_BALANCING: in this case, the new code doesn't do any
balancing at all
- re-computes the NUMA data for every wakeup, this can mean iterating
up to 64 CPUs for every wakeup.
- default affine wakeups inside a cache

We address these by saving the load/capacity values for each
sched_domain during regular load-balance and using these values in
wake_affine_llc(). The obvious down-side to using cached values is
that they can be too old and poorly reflect reality.

But this way we can use LLC wide information and thus not rely on
assuming LLC matches NODE. We also don't rely on NUMA_BALANCING nor do
we have to aggegate two nodes (or even cache domains) worth of CPUs
for each wakeup.

Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Josef Bacik <josef@toxicpanda.com>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Mike Galbraith <efault@gmx.de>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org
Fixes: 3fed382b46ba ("sched/numa: Implement NUMA node level wake_affine()")
[ Minor readability improvements. ]
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>

diff --git a/include/linux/sched/topology.h b/include/linux/sched/topology.h
index 7d065abc7a47..d7b6dab956ec 100644
--- a/include/linux/sched/topology.h
+++ b/include/linux/sched/topology.h
@@ -71,6 +71,14 @@ struct sched_domain_shared {
atomic_t ref;
atomic_t nr_busy_cpus;
int has_idle_cores;
+
+ /*
+ * Some variables from the most recent sd_lb_stats for this domain,
+ * used by wake_affine().
+ */
+ unsigned long nr_running;
+ unsigned long load;
+ unsigned long capacity;
};

struct sched_domain {
diff --git a/kernel/sched/fair.c b/kernel/sched/fair.c
index a7f1c3b797f8..8d5868771cb3 100644
--- a/kernel/sched/fair.c
+++ b/kernel/sched/fair.c
@@ -2658,59 +2658,6 @@ void task_tick_numa(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *curr)
}
}

-/*
- * Can a task be moved from prev_cpu to this_cpu without causing a load
- * imbalance that would trigger the load balancer?
- */
-static inline bool numa_wake_affine(struct sched_domain *sd,
- struct task_struct *p, int this_cpu,
- int prev_cpu, int sync)
-{
- struct numa_stats prev_load, this_load;
- s64 this_eff_load, prev_eff_load;
-
- update_numa_stats(&prev_load, cpu_to_node(prev_cpu));
- update_numa_stats(&this_load, cpu_to_node(this_cpu));
-
- /*
- * If sync wakeup then subtract the (maximum possible)
- * effect of the currently running task from the load
- * of the current CPU:
- */
- if (sync) {
- unsigned long current_load = task_h_load(current);
-
- if (this_load.load > current_load)
- this_load.load -= current_load;
- else
- this_load.load = 0;
- }
-
- /*
- * In low-load situations, where this_cpu's node is idle due to the
- * sync cause above having dropped this_load.load to 0, move the task.
- * Moving to an idle socket will not create a bad imbalance.
- *
- * Otherwise check if the nodes are near enough in load to allow this
- * task to be woken on this_cpu's node.
- */
- if (this_load.load > 0) {
- unsigned long task_load = task_h_load(p);
-
- this_eff_load = 100;
- this_eff_load *= prev_load.compute_capacity;
-
- prev_eff_load = 100 + (sd->imbalance_pct - 100) / 2;
- prev_eff_load *= this_load.compute_capacity;
-
- this_eff_load *= this_load.load + task_load;
- prev_eff_load *= prev_load.load - task_load;
-
- return this_eff_load <= prev_eff_load;
- }
-
- return true;
-}
#else
static void task_tick_numa(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *curr)
{
@@ -2724,14 +2671,6 @@ static inline void account_numa_dequeue(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *p)
{
}

-#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
-static inline bool numa_wake_affine(struct sched_domain *sd,
- struct task_struct *p, int this_cpu,
- int prev_cpu, int sync)
-{
- return true;
-}
-#endif /* !SMP */
#endif /* CONFIG_NUMA_BALANCING */

static void
@@ -5428,20 +5367,115 @@ static int wake_wide(struct task_struct *p)
return 1;
}

+struct llc_stats {
+ unsigned long nr_running;
+ unsigned long load;
+ unsigned long capacity;
+ int has_capacity;
+};
+
+static bool get_llc_stats(struct llc_stats *stats, int cpu)
+{
+ struct sched_domain_shared *sds = rcu_dereference(per_cpu(sd_llc_shared, cpu));
+
+ if (!sds)
+ return false;
+
+ stats->nr_running = READ_ONCE(sds->nr_running);
+ stats->load = READ_ONCE(sds->load);
+ stats->capacity = READ_ONCE(sds->capacity);
+ stats->has_capacity = stats->nr_running < per_cpu(sd_llc_size, cpu);
+
+ return true;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Can a task be moved from prev_cpu to this_cpu without causing a load
+ * imbalance that would trigger the load balancer?
+ *
+ * Since we're running on 'stale' values, we might in fact create an imbalance
+ * but recomputing these values is expensive, as that'd mean iteration 2 cache
+ * domains worth of CPUs.
+ */
+static bool
+wake_affine_llc(struct sched_domain *sd, struct task_struct *p,
+ int this_cpu, int prev_cpu, int sync)
+{
+ struct llc_stats prev_stats, this_stats;
+ s64 this_eff_load, prev_eff_load;
+ unsigned long task_load;
+
+ if (!get_llc_stats(&prev_stats, prev_cpu) ||
+ !get_llc_stats(&this_stats, this_cpu))
+ return false;
+
+ /*
+ * If sync wakeup then subtract the (maximum possible)
+ * effect of the currently running task from the load
+ * of the current LLC.
+ */
+ if (sync) {
+ unsigned long current_load = task_h_load(current);
+
+ /* in this case load hits 0 and this LLC is considered 'idle' */
+ if (current_load > this_stats.load)
+ return true;
+
+ this_stats.load -= current_load;
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * The has_capacity stuff is not SMT aware, but by trying to balance
+ * the nr_running on both ends we try and fill the domain at equal
+ * rates, thereby first consuming cores before siblings.
+ */
+
+ /* if the old cache has capacity, stay there */
+ if (prev_stats.has_capacity && prev_stats.nr_running < this_stats.nr_running+1)
+ return false;
+
+ /* if this cache has capacity, come here */
+ if (this_stats.has_capacity && this_stats.nr_running < prev_stats.nr_running+1)
+ return true;
+
+ /*
+ * Check to see if we can move the load without causing too much
+ * imbalance.
+ */
+ task_load = task_h_load(p);
+
+ this_eff_load = 100;
+ this_eff_load *= prev_stats.capacity;
+
+ prev_eff_load = 100 + (sd->imbalance_pct - 100) / 2;
+ prev_eff_load *= this_stats.capacity;
+
+ this_eff_load *= this_stats.load + task_load;
+ prev_eff_load *= prev_stats.load - task_load;
+
+ return this_eff_load <= prev_eff_load;
+}
+
static int wake_affine(struct sched_domain *sd, struct task_struct *p,
int prev_cpu, int sync)
{
int this_cpu = smp_processor_id();
- bool affine = false;
+ bool affine;

/*
- * Common case: CPUs are in the same socket, and select_idle_sibling()
- * will do its thing regardless of what we return:
+ * Default to no affine wakeups; wake_affine() should not effect a task
+ * placement the load-balancer feels inclined to undo. The conservative
+ * option is therefore to not move tasks when they wake up.
*/
- if (cpus_share_cache(prev_cpu, this_cpu))
- affine = true;
- else
- affine = numa_wake_affine(sd, p, this_cpu, prev_cpu, sync);
+ affine = false;
+
+ /*
+ * If the wakeup is across cache domains, try to evaluate if movement
+ * makes sense, otherwise rely on select_idle_siblings() to do
+ * placement inside the cache domain.
+ */
+ if (!cpus_share_cache(prev_cpu, this_cpu))
+ affine = wake_affine_llc(sd, p, this_cpu, prev_cpu, sync);

schedstat_inc(p->se.statistics.nr_wakeups_affine_attempts);
if (affine) {
@@ -7121,6 +7155,7 @@ struct sg_lb_stats {
struct sd_lb_stats {
struct sched_group *busiest; /* Busiest group in this sd */
struct sched_group *local; /* Local group in this sd */
+ unsigned long total_running;
unsigned long total_load; /* Total load of all groups in sd */
unsigned long total_capacity; /* Total capacity of all groups in sd */
unsigned long avg_load; /* Average load across all groups in sd */
@@ -7140,6 +7175,7 @@ static inline void init_sd_lb_stats(struct sd_lb_stats *sds)
*sds = (struct sd_lb_stats){
.busiest = NULL,
.local = NULL,
+ .total_running = 0UL,
.total_load = 0UL,
.total_capacity = 0UL,
.busiest_stat = {
@@ -7575,6 +7611,7 @@ static inline enum fbq_type fbq_classify_rq(struct rq *rq)
*/
static inline void update_sd_lb_stats(struct lb_env *env, struct sd_lb_stats *sds)
{
+ struct sched_domain_shared *shared = env->sd->shared;
struct sched_domain *child = env->sd->child;
struct sched_group *sg = env->sd->groups;
struct sg_lb_stats *local = &sds->local_stat;
@@ -7631,6 +7668,7 @@ static inline void update_sd_lb_stats(struct lb_env *env, struct sd_lb_stats *sd

next_group:
/* Now, start updating sd_lb_stats */
+ sds->total_running += sgs->sum_nr_running;
sds->total_load += sgs->group_load;
sds->total_capacity += sgs->group_capacity;

@@ -7646,6 +7684,21 @@ static inline void update_sd_lb_stats(struct lb_env *env, struct sd_lb_stats *sd
env->dst_rq->rd->overload = overload;
}

+ if (!shared)
+ return;
+
+ /*
+ * Since these are sums over groups they can contain some CPUs
+ * multiple times for the NUMA domains.
+ *
+ * Currently only wake_affine_llc() and find_busiest_group()
+ * uses these numbers, only the last is affected by this problem.
+ *
+ * XXX fix that.
+ */
+ WRITE_ONCE(shared->nr_running, sds->total_running);
+ WRITE_ONCE(shared->load, sds->total_load);
+ WRITE_ONCE(shared->capacity, sds->total_capacity);
}

/**
@@ -7875,6 +7928,7 @@ static struct sched_group *find_busiest_group(struct lb_env *env)
if (!sds.busiest || busiest->sum_nr_running == 0)
goto out_balanced;

+ /* XXX broken for overlapping NUMA groups */
sds.avg_load = (SCHED_CAPACITY_SCALE * sds.total_load)
/ sds.total_capacity;

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