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Subject[RFC PATCH 0/2] Missing READ_ONCE in core and arch-specific pgtable code leading to crashes
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Hi,

We recently had a crash report[1] on arm64 that involved a bad dereference
in the page_vma_mapped code during ext4 writeback with THP active. I can
reproduce this on -rc2:

[ 254.032812] PC is at check_pte+0x20/0x170
[ 254.032948] LR is at page_vma_mapped_walk+0x2e0/0x540
[...]
[ 254.036114] Process doio (pid: 2463, stack limit = 0xffff00000f2e8000)
[ 254.036361] Call trace:
[ 254.038977] [<ffff000008233328>] check_pte+0x20/0x170
[ 254.039137] [<ffff000008233758>] page_vma_mapped_walk+0x2e0/0x540
[ 254.039332] [<ffff000008234adc>] page_mkclean_one+0xac/0x278
[ 254.039489] [<ffff000008234d98>] rmap_walk_file+0xf0/0x238
[ 254.039642] [<ffff000008236e74>] rmap_walk+0x64/0xa0
[ 254.039784] [<ffff0000082370c8>] page_mkclean+0x90/0xa8
[ 254.040029] [<ffff0000081f3c64>] clear_page_dirty_for_io+0x84/0x2a8
[ 254.040311] [<ffff00000832f984>] mpage_submit_page+0x34/0x98
[ 254.040518] [<ffff00000832fb4c>] mpage_process_page_bufs+0x164/0x170
[ 254.040743] [<ffff00000832fc8c>] mpage_prepare_extent_to_map+0x134/0x2b8
[ 254.040969] [<ffff00000833530c>] ext4_writepages+0x484/0xe30
[ 254.041175] [<ffff0000081f6ab4>] do_writepages+0x44/0xe8
[ 254.041372] [<ffff0000081e5bd4>] __filemap_fdatawrite_range+0xbc/0x110
[ 254.041568] [<ffff0000081e5e68>] file_write_and_wait_range+0x48/0xd8
[ 254.041739] [<ffff000008324310>] ext4_sync_file+0x80/0x4b8
[ 254.041907] [<ffff0000082bd434>] vfs_fsync_range+0x64/0xc0
[ 254.042106] [<ffff0000082332b4>] SyS_msync+0x194/0x1e8

After digging into the issue, I found that we appear to be racing with
a concurrent pmd update in page_vma_mapped_walk, assumedly due a THP
splitting operation. Looking at the code there:

pvmw->pmd = pmd_offset(pud, pvmw->address);
if (pmd_trans_huge(*pvmw->pmd) || is_pmd_migration_entry(*pvmw->pmd)) {
[...]
} else {
if (!check_pmd(pvmw))
return false;
}
if (!map_pte(pvmw))
goto next_pte;

what happens in the crashing scenario is that we see all zeroes for the
PMD in pmd_trans_huge(*pvmw->pmd), and so go to the 'else' case (migration
isn't enabled, so the test is removed at compile-time). check_pmd then does:

pmde = READ_ONCE(*pvmw->pmd);
return pmd_present(pmde) && !pmd_trans_huge(pmde);

and reads a valid table entry for the PMD because the splitting has completed
(i.e. the first dereference reads from the pmdp_invalidate in the splitting
code, whereas the second dereferenced reads from the following pmd_populate).
It returns true because we should descend to the PTE level in map_pte. map_pte
does:

pvmw->pte = pte_offset_map(pvmw->pmd, pvmw->address);

which on arm64 (and this appears to be the same on x86) ends up doing:

(pmd_page_paddr((*(pvmw->pmd))) + pte_index(pvmw->address) * sizeof(pte_t))

as part of its calculation. However, this is horribly broken because GCC
inlines everything and reuses the register it loaded for the initial
pmd_trans_huge check (when we loaded the value of zero) here, so we end up
calculating a junk pointer and crashing when we dereference it. Disassembly
at the end of the mail[2] for those who are curious.

The moral of the story is that read-after-read (same address) ordering *only*
applies if READ_ONCE is used consistently. This means we need to fix page
table dereferences in the core code as well as the arch code to avoid this
problem. The two RFC patches in this series fix arm64 (which is a bigger fix
that necessary since I clean things up too) and page_vma_mapped_walk.

Comments welcome.

Will

[1] http://lists.infradead.org/pipermail/linux-arm-kernel/2017-September/532786.html
[2]

// page_vma_mapped_walk
// pvmw->pmd = pmd_offset(pud, pvmw->address);
ldr x0, [x19, #24] // pvmw->pmd

// if (pmd_trans_huge(*pvmw->pmd) || is_pmd_migration_entry(*pvmw->pmd)) {
ldr x1, [x0] // *pvmw->pmd
cbz x1, ffff0000082336a0 <page_vma_mapped_walk+0x228>
tbz w1, #1, ffff000008233788 <page_vma_mapped_walk+0x310> // pmd_trans_huge?

// else if (!check_pmd(pvmw))
ldr x0, [x0] // READ_ONCE in check_pmd
tst x0, x24 // pmd_present?
b.eq ffff000008233538 <page_vma_mapped_walk+0xc0> // b.none
tbz w0, #1, ffff000008233538 <page_vma_mapped_walk+0xc0> // pmd_trans_huge?

// if (!map_pte(pvmw))
ldr x0, [x19, #16] // pvmw->address

// pvmw->pte = pte_offset_map(pvmw->pmd, pvmw->address);
and x1, x1, #0xfffffffff000 // Reusing the old value of *pvmw->pmd!!!
[...]

--->8

Will Deacon (2):
arm64: mm: Use READ_ONCE/WRITE_ONCE when accessing page tables
mm: page_vma_mapped: Ensure pmd is loaded with READ_ONCE outside of
lock

arch/arm64/include/asm/hugetlb.h | 2 +-
arch/arm64/include/asm/kvm_mmu.h | 18 +--
arch/arm64/include/asm/mmu_context.h | 4 +-
arch/arm64/include/asm/pgalloc.h | 42 +++---
arch/arm64/include/asm/pgtable.h | 29 ++--
arch/arm64/kernel/hibernate.c | 148 +++++++++---------
arch/arm64/mm/dump.c | 54 ++++---
arch/arm64/mm/fault.c | 44 +++---
arch/arm64/mm/hugetlbpage.c | 94 ++++++------
arch/arm64/mm/kasan_init.c | 62 ++++----
arch/arm64/mm/mmu.c | 281 ++++++++++++++++++-----------------
arch/arm64/mm/pageattr.c | 30 ++--
mm/page_vma_mapped.c | 25 ++--
13 files changed, 427 insertions(+), 406 deletions(-)

--
2.1.4

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