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Subject[PATCH] KEYS: fix race between updating and finding negative key
Date
From: Eric Biggers <ebiggers@google.com>

In keyring_search_iterator() and in wait_for_key_construction(), we
check whether the key has been negatively instantiated, and if so
retrieve the ->reject_error, which is in union with ->payload.

The problem is that no lock can be held during this, and it's impossible
to update KEY_FLAG_NEGATIVE atomically with respect to ->reject_error
and ->payload. Updating ->reject_error or ->payload first as
key_update(), __key_update(), and key_reject_and_link() do is
insufficient because ->reject_error can be observed to have a bogus
value, having been overwritten with ->payload, before KEY_FLAG_NEGATIVE
is cleared.

Conversely, if we were to change KEY_FLAG_NEGATIVE first, then someone
could use ->reject_error or ->payload before it has been set.

Fix the bug by moving ->reject_error out of the union with ->payload,
then using nonzero ->reject_error to mean that the key is negative.

This eliminates the need for KEY_FLAG_NEGATIVE, which we remove as well
so that we don't have to handle memory ordering between
KEY_FLAG_NEGATIVE and ->reject_error. We *do* still need to handle
memory ordering between KEY_FLAG_INSTANTIATED and ->reject_error, but
that was needed before (and for KEY_FLAG_NEGATIVE as well --- though it
wasn't done correctly, which was another bug).

The following program reproduces the primary bug, which dates back to
v4.4 when ->reject_error and ->payload were placed in union:

#include <stdlib.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <keyutils.h>

int main(void)
{
int ringid = keyctl_join_session_keyring(NULL);

if (fork()) {
for (;;) {
usleep(rand() % 4096);
add_key("user", "desc", "x", 1, ringid);
keyctl_clear(ringid);
}
} else {
for (;;)
request_key("user", "desc", "", ringid);
}
}

It causes the following crash:

BUG: unable to handle kernel paging request at fffffffffd39a6b0
IP: __key_link_begin+0x0/0x100
PGD 7a0a067 P4D 7a0a067 PUD 7a0c067 PMD 0
Oops: 0000 [#1] SMP
CPU: 1 PID: 165 Comm: keyctl_negate_r Not tainted 4.14.0-rc1 #377
Hardware name: QEMU Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996), BIOS 1.10.2-20170228_101828-anatol 04/01/2014
task: ffff9791fd809140 task.stack: ffffacba402bc000
RIP: 0010:__key_link_begin+0x0/0x100
RSP: 0018:ffffacba402bfdc8 EFLAGS: 00010282
RAX: ffff9791fd809140 RBX: fffffffffd39a620 RCX: 0000000000000008
RDX: ffffacba402bfdd0 RSI: fffffffffd39a6a0 RDI: ffff9791fd810600
RBP: ffffacba402bfdf8 R08: 0000000000000063 R09: ffffffff94845620
R10: 8080808080808080 R11: 0000000000000004 R12: ffff9791fd810600
R13: ffff9791fd39a940 R14: fffffffffd39a6a0 R15: 0000000000000000
FS: 00007fbf14a90740(0000) GS:ffff9791ffd00000(0000) knlGS:0000000000000000
CS: 0010 DS: 0000 ES: 0000 CR0: 0000000080050033
CR2: fffffffffd39a6b0 CR3: 000000003b910003 CR4: 00000000003606e0
Call Trace:
? key_link+0x28/0xb0
? search_process_keyrings+0x13/0x100
request_key_and_link+0xcb/0x550
? keyring_instantiate+0x110/0x110
? key_default_cmp+0x20/0x20
SyS_request_key+0xc0/0x160
? exit_to_usermode_loop+0x5e/0x80
entry_SYSCALL_64_fastpath+0x1a/0xa5
RIP: 0033:0x7fbf14190bb9
RSP: 002b:00007ffd8e4fe6c8 EFLAGS: 00000246 ORIG_RAX: 00000000000000f9
RAX: ffffffffffffffda RBX: 0000000036cc28fb RCX: 00007fbf14190bb9
RDX: 000055748b56ca4a RSI: 000055748b56ca46 RDI: 000055748b56ca4b
RBP: 000055748b56ca4a R08: 0000000000000001 R09: 0000000000000001
R10: 0000000036cc28fb R11: 0000000000000246 R12: 000055748b56c8b0
R13: 00007ffd8e4fe7d0 R14: 0000000000000000 R15: 0000000000000000
Code: c5 0f 85 69 ff ff ff 48 c7 c3 82 ff ff ff eb ab 45 31 ed e9 18 ff ff ff 85 c0 75 8d eb d2 0f 1f 00 66 2e 0f 1f 84 00 00 00 00 00 <48> 83 7e 10 00 0f 84 c5 00 00 00 55 48 89 e5 41 57 41 56 41 55
RIP: __key_link_begin+0x0/0x100 RSP: ffffacba402bfdc8
CR2: fffffffffd39a6b0

Fixes: 146aa8b1453b ("KEYS: Merge the type-specific data with the payload data")
Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org> [v4.4+]
Signed-off-by: Eric Biggers <ebiggers@google.com>
---
include/linux/key.h | 34 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++----
security/keys/encrypted-keys/encrypted.c | 2 +-
security/keys/gc.c | 4 +---
security/keys/key.c | 16 ++++++++++-----
security/keys/keyctl.c | 2 +-
security/keys/keyring.c | 5 ++---
security/keys/proc.c | 2 +-
security/keys/request_key.c | 8 ++++----
security/keys/trusted.c | 2 +-
security/keys/user_defined.c | 2 +-
10 files changed, 53 insertions(+), 24 deletions(-)

diff --git a/include/linux/key.h b/include/linux/key.h
index e315e16b6ff8..e4b05ade798a 100644
--- a/include/linux/key.h
+++ b/include/linux/key.h
@@ -181,7 +181,6 @@ struct key {
#define KEY_FLAG_REVOKED 2 /* set if key had been revoked */
#define KEY_FLAG_IN_QUOTA 3 /* set if key consumes quota */
#define KEY_FLAG_USER_CONSTRUCT 4 /* set if key is being constructed in userspace */
-#define KEY_FLAG_NEGATIVE 5 /* set if key is negative */
#define KEY_FLAG_ROOT_CAN_CLEAR 6 /* set if key can be cleared by root without permission */
#define KEY_FLAG_INVALIDATED 7 /* set if key has been invalidated */
#define KEY_FLAG_BUILTIN 8 /* set if key is built in to the kernel */
@@ -213,9 +212,22 @@ struct key {
struct list_head name_link;
struct assoc_array keys;
};
- int reject_error;
};

+ /*
+ * This is set to a negative error value if the key is negatively
+ * instantiated.
+ *
+ * This could in theory be in union with ->payload, with a separate flag
+ * indicating that the key is negative. But that doesn't work because
+ * sometimes we need to check this without holding a lock.
+ *
+ * Note that keys can go from negative to positive but not vice versa.
+ * That is, if KEY_FLAG_INSTANTIATED is set and this field is 0, then
+ * the key is positive, and it cannot turn negative out from under you.
+ */
+ int reject_error;
+
/* This is set on a keyring to restrict the addition of a link to a key
* to it. If this structure isn't provided then it is assumed that the
* keyring is open to any addition. It is ignored for non-keyring
@@ -353,6 +365,18 @@ extern void key_set_timeout(struct key *, unsigned);
#define KEY_NEED_SETATTR 0x20 /* Require permission to change attributes */
#define KEY_NEED_ALL 0x3f /* All the above permissions */

+/**
+ * key_is_negative - Determine if a key has been negatively instantiated
+ * @key: The key to check.
+ *
+ * Return true if the specified key has been negatively instantiated, false
+ * otherwise.
+ */
+static inline bool key_is_negative(const struct key *key)
+{
+ return READ_ONCE(key->reject_error) != 0;
+}
+
/**
* key_is_instantiated - Determine if a key has been positively instantiated
* @key: The key to check.
@@ -362,8 +386,10 @@ extern void key_set_timeout(struct key *, unsigned);
*/
static inline bool key_is_instantiated(const struct key *key)
{
- return test_bit(KEY_FLAG_INSTANTIATED, &key->flags) &&
- !test_bit(KEY_FLAG_NEGATIVE, &key->flags);
+ if (!test_bit(KEY_FLAG_INSTANTIATED, &key->flags))
+ return false;
+ smp_rmb(); /* pairs with smp_wmb() in key_reject_and_link() */
+ return !key_is_negative(key);
}

#define dereference_key_rcu(KEY) \
diff --git a/security/keys/encrypted-keys/encrypted.c b/security/keys/encrypted-keys/encrypted.c
index 69855ba0d3b3..f54b92868bc3 100644
--- a/security/keys/encrypted-keys/encrypted.c
+++ b/security/keys/encrypted-keys/encrypted.c
@@ -847,7 +847,7 @@ static int encrypted_update(struct key *key, struct key_preparsed_payload *prep)
size_t datalen = prep->datalen;
int ret = 0;

- if (test_bit(KEY_FLAG_NEGATIVE, &key->flags))
+ if (key_is_negative(key))
return -ENOKEY;
if (datalen <= 0 || datalen > 32767 || !prep->data)
return -EINVAL;
diff --git a/security/keys/gc.c b/security/keys/gc.c
index 87cb260e4890..0adc52be3ea9 100644
--- a/security/keys/gc.c
+++ b/security/keys/gc.c
@@ -135,9 +135,7 @@ static noinline void key_gc_unused_keys(struct list_head *keys)
key_check(key);

/* Throw away the key data if the key is instantiated */
- if (test_bit(KEY_FLAG_INSTANTIATED, &key->flags) &&
- !test_bit(KEY_FLAG_NEGATIVE, &key->flags) &&
- key->type->destroy)
+ if (key_is_instantiated(key) && key->type->destroy)
key->type->destroy(key);

security_key_free(key);
diff --git a/security/keys/key.c b/security/keys/key.c
index eb914a838840..bed5b6c2ef20 100644
--- a/security/keys/key.c
+++ b/security/keys/key.c
@@ -578,11 +578,17 @@ int key_reject_and_link(struct key *key,

/* can't instantiate twice */
if (!test_bit(KEY_FLAG_INSTANTIATED, &key->flags)) {
- /* mark the key as being negatively instantiated */
atomic_inc(&key->user->nikeys);
- key->reject_error = -error;
+
+ /* mark the key as being negatively instantiated */
+ WRITE_ONCE(key->reject_error, -error);
+
+ /*
+ * pairs with smp_rmb() in key_is_instantiated() and
+ * wait_for_key_construction()
+ */
smp_wmb();
- set_bit(KEY_FLAG_NEGATIVE, &key->flags);
+
set_bit(KEY_FLAG_INSTANTIATED, &key->flags);
now = current_kernel_time();
key->expiry = now.tv_sec + timeout;
@@ -753,7 +759,7 @@ static inline key_ref_t __key_update(key_ref_t key_ref,
ret = key->type->update(key, prep);
if (ret == 0)
/* updating a negative key instantiates it */
- clear_bit(KEY_FLAG_NEGATIVE, &key->flags);
+ WRITE_ONCE(key->reject_error, 0);

up_write(&key->sem);

@@ -987,7 +993,7 @@ int key_update(key_ref_t key_ref, const void *payload, size_t plen)
ret = key->type->update(key, &prep);
if (ret == 0)
/* updating a negative key instantiates it */
- clear_bit(KEY_FLAG_NEGATIVE, &key->flags);
+ WRITE_ONCE(key->reject_error, 0);

up_write(&key->sem);

diff --git a/security/keys/keyctl.c b/security/keys/keyctl.c
index 365ff85d7e27..c9d94f61d183 100644
--- a/security/keys/keyctl.c
+++ b/security/keys/keyctl.c
@@ -766,7 +766,7 @@ long keyctl_read_key(key_serial_t keyid, char __user *buffer, size_t buflen)

key = key_ref_to_ptr(key_ref);

- if (test_bit(KEY_FLAG_NEGATIVE, &key->flags)) {
+ if (key_is_negative(key)) {
ret = -ENOKEY;
goto error2;
}
diff --git a/security/keys/keyring.c b/security/keys/keyring.c
index 4fa82a8a9c0e..5a13858d74fb 100644
--- a/security/keys/keyring.c
+++ b/security/keys/keyring.c
@@ -597,9 +597,8 @@ static int keyring_search_iterator(const void *object, void *iterator_data)

if (ctx->flags & KEYRING_SEARCH_DO_STATE_CHECK) {
/* we set a different error code if we pass a negative key */
- if (kflags & (1 << KEY_FLAG_NEGATIVE)) {
- smp_rmb();
- ctx->result = ERR_PTR(key->reject_error);
+ ctx->result = ERR_PTR(READ_ONCE(key->reject_error));
+ if (ctx->result) {
kleave(" = %d [neg]", ctx->skipped_ret);
goto skipped;
}
diff --git a/security/keys/proc.c b/security/keys/proc.c
index de834309d100..e5e41f3c547d 100644
--- a/security/keys/proc.c
+++ b/security/keys/proc.c
@@ -246,7 +246,7 @@ static int proc_keys_show(struct seq_file *m, void *v)
showflag(key, 'D', KEY_FLAG_DEAD),
showflag(key, 'Q', KEY_FLAG_IN_QUOTA),
showflag(key, 'U', KEY_FLAG_USER_CONSTRUCT),
- showflag(key, 'N', KEY_FLAG_NEGATIVE),
+ key_is_negative(key) ? 'N' : '-',
showflag(key, 'i', KEY_FLAG_INVALIDATED),
refcount_read(&key->usage),
xbuf,
diff --git a/security/keys/request_key.c b/security/keys/request_key.c
index 63e63a42db3c..5cddca6bef37 100644
--- a/security/keys/request_key.c
+++ b/security/keys/request_key.c
@@ -595,10 +595,10 @@ int wait_for_key_construction(struct key *key, bool intr)
intr ? TASK_INTERRUPTIBLE : TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);
if (ret)
return -ERESTARTSYS;
- if (test_bit(KEY_FLAG_NEGATIVE, &key->flags)) {
- smp_rmb();
- return key->reject_error;
- }
+ smp_rmb(); /* pairs with smp_wmb() in key_reject_and_link() */
+ ret = READ_ONCE(key->reject_error);
+ if (ret)
+ return ret;
return key_validate(key);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(wait_for_key_construction);
diff --git a/security/keys/trusted.c b/security/keys/trusted.c
index ddfaebf60fc8..bd85315cbfeb 100644
--- a/security/keys/trusted.c
+++ b/security/keys/trusted.c
@@ -1066,7 +1066,7 @@ static int trusted_update(struct key *key, struct key_preparsed_payload *prep)
char *datablob;
int ret = 0;

- if (test_bit(KEY_FLAG_NEGATIVE, &key->flags))
+ if (key_is_negative(key))
return -ENOKEY;
p = key->payload.data[0];
if (!p->migratable)
diff --git a/security/keys/user_defined.c b/security/keys/user_defined.c
index 3d8c68eba516..a5506400836c 100644
--- a/security/keys/user_defined.c
+++ b/security/keys/user_defined.c
@@ -114,7 +114,7 @@ int user_update(struct key *key, struct key_preparsed_payload *prep)

/* attach the new data, displacing the old */
key->expiry = prep->expiry;
- if (!test_bit(KEY_FLAG_NEGATIVE, &key->flags))
+ if (!key_is_negative(key))
zap = dereference_key_locked(key);
rcu_assign_keypointer(key, prep->payload.data[0]);
prep->payload.data[0] = NULL;
--
2.14.1.690.gbb1197296e-goog
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