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SubjectRe: Why mmap(MAP_POPULATE | MAP_NONBLOCK) is needed (Re: [patch] mmap.2: Add link to commit which broke MAP_POPULATE | MAP_NONBLOCK to be noop)
Michael, first of all thanks for feedback.

On Mon, Mar 20, 2017 at 08:38:50PM +0100, Michael Kerrisk (man-pages) wrote:
> [CC += Michel Lespinasse <walken@google.com>]
>
> Kirill,
>
> I need some help here.
>
> On 20 March 2017 at 16:59, Kirill Smelkov <kirr@nexedi.com> wrote:
> > On Sat, Mar 18, 2017 at 10:40:10PM +0300, Kirill Smelkov wrote:
> >> Signed-off-by: Kirill Smelkov <kirr@nexedi.com>
> >> ---
> >> man2/mmap.2 | 1 +
> >> 1 file changed, 1 insertion(+)
> >>
> >> diff --git a/man2/mmap.2 b/man2/mmap.2
> >> index 96875e486..f6fd56523 100644
> >> --- a/man2/mmap.2
> >> +++ b/man2/mmap.2
> >> @@ -300,6 +300,7 @@ Don't perform read-ahead:
> >> create page tables entries only for pages
> >> that are already present in RAM.
> >> Since Linux 2.6.23, this flag causes
> >> +.\" commit 54cb8821de07f2ffcd28c380ce9b93d5784b40d7
> >> .BR MAP_POPULATE
> >> to do nothing.
> >> One day, the combination of
> >
> > Please also find below benchmark which explains why
> >
> > mmap(MAP_POPULATE | MAP_NONBLOCK)
> >
> > is actually needed.
>
> Okay -- clearly things have changed (but I received no man-pages
> patch).

Strange it was sent. Let me show it once again here (git am -s):

---- 8< ----
From: Kirill Smelkov <kirr@nexedi.com>
Subject: [patch] mmap.2: Add link to commit which broke MAP_POPULATE | MAP_NONBLOCK to be noop

Signed-off-by: Kirill Smelkov <kirr@nexedi.com>
---
man2/mmap.2 | 1 +
1 file changed, 1 insertion(+)

diff --git a/man2/mmap.2 b/man2/mmap.2
index 96875e486..f6fd56523 100644
--- a/man2/mmap.2
+++ b/man2/mmap.2
@@ -300,6 +300,7 @@ Don't perform read-ahead:
create page tables entries only for pages
that are already present in RAM.
Since Linux 2.6.23, this flag causes
+.\" commit 54cb8821de07f2ffcd28c380ce9b93d5784b40d7
.BR MAP_POPULATE
to do nothing.
One day, the combination of
--
2.11.0
---- 8< ----

> What do you believe the man page should now say.

What man page says today correctly describes current behaviour:

---- 8< ----
MAP_NONBLOCK (since Linux 2.5.46)
This flag is meaningful only in conjunction with MAP_POPULATE. Don't perform read-
ahead: create page tables entries only for pages that are already present in RAM. Since
Linux 2.6.23, this flag causes MAP_POPULATE to do nothing. One day, the combination of
MAP_POPULATE and MAP_NONBLOCK may be reimplemented.
---- 8< ----
For now I've just added reference to commit corresponding to "Since Linux
2.6.23, this flag causes MAP_POPULATE to do nothing."


> Or, perhaps we can ask Michel:
>
> commit bebeb3d68b24bb4132d452c5707fe321208bcbcd
> Author: Michel Lespinasse <walken@google.com>
> Date: Fri Feb 22 16:32:37 2013 -0800
>
> The above commit (which went into Linux 3.9) seems to be the source of
> the change.
>
> Michael, can you suggest to us what the mmap() man page should now say
> about MAP_POPULATE?

It is good to have feedback from relevant people, but as my patch to
man-pages says, if I understand it correctly, the original patch which
changed behaviour is this:

---- 8< ----
commit 54cb8821de07f2ffcd28c380ce9b93d5784b40d7
Author: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de>
Date: Thu Jul 19 01:46:59 2007 -0700
mm: merge populate and nopage into fault (fixes nonlinear)

...

After this patch, MAP_NONBLOCK no longer sets up ptes for pages present in <-- NOTE here
pagecache. Seems like a fringe functionality anyway.

...

[akpm@linux-foundation.org: cleanup]
[randy.dunlap@oracle.com: doc. fixes for readahead]
[akpm@linux-foundation.org: build fix]
Signed-off-by: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de>
Signed-off-by: Randy Dunlap <randy.dunlap@oracle.com>
Cc: Mark Fasheh <mark.fasheh@oracle.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
---- 8< ----
Adding all people involved to Cc - please have a look at quoted benchmark below
which justifies usage of mmap(MAP_POPULATE | MAP_NONBLOCK).
Thanks,
Kirill


> > ---- 8< ---- (https://lab.nexedi.com/kirr/misc/blob/5a25f4ae/t_sysmmap_c.c)
> > /* This program benchmarks pagefault time.
> > *
> > * Unfortunately as of 2017-Mar-20 for data in pagecache the situation is as
> > * follows (i7-6600U, Linux 4.9.13):
> > *
> > * 1. minor pagefault: ~ 1200ns
> > * (this program)
> > *
> > * 2. read syscall + whole page copy: ~ 215ns
> > * (https://github.com/golang/go/issues/19563#issuecomment-287423654)
> > *
> > * 3. it is not possible to mmap(MAP_POPULATE | MAP_NONBLOCK) (i.e. prefault
> > * those PTE that are already in pagecache).
> > * ( http://www.spinics.net/lists/linux-man/msg11420.html,
> > * https://git.kernel.org/linus/54cb8821de07f2ffcd28c380ce9b93d5784b40d7 )
> > *
> > * 4. (Q) I'm not sure a mechanism exists in the kernel to automatically
> > * subscribe a VMA so that when a page becomes pagecached, associated PTE is
> > * adjusted so that programs won't need to pay minor pagefault time on
> > * access.
> > *
> > * unless 3 and 4 are solved mmap unfortunately seems to be slower choice
> > * compared to just pread.
> > */
> > #define _GNU_SOURCE
> > #include <sys/types.h>
> > #include <sys/stat.h>
> > #include <fcntl.h>
> > #include <unistd.h>
> > #include <stdio.h>
> > #include <stdlib.h>
> > #include <sys/time.h>
> > #include <sys/user.h>
> > #include <sys/mman.h>
> >
> > // 12345678
> > #define NITER 500000
> >
> > // microtime returns current time as double
> > double microtime() {
> > int err;
> > struct timeval tv;
> >
> > err = gettimeofday(&tv, NULL);
> > if (err == -1) {
> > perror("gettimeofday");
> > abort();
> > }
> >
> > return tv.tv_sec + 1E-6 * tv.tv_usec;
> > }
> >
> >
> > int main() {
> > unsigned char *addr, sum = 0;
> > int fd, err, i;
> > size_t size;
> > double Tstart, Tend;
> >
> > fd = open("/dev/shm/y.dat", O_RDWR | O_CREAT | O_TRUNC, 0666);
> > if (fd == -1) {
> > perror("open");
> > abort();
> > }
> >
> > size = NITER * PAGE_SIZE;
> >
> > err = ftruncate(fd, size);
> > if (err == -1) {
> > perror("ftruncate");
> > abort();
> > }
> >
> > #if 1
> > // make sure RAM is actually allocated
> > Tstart = microtime();
> > err = fallocate(fd, /*mode*/0, 0, size);
> > Tend = microtime();
> > if (err == -1) {
> > perror("fallocate");
> > abort();
> > }
> > printf("T(fallocate):\t%.1f\t%6.1f ns / page\n", Tend - Tstart, (Tend - Tstart) * 1E9 / NITER);
> > #endif
> >
> > Tstart = microtime();
> > addr = mmap(NULL, size, PROT_READ, MAP_SHARED, fd, 0);
> > //addr = mmap(NULL, size, PROT_READ, MAP_SHARED | MAP_POPULATE, fd, 0);
> > //addr = mmap(NULL, size, PROT_READ, MAP_SHARED | MAP_POPULATE | MAP_NONBLOCK, fd, 0);
> > if (addr == MAP_FAILED) {
> > perror("mmap");
> > abort();
> > }
> > Tend = microtime();
> > printf("T(mmap):\t%.1f\t%6.1f ns / page\n", Tend - Tstart, (Tend - Tstart) * 1E9 / NITER);
> >
> > Tstart = microtime();
> > //for (int j=0; j < 100; j++)
> > for (i=0; i<NITER; i++) {
> > sum += addr[i*PAGE_SIZE];
> > }
> > Tend = microtime();
> >
> > printf("T(pagefault):\t%.1f\t%6.1f ns / page\t(%i)\n", Tend - Tstart, (Tend - Tstart) * 1E9 / NITER, sum);
> >
> > return 0;
> > }
> > ---- 8< ----

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