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SubjectRe: [RFC][PATCH 2/2] cpufreq: schedutil: Force max frequency on busy CPUs
On 20-Mar 09:26, Vincent Guittot wrote:
> On 20 March 2017 at 04:57, Viresh Kumar <viresh.kumar@linaro.org> wrote:
> > On 19-03-17, 14:34, Rafael J. Wysocki wrote:
> >> From: Rafael J. Wysocki <rafael.j.wysocki@intel.com>
> >>
> >> The PELT metric used by the schedutil governor underestimates the
> >> CPU utilization in some cases. The reason for that may be time spent
> >> in interrupt handlers and similar which is not accounted for by PELT.
>
> Are you sure of the root cause described above (time stolen by irq
> handler) or is it just a hypotheses ? That would be good to be sure of
> the root cause
> Furthermore, IIRC the time spent in irq context is also accounted as
> run time for the running cfs task but not RT and deadline task running
> time

As long as the IRQ processing does not generate a context switch,
which is happening (eventually) if the top half schedule some deferred
work to be executed by a bottom half.

Thus, me too I would say that all the top half time is accounted in
PELT, since the current task is still RUNNABLE/RUNNING.

> So I'm not really aligned with the description of your problem: PELT
> metric underestimates the load of the CPU. The PELT is just about
> tracking CFS task utilization but not whole CPU utilization and
> according to your description of the problem (time stolen by irq),
> your problem doesn't come from an underestimation of CFS task but from
> time spent in something else but not accounted in the value used by
> schedutil

Quite likely. Indeed, it can really be that the CFS task is preempted
because of some RT activity generated by the IRQ handler.

More in general, I've also noticed many suboptimal freq switches when
RT tasks interleave with CFS ones, because of:
- relatively long down _and up_ throttling times
- the way schedutil's flags are tracked and updated
- the callsites from where we call schedutil updates

For example it can really happen that we are running at the highest
OPP because of some RT activity. Then we switch back to a relatively
low utilization CFS workload and then:
1. a tick happens which produces a frequency drop
2. right after a new IRQ starts a RT task

Well, because of the schedutil's throttling mechanism we can end up
running at the reduce OPP for quite long before (eventually) going
back to the higher OPP... if and only we are lucky enough to get a new
RT task starting outside of a throttling window.

I guess that if we have quite a lot of IRQ->RT activations in a CPU
with a relatively low CFS utilization, this unwanted frequency hopping
is quite likely.

> That would be good to be sure of what is running during this not
> accounted time and find a way to account them

Do we have any number to characterize the frequency of IRQ/RT
activations?

We should notice also that, while CFS tasks are preempted by RT ones,
the PELT signal decays. This can contribute on lowering even further
the utilization demand from the CFS class.

> >> That can be easily demonstrated by running kernel compilation on
> >> a Sandy Bridge Intel processor, running turbostat in parallel with
> >> it and looking at the values written to the MSR_IA32_PERF_CTL
> >> register. Namely, the expected result would be that when all CPUs
> >> were 100% busy, all of them would be requested to run in the maximum
> >> P-state, but observation shows that this clearly isn't the case.

Can you share a trace with at least sched_switch events enabled?
This can help on identify which workloads are there and how they
interact with schedutil.

> >> The CPUs run in the maximum P-state for a while and then are
> >> requested to run slower and go back to the maximum P-state after
> >> a while again. That causes the actual frequency of the processor to

That's possibly exactly the pattern I've described above.

> >> visibly oscillate below the sustainable maximum in a jittery fashion
> >> which clearly is not desirable.
> >>
> >> To work around this issue use the observation that, from the
> >> schedutil governor's perspective, CPUs that are never idle should
> >> always run at the maximum frequency and make that happen.

Perhaps some of the patches I've posted in this series:
https://lkml.org/lkml/2017/3/2/385
can help on that side.

The pattern you report seems to me quite matching with the case "b"
described in the cover letter. I've also shared a notebook:
https://gist.github.com/derkling/d6a21b459a18091b2b058668a550010d
which clearly shows that behavior happening in the first plot,
cell named Out[15].

Did you had a chance to have a look at them?

It would be nice to know if they can provide some benefits to your
use-case.

> >> To that end, add a counter of idle calls to struct sugov_cpu and
> >> modify cpuidle_idle_call() to increment that counter every time it
> >> is about to put the given CPU into an idle state. Next, make the
> >> schedutil governor look at that counter for the current CPU every
> >> time before it is about to start heavy computations. If the counter
> >> has not changed for over SUGOV_BUSY_THRESHOLD time (equal to 50 ms),
> >> the CPU has not been idle for at least that long and the governor
> >> will choose the maximum frequency for it without looking at the PELT
> >> metric at all.
> >
> > Looks like we are fixing a PELT problem with a schedutil Hack :)
>
> I would not say that it's a PELT problem (at least based on current
> description) but more that we don't track all
> activities of CPU

Agree... with both comments.


> >> Signed-off-by: Rafael J. Wysocki <rafael.j.wysocki@intel.com>
> >> ---
> >> include/linux/sched/cpufreq.h | 6 ++++++
> >> kernel/sched/cpufreq_schedutil.c | 38 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++--
> >> kernel/sched/idle.c | 3 +++
> >> 3 files changed, 45 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-)
> >>
> >> Index: linux-pm/kernel/sched/cpufreq_schedutil.c
> >> ===================================================================
> >> --- linux-pm.orig/kernel/sched/cpufreq_schedutil.c
> >> +++ linux-pm/kernel/sched/cpufreq_schedutil.c
> >> @@ -20,6 +20,7 @@
> >> #include "sched.h"
> >>
> >> #define SUGOV_KTHREAD_PRIORITY 50
> >> +#define SUGOV_BUSY_THRESHOLD (50 * NSEC_PER_MSEC)
> >>
> >> struct sugov_tunables {
> >> struct gov_attr_set attr_set;
> >> @@ -55,6 +56,9 @@ struct sugov_cpu {
> >>
> >> unsigned long iowait_boost;
> >> unsigned long iowait_boost_max;
> >> + unsigned long idle_calls;
> >> + unsigned long saved_idle_calls;
> >> + u64 busy_start;
> >> u64 last_update;
> >>
> >> /* The fields below are only needed when sharing a policy. */
> >> @@ -192,6 +196,34 @@ static void sugov_iowait_boost(struct su
> >> sg_cpu->iowait_boost >>= 1;
> >> }
> >>
> >> +void cpufreq_schedutil_idle_call(void)
> >> +{
> >> + struct sugov_cpu *sg_cpu = this_cpu_ptr(&sugov_cpu);
> >> +
> >> + sg_cpu->idle_calls++;
> >> +}
> >> +
> >> +static bool sugov_cpu_is_busy(struct sugov_cpu *sg_cpu)
> >> +{
> >> + if (sg_cpu->idle_calls != sg_cpu->saved_idle_calls) {
> >> + sg_cpu->busy_start = 0;
> >> + return false;
> >> + }
> >> +
> >> + if (!sg_cpu->busy_start) {
> >> + sg_cpu->busy_start = sg_cpu->last_update;
> >> + return false;
> >> + }
> >> +
> >> + return sg_cpu->last_update - sg_cpu->busy_start > SUGOV_BUSY_THRESHOLD;
> >> +}
> >> +
> >> +static void sugov_save_idle_calls(struct sugov_cpu *sg_cpu)
> >> +{
> >> + if (!sg_cpu->busy_start)
> >> + sg_cpu->saved_idle_calls = sg_cpu->idle_calls;
> >
> > Why aren't we doing this in sugov_cpu_is_busy() itself ? And isn't it possible
> > for idle_calls to get incremented by this time?
> >
> >> +}
> >> +
> >> static void sugov_update_single(struct update_util_data *hook, u64 time,
> >> unsigned int flags)
> >> {
> >> @@ -207,7 +239,7 @@ static void sugov_update_single(struct u
> >> if (!sugov_should_update_freq(sg_policy, time))
> >> return;
> >>
> >> - if (flags & SCHED_CPUFREQ_RT_DL) {
> >> + if ((flags & SCHED_CPUFREQ_RT_DL) || sugov_cpu_is_busy(sg_cpu)) {
> >> next_f = policy->cpuinfo.max_freq;
> >> } else {
> >> sugov_get_util(&util, &max);
> >> @@ -215,6 +247,7 @@ static void sugov_update_single(struct u
> >> next_f = get_next_freq(sg_policy, util, max);
> >> }
> >> sugov_update_commit(sg_policy, time, next_f);
> >> + sugov_save_idle_calls(sg_cpu);
> >> }
> >>
> >> static unsigned int sugov_next_freq_shared(struct sugov_cpu *sg_cpu)
> >> @@ -278,12 +311,13 @@ static void sugov_update_shared(struct u
> >> sg_cpu->last_update = time;
> >>
> >> if (sugov_should_update_freq(sg_policy, time)) {
> >> - if (flags & SCHED_CPUFREQ_RT_DL)
> >> + if ((flags & SCHED_CPUFREQ_RT_DL) || sugov_cpu_is_busy(sg_cpu))
> >
> > What about others CPUs in this policy?
> >
> >> next_f = sg_policy->policy->cpuinfo.max_freq;
> >> else
> >> next_f = sugov_next_freq_shared(sg_cpu);
> >>
> >> sugov_update_commit(sg_policy, time, next_f);
> >> + sugov_save_idle_calls(sg_cpu);
> >> }
> >>
> >> raw_spin_unlock(&sg_policy->update_lock);
> >
> > --
> > viresh

--
#include <best/regards.h>

Patrick Bellasi

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