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SubjectRe: [PATCH] doc: convert printk-formats.txt to rst
On Thu, Dec 07, 2017 at 02:50:42PM -0800, Kees Cook wrote:
> On Tue, Dec 5, 2017 at 5:45 PM, Tobin C. Harding <me@tobin.cc> wrote:
> > Documentation/printk-formats.txt is a candidate for conversion to
> > ReStructuredText format. Some effort has already been made to do this
> > conversion even thought the suffix is currently .txt
> >
> > Changes required to complete conversion
> >
> > - Add double backticks where needed.
> > - Add entry to Documentation/index.rst
> > - Use flat-table instead of ASCII table.
> > - Fix minor grammatical errors.
> > - Capitalize headers and correctly order heading adornments.
> > - Use 'Passed by reference' uniformly.
> > - Update pointer documentation around %px specifier.
> > - Fix erroneous double backticks (to commas).
> > - Simplify documentation for kobject.
> > - Convert lib/vsnprintf.c function docs to use kernel-docs and
> > include in Documentation/printk-formats.rst
>
> Awesome!

Hi Kees,

I've managed to muddle up the patches for this. New version went in as
part of a larger patch set. As you will no doubt see I've requested that
set to be dropped so I can implement your suggestions.

> >
> > Signed-off-by: Tobin C. Harding <me@tobin.cc>
> > ---
> >
> > The last two need special reviewing please. In particular the conversion
> > of kernel-docs in vsnprintf.c attempt was made to reduce documentation
> > duplication with comments in the source code being simplified in order
> > to be suitable for inclusion in Documentation/printk-formats.rst
> >
> > I used -M when formatting the patch. If you don't like the diff with
> > this flag just holla.
> >
> > thanks,
> > Tobin.
> >
> > Documentation/index.rst | 10 +
> > .../{printk-formats.txt => printk-formats.rst} | 295 ++++++++++++---------
> > lib/vsprintf.c | 160 +++++------
> > 3 files changed, 235 insertions(+), 230 deletions(-)
> > rename Documentation/{printk-formats.txt => printk-formats.rst} (61%)
> >
> > diff --git a/Documentation/index.rst b/Documentation/index.rst
> > index cb7f1ba5b3b1..83ace60efbe7 100644
> > --- a/Documentation/index.rst
> > +++ b/Documentation/index.rst
> > @@ -87,6 +87,16 @@ implementation.
> >
> > sh/index
> >
> > +Miscellaneous documentation
> > +---------------------------
> > +
> > +These guides contain general information useful when writing kernel code.
> > +
> > +.. toctree::
> > + :maxdepth: 1
> > +
> > + printk-formats
>
> I actually think this belongs in the kernel core API documentation
> list (Documentation/core-api/index.rst). I defer to Jon's opinion,
> though.

Your right, Jon has told me as such.

> > [...]
> > +.. kernel-doc:: lib/vsprintf.c
> > + :doc: Extended Format Pointer Specifiers
>
> Awesome!
>
> > [...]
> > +For printing pointers when you *really* want to print the address. Please
> > consider whether or not you are leaking sensitive information about the
> > -Kernel layout in memory before printing pointers with %px. %px is
> > -functionally equivalent to %lx. %px is preferred to %lx because it is more
> > -uniquely grep'able. If, in the future, we need to modify the way the Kernel
> > -handles printing pointers it will be nice to be able to find the call
> > -sites.
> > +kernel memory layout before printing pointers with ``%px``. ``%px`` is
> > +functionally equivalent to ``%lx`` (or ``%lu``). ``%px``, however, is
> > +preferable because it is more uniquely grep'able. If, in the future, we need
> > +to modify the way the Kernel handles printing pointers we will be better
> > +equipped to find the call sites.
>
> nit? You de-capitalized Kernel at the start but not at the end. "the
> Kernel handles ..."

Yeah, this was intentional. I guess it's wrong. I'm struggling with
capitalization of 'kernel' at the moment. In previous discussion it was
suggested to me that when referring to _the_ Kernel it should be capital
because it implies the Linux Kernel. And when referring to what could be
any kernel it should be lower case. The sticking point, and why I did
this patch as it is, is that I never refer to any other kernels so its
hard to tell when it should be lowercase. On top of this, loads of other
developers just us lowercase all the time.

Grammar is harder than C :)

> > [...]
> > diff --git a/lib/vsprintf.c b/lib/vsprintf.c
> > index 01c3957b2de6..f9247b78e8ef 100644
> > --- a/lib/vsprintf.c
> > +++ b/lib/vsprintf.c
> > @@ -1727,115 +1727,73 @@ static char *ptr_to_id(char *buf, char *end, void *ptr, struct printf_spec spec)
> > return number(buf, end, hashval, spec);
> > }
> >
> > +/**
> > + * DOC: Extended Format Pointer Specifiers
> > + *
> > + * Briefly we handle the following extensions:
> > + *
> > + * - ``F`` - For symbolic function descriptor pointers with offset.
> > + * - ``f`` - For simple symbolic function names without offset.
> > + *
> > + * - ``S`` - For symbolic direct pointers with offset.
> > + * - ``s`` - For symbolic direct pointers without offset.
> > + * - ``[FfSs]R`` - As above with ``__builtin_extract_return_addr()`` translation.
> > + * - ``B`` - For backtraced symbolic direct pointers with offset.
> > + * - ``R`` - For decoded struct resource, e.g., [mem 0x0-0x1f 64bit pref].
> > + * - ``r`` - For raw struct resource, e.g., [mem 0x0-0x1f flags 0x201].
> > + * - ``b[l]`` - For a bitmap, the number of bits is determined by the field
> > + * width which must be explicitly specified either as part of the format
> > + * string ``32b[l]`` or through ``*b[l]``, ``[l]`` selects range-list format
> > + * instead of hex format.
> > + * - ``M`` - For a 6-byte MAC address, it prints the address in the usual
> > + * colon-separated hex notation.
> > + * - ``m`` - For a 6-byte MAC address, it prints the hex address without colons.
> > + * - ``MF`` - For a 6-byte MAC FDDI address, it prints the address with a
> > + * dash-separated hex notation.
> > + * - ``[mM]R`` - For a 6-byte MAC address, Reverse order (Bluetooth).
> > + * - ``I[46]`` - For IPv4/IPv6 addresses printed in the usual way.
> > + * - ``I[S][pfs]`` - For generic IPv4/IPv6 address (struct sockaddr *) that falls
> > + * back to ``[4]`` or ``[6]`` and is able to print port ``[p]``,
> > + * flowinfo ``[f]``, scope ``[s]``.
> > + * - ``i[46]`` - For 'raw' IPv4/IPv6 addresses IPv6 omits the colons (01020304...0f)
> > + * IPv4 uses dot-separated decimal with leading 0's (010.123.045.006).
> > + * - ``i[S][pfs]`` - For generic IPv4/IPv6 address (struct sockaddr *) that falls back
> > + * to ``[4]`` or ``[6]`` (``[pfs]`` as above).
> > + * - ``[Ii][4S][hnbl]`` - For IPv4 addresses in host, network, big or little endian order.
> > + * - ``I[6S]c`` - For IPv6 addresses printed as per http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5952.
> > + * - ``E[achnops]`` - For an escaped buffer.
> > + * - ``U`` - For a 16 byte UUID/GUID.
> > + * - ``V`` - For a ``struct va_format`` which contains a format ``string *``
> > + * and ``va_list *``.
> > + * - ``K`` - For a kernel pointer that should be hidden from unprivileged users.
> > + * - ``NF`` - For a ``netdev_features_t``.
> > + * - ``h[CDN]`` - For a variable-length buffer.
> > + * - ``a[pd]`` - For address types ``[p] phys_addr_t``, ``[d] dma_addr_t`` and
> > + * derivatives.
> > + * - ``d[234]`` - For a dentry name (optionally 2-4 last components).
> > + * - ``D[234]`` - Same as 'd' but for a struct file.
> > + * - ``g`` - For ``block_device`` name (gendisk + partition number).
> > + * - ``C[n]`` - For a clock, it prints the name (Common Clock Framework) or
> > + * address (legacy clock framework) of the clock. ``[n]`` is optional.
> > + * - ``Cr`` - For a clock, it prints the current rate of the clock.
> > + * - ``G`` - For flags to be printed as a collection of symbolic strings that
> > + * would construct the specific value.
> > + * - ``O`` - For a kobject based struct (device node).
> > + * - ``x`` - For printing the address. Equivalent to ``%lx``.
> > + */
> > +
> > /*
> > * Show a '%p' thing. A kernel extension is that the '%p' is followed
> > * by an extra set of alphanumeric characters that are extended format
> > * specifiers.
> > *
> > + * Please see Documentation/printk-formats.rst for fuller description
> > + * of specifier extensions. Also please update this file when making
> > + * changes.
>
> Perhaps "... please update the kernel-doc above when making changes to
> this file." ?

this got changed

's/this/that'

based on previous review.

> > + *
> > * Please update scripts/checkpatch.pl when adding/removing conversion
> > * characters. (Search for "check for vsprintf extension").
> > *
> > - * Right now we handle:
> > - *
> > - * - 'F' For symbolic function descriptor pointers with offset
> > - * - 'f' For simple symbolic function names without offset
> > - * - 'S' For symbolic direct pointers with offset
> > - * - 's' For symbolic direct pointers without offset
> > - * - '[FfSs]R' as above with __builtin_extract_return_addr() translation
> > - * - 'B' For backtraced symbolic direct pointers with offset
> > - * - 'R' For decoded struct resource, e.g., [mem 0x0-0x1f 64bit pref]
> > - * - 'r' For raw struct resource, e.g., [mem 0x0-0x1f flags 0x201]
> > - * - 'b[l]' For a bitmap, the number of bits is determined by the field
> > - * width which must be explicitly specified either as part of the
> > - * format string '%32b[l]' or through '%*b[l]', [l] selects
> > - * range-list format instead of hex format
> > - * - 'M' For a 6-byte MAC address, it prints the address in the
> > - * usual colon-separated hex notation
> > - * - 'm' For a 6-byte MAC address, it prints the hex address without colons
> > - * - 'MF' For a 6-byte MAC FDDI address, it prints the address
> > - * with a dash-separated hex notation
> > - * - '[mM]R' For a 6-byte MAC address, Reverse order (Bluetooth)
> > - * - 'I' [46] for IPv4/IPv6 addresses printed in the usual way
> > - * IPv4 uses dot-separated decimal without leading 0's (1.2.3.4)
> > - * IPv6 uses colon separated network-order 16 bit hex with leading 0's
> > - * [S][pfs]
> > - * Generic IPv4/IPv6 address (struct sockaddr *) that falls back to
> > - * [4] or [6] and is able to print port [p], flowinfo [f], scope [s]
> > - * - 'i' [46] for 'raw' IPv4/IPv6 addresses
> > - * IPv6 omits the colons (01020304...0f)
> > - * IPv4 uses dot-separated decimal with leading 0's (010.123.045.006)
> > - * [S][pfs]
> > - * Generic IPv4/IPv6 address (struct sockaddr *) that falls back to
> > - * [4] or [6] and is able to print port [p], flowinfo [f], scope [s]
> > - * - '[Ii][4S][hnbl]' IPv4 addresses in host, network, big or little endian order
> > - * - 'I[6S]c' for IPv6 addresses printed as specified by
> > - * http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5952
> > - * - 'E[achnops]' For an escaped buffer, where rules are defined by combination
> > - * of the following flags (see string_escape_mem() for the
> > - * details):
> > - * a - ESCAPE_ANY
> > - * c - ESCAPE_SPECIAL
> > - * h - ESCAPE_HEX
> > - * n - ESCAPE_NULL
> > - * o - ESCAPE_OCTAL
> > - * p - ESCAPE_NP
> > - * s - ESCAPE_SPACE
> > - * By default ESCAPE_ANY_NP is used.
>
> Is there no way to retain these per-flag details in the kernel-doc?
> Seems a shame to split up the docs if we can keep it together in here.

Good point, I'll put these back in.

> > - * - 'U' For a 16 byte UUID/GUID, it prints the UUID/GUID in the form
> > - * "xxxxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxx"
> > - * Options for %pU are:
> > - * b big endian lower case hex (default)
> > - * B big endian UPPER case hex
> > - * l little endian lower case hex
> > - * L little endian UPPER case hex
> > - * big endian output byte order is:
> > - * [0][1][2][3]-[4][5]-[6][7]-[8][9]-[10][11][12][13][14][15]
> > - * little endian output byte order is:
> > - * [3][2][1][0]-[5][4]-[7][6]-[8][9]-[10][11][12][13][14][15]
> > - * - 'V' For a struct va_format which contains a format string * and va_list *,
> > - * call vsnprintf(->format, *->va_list).
> > - * Implements a "recursive vsnprintf".
> > - * Do not use this feature without some mechanism to verify the
> > - * correctness of the format string and va_list arguments.
> > - * - 'K' For a kernel pointer that should be hidden from unprivileged users
> > - * - 'NF' For a netdev_features_t
> > - * - 'h[CDN]' For a variable-length buffer, it prints it as a hex string with
> > - * a certain separator (' ' by default):
> > - * C colon
> > - * D dash
> > - * N no separator
> > - * The maximum supported length is 64 bytes of the input. Consider
> > - * to use print_hex_dump() for the larger input.
> > - * - 'a[pd]' For address types [p] phys_addr_t, [d] dma_addr_t and derivatives
> > - * (default assumed to be phys_addr_t, passed by reference)
> > - * - 'd[234]' For a dentry name (optionally 2-4 last components)
> > - * - 'D[234]' Same as 'd' but for a struct file
> > - * - 'g' For block_device name (gendisk + partition number)
> > - * - 'C' For a clock, it prints the name (Common Clock Framework) or address
> > - * (legacy clock framework) of the clock
> > - * - 'Cn' For a clock, it prints the name (Common Clock Framework) or address
> > - * (legacy clock framework) of the clock
> > - * - 'Cr' For a clock, it prints the current rate of the clock
> > - * - 'G' For flags to be printed as a collection of symbolic strings that would
> > - * construct the specific value. Supported flags given by option:
> > - * p page flags (see struct page) given as pointer to unsigned long
> > - * g gfp flags (GFP_* and __GFP_*) given as pointer to gfp_t
> > - * v vma flags (VM_*) given as pointer to unsigned long
> > - * - 'O' For a kobject based struct. Must be one of the following:
> > - * - 'OF[fnpPcCF]' For a device tree object
> > - * Without any optional arguments prints the full_name
> > - * f device node full_name
> > - * n device node name
> > - * p device node phandle
> > - * P device node path spec (name + @unit)
> > - * F device node flags
> > - * c major compatible string
> > - * C full compatible string
> > - *
> > - * - 'x' For printing the address. Equivalent to "%lx".
> > - *
> > - * ** Please update also Documentation/printk-formats.txt when making changes **
> > - *
> > * Note: The difference between 'S' and 'F' is that on ia64 and ppc64
> > * function pointers are really function descriptors, which contain a
> > * pointer to the real address.
> > --
> > 2.7.4
> >
>
> Nice work!

Cheers Kees. FTR, changes to implement are:

- Fix the capitalization of 'kernel'.
- Add ESCAPE_* flags back into kernel-docs in lib/vsprintf.c

thanks,
Tobin.

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