lkml.org 
[lkml]   [2017]   [Dec]   [21]   [last100]   RSS Feed
Views: [wrap][no wrap]   [headers]  [forward] 
 
Messages in this thread
/
From
Date
SubjectRe: [kernel-hardening] [PATCH] arm: kernel: implement fast refcount checking
On 21 December 2017 at 07:50, Jinbum Park <jinb.park7@gmail.com> wrote:
> This adds support to arm for fast refcount checking.
> It's heavily based on x86, arm64 implementation.
> (7a46ec0e2f48 ("locking/refcounts,
> x86/asm: Implement fast refcount overflow protection)
>
> This doesn't support under-ARMv6, thumb2-kernel yet.
>
> Test result of this patch is as follows.
>
> 1. LKDTM test
>
> - All REFCOUNT_* tests in LKDTM have passed.
>
> 2. Performance test
>
> - Cortex-A7, Quad Core, 450 MHz
> - Case with CONFIG_ARCH_HAS_REFCOUNT,
>
> perf stat -B -- echo ATOMIC_TIMING \
> >/sys/kernel/debug/provoke-crash/DIRECT
> 204.364247057 seconds time elapsed
>
> perf stat -B -- echo REFCOUNT_TIMING \
> >/sys/kernel/debug/provoke-crash/DIRECT
> 208.006062212 seconds time elapsed
>
> - Case with CONFIG_REFCOUNT_FULL,
>
> perf stat -B -- echo REFCOUNT_TIMING \
> >/sys/kernel/debug/provoke-crash/DIRECT
> 369.256523453 seconds time elapsed
>

This is a nice result. However, without any insight into the presence
of actual refcount hot spots, it is not obvious that we need this
patch. This is the reason we ended up enabling CONFIG_REFCOUNT_FULL
for arm64. I will let others comment on whether we want this patch in
the first place, and I will give some feedback on the implementation
below.

> Signed-off-by: Jinbum Park <jinb.park7@gmail.com>
> ---
> arch/arm/Kconfig | 1 +
> arch/arm/include/asm/atomic.h | 82 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> arch/arm/include/asm/refcount.h | 55 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> arch/arm/kernel/traps.c | 44 ++++++++++++++++++++++
> 4 files changed, 182 insertions(+)
> create mode 100644 arch/arm/include/asm/refcount.h
>
> diff --git a/arch/arm/Kconfig b/arch/arm/Kconfig
> index 3ea00d6..e07b986 100644
> --- a/arch/arm/Kconfig
> +++ b/arch/arm/Kconfig
> @@ -7,6 +7,7 @@ config ARM
> select ARCH_HAS_DEBUG_VIRTUAL
> select ARCH_HAS_DEVMEM_IS_ALLOWED
> select ARCH_HAS_ELF_RANDOMIZE
> + select ARCH_HAS_REFCOUNT if __LINUX_ARM_ARCH__ >= 6 && (!THUMB2_KERNEL)
> select ARCH_HAS_SET_MEMORY
> select ARCH_HAS_STRICT_KERNEL_RWX if MMU && !XIP_KERNEL
> select ARCH_HAS_STRICT_MODULE_RWX if MMU
> diff --git a/arch/arm/include/asm/atomic.h b/arch/arm/include/asm/atomic.h
> index 66d0e21..b203396 100644
> --- a/arch/arm/include/asm/atomic.h
> +++ b/arch/arm/include/asm/atomic.h
> @@ -17,6 +17,7 @@
> #include <linux/irqflags.h>
> #include <asm/barrier.h>
> #include <asm/cmpxchg.h>
> +#include <asm/opcodes.h>
>
> #define ATOMIC_INIT(i) { (i) }
>
> @@ -32,6 +33,87 @@
>
> #if __LINUX_ARM_ARCH__ >= 6
>
> +#ifdef CONFIG_ARCH_HAS_REFCOUNT
> +
> +#define REFCOUNT_ARM_BKPT_INSTR 0xfff001fc
> +
> +/*
> + * 1) encode call site that detect overflow in dummy b instruction.
> + * 2) overflow handler can decode dummy b, and get call site.
> + * 3) "(call site + 4) == strex" is always true.
> + * 4) the handler can get counter address via decoding strex.
> + */
> +#define REFCOUNT_TRIGGER_BKPT \
> + __inst_arm(REFCOUNT_ARM_BKPT_INSTR) \
> +" b 22b\n"

In my arm64 implementation, I used a cbz instruction so I could encode
both a register number and a relative offset easily. In your case, you
only need to encode the offset, so it is much better to use '.long 22b
- .' instead.

> +
> +/* If bkpt is triggered, skip strex routines after handling overflow */
> +#define REFCOUNT_CHECK_TAIL \
> +" strex %1, %0, [%3]\n" \
> +" teq %1, #0\n" \
> +" bne 1b\n" \
> +" .subsection 1\n" \
> +"33:\n" \
> + REFCOUNT_TRIGGER_BKPT \
> +" .previous\n"
> +
> +#define REFCOUNT_POST_CHECK_NEG \
> +"22: bmi 33f\n" \

It may be better to put the label on the 'strex' instruction directly,
to make things less confusing.

> + REFCOUNT_CHECK_TAIL
> +
> +#define REFCOUNT_POST_CHECK_NEG_OR_ZERO \
> +" beq 33f\n" \
> + REFCOUNT_POST_CHECK_NEG
> +
> +#define REFCOUNT_SMP_MB smp_mb()
> +#define REFCOUNT_SMP_NONE_MB
> +
> +#define REFCOUNT_OP(op, c_op, asm_op, post, mb) \
> +static inline int __refcount_##op(int i, atomic_t *v) \
> +{ \
> + unsigned long tmp; \
> + int result; \
> +\
> + REFCOUNT_SMP_ ## mb; \
> + prefetchw(&v->counter); \
> + __asm__ __volatile__("@ __refcount_" #op "\n" \
> +"1: ldrex %0, [%3]\n" \
> +" " #asm_op " %0, %0, %4\n" \
> + REFCOUNT_POST_CHECK_ ## post \
> + : "=&r" (result), "=&r" (tmp), "+Qo" (v->counter) \
> + : "r" (&v->counter), "Ir" (i) \
> + : "cc"); \
> +\
> + REFCOUNT_SMP_ ## mb; \
> + return result; \
> +} \
> +
> +REFCOUNT_OP(add_lt, +=, adds, NEG_OR_ZERO, NONE_MB);
> +REFCOUNT_OP(sub_lt, -=, subs, NEG, MB);
> +REFCOUNT_OP(sub_le, -=, subs, NEG_OR_ZERO, NONE_MB);
> +
> +static inline int __refcount_add_not_zero(int i, atomic_t *v)
> +{
> + unsigned long tmp;
> + int result;
> +
> + prefetchw(&v->counter);
> + __asm__ __volatile__("@ __refcount_add_not_zero\n"
> +"1: ldrex %0, [%3]\n"
> +" teq %0, #0\n"
> +" beq 2f\n"
> +" adds %0, %0, %4\n"
> + REFCOUNT_POST_CHECK_NEG
> +"2:"
> + : "=&r" (result), "=&r" (tmp), "+Qo" (v->counter)
> + : "r" (&v->counter), "Ir" (i)
> + : "cc");
> +
> + return result;
> +}
> +
> +#endif /* CONFIG_ARCH_HAS_REFCOUNT */
> +
> /*
> * ARMv6 UP and SMP safe atomic ops. We use load exclusive and
> * store exclusive to ensure that these are atomic. We may loop
> diff --git a/arch/arm/include/asm/refcount.h b/arch/arm/include/asm/refcount.h
> new file mode 100644
> index 0000000..300a2d5
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/arch/arm/include/asm/refcount.h
> @@ -0,0 +1,55 @@
> +/*
> + * arm-specific implementation of refcount_t. Based on x86 version and
> + * PAX_REFCOUNT from PaX/grsecurity.
> + *
> + * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
> + * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
> + * published by the Free Software Foundation.
> + */
> +
> +#ifndef __ASM_REFCOUNT_H
> +#define __ASM_REFCOUNT_H
> +
> +#include <linux/refcount.h>
> +
> +#include <asm/atomic.h>
> +#include <asm/uaccess.h>
> +
> +static __always_inline void refcount_add(int i, refcount_t *r)
> +{
> + __refcount_add_lt(i, &r->refs);
> +}
> +
> +static __always_inline void refcount_inc(refcount_t *r)
> +{
> + __refcount_add_lt(1, &r->refs);
> +}
> +
> +static __always_inline void refcount_dec(refcount_t *r)
> +{
> + __refcount_sub_le(1, &r->refs);
> +}
> +
> +static __always_inline __must_check bool refcount_sub_and_test(unsigned int i,
> + refcount_t *r)
> +{
> + return __refcount_sub_lt(i, &r->refs) == 0;
> +}
> +
> +static __always_inline __must_check bool refcount_dec_and_test(refcount_t *r)
> +{
> + return __refcount_sub_lt(1, &r->refs) == 0;
> +}
> +
> +static __always_inline __must_check bool refcount_add_not_zero(unsigned int i,
> + refcount_t *r)
> +{
> + return __refcount_add_not_zero(i, &r->refs) != 0;
> +}
> +
> +static __always_inline __must_check bool refcount_inc_not_zero(refcount_t *r)
> +{
> + return __refcount_add_not_zero(1, &r->refs) != 0;
> +}
> +
> +#endif
> diff --git a/arch/arm/kernel/traps.c b/arch/arm/kernel/traps.c
> index 5cf0488..a309215 100644
> --- a/arch/arm/kernel/traps.c
> +++ b/arch/arm/kernel/traps.c
> @@ -795,8 +795,52 @@ void abort(void)
> }
> EXPORT_SYMBOL(abort);
>
> +#ifdef CONFIG_ARCH_HAS_REFCOUNT
> +
> +static int refcount_overflow_handler(struct pt_regs *regs, unsigned int instr)
> +{
> + u32 dummy_b = le32_to_cpup((__le32 *)(regs->ARM_pc + 4));
> + u32 strex;
> + u32 rt;
> + bool zero = regs->ARM_cpsr & PSR_Z_BIT;
> +
> + /* point pc to the branch instruction that detected the overflow */
> + regs->ARM_pc += 4 + (((s32)dummy_b << 8) >> 6) + 8;
> +

This would become something like

s32 offset = *(s32 *)(regs->ARM_pc + 4);

/* point pc to the strex instruction that will overflow the refcount */
regs->ARM_pc += offset + 4;


> + /* decode strex to set refcount */
> + strex = le32_to_cpup((__le32 *)(regs->ARM_pc + 4));
> + rt = (strex << 12) >> 28;
> +

Don't we have better ways to decode an instruction? Also, could you
add a Thumb2 variant here? (and for the breakpoint instruction)


> + /* unconditionally saturate the refcount */
> + *(int *)regs->uregs[rt] = INT_MIN / 2;
> +
> + /* report error */
> + refcount_error_report(regs, zero ? "hit zero" : "overflow");
> +
> + /* advance pc and proceed, skip "strex" routine */
> + regs->ARM_pc += 16;

Please use a macro here to clarify that you are skipping the remaining
instructions in REFCOUNT_CHECK_TAIL

> + return 0;
> +}
> +
> +static struct undef_hook refcount_break_hook = {
> + .instr_mask = 0xffffffff,
> + .instr_val = REFCOUNT_ARM_BKPT_INSTR,
> + .cpsr_mask = 0,
> + .cpsr_val = 0,
> + .fn = refcount_overflow_handler,
> +};
> +
> +#define register_refcount_break_hook() register_undef_hook(&refcount_break_hook)
> +
> +#else /* !CONFIG_ARCH_HAS_REFCOUNT */
> +
> +#define register_refcount_break_hook()
> +
> +#endif /* CONFIG_ARCH_HAS_REFCOUNT */
> +
> void __init trap_init(void)
> {
> + register_refcount_break_hook();
> return;
> }
>
> --
> 1.9.1
>

\
 
 \ /
  Last update: 2017-12-21 10:19    [W:0.050 / U:81.036 seconds]
©2003-2018 Jasper Spaans|hosted at Digital Ocean and TransIP|Read the blog|Advertise on this site