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SubjectRe: [RFC PATCH for 4.15 5/6] membarrier: x86: Provide core serializing command
----- On Nov 9, 2017, at 8:19 PM, Andy Lutomirski luto@kernel.org wrote:

> On Thu, Nov 9, 2017 at 11:35 AM, Mathieu Desnoyers
> <mathieu.desnoyers@efficios.com> wrote:
>> ----- On Nov 9, 2017, at 2:07 PM, Andy Lutomirski luto@kernel.org wrote:
>>
>>> On Wed, Nov 8, 2017 at 10:35 AM, Mathieu Desnoyers
>>> <mathieu.desnoyers@efficios.com> wrote:
>>>
>>>> +/*
>>>> + * x86-64 implements return to user-space through sysret, which is not a
>>>> + * core-serializing instruction. Therefore, we need an explicit core
>>>> + * serializing instruction after going from kernel thread back to
>>>> + * user-space thread (active_mm moved back to current mm).
>>>> + */
>>>> +static inline void membarrier_arch_mm_sync_core(struct mm_struct *mm)
>>>> +{
>>>> + if (likely(!(atomic_read(&mm->membarrier_state) &
>>>> + MEMBARRIER_STATE_SYNC_CORE)))
>>>> + return;
>>>> + sync_core();
>>>> +}
>>>
>>> IMO there should be an extremely clear specification somewhere for
>>> what this function is supposed to do.
>>>
>>> If I remember correctly, it's supposed to promise that the icache is
>>> synced before the next time we return to usermode for the current mm
>>> on this CPU. If that's correct, then let's document it very
>>> explicitly and let's also drop the "membarrier" from the name -- it's
>>> a primitive we'll need anyway given the existing migration bug.
>>
>> I understand that on x86 (specifically), synchronizing the icache and
>> doing a core serializing instruction may mean the same thing.
>>
>> However, on architectures like ARM, icache sync differs from core
>> serialization. Those architectures typically have either a user-space
>> accessible instruction or a system call to perform the icache flush.
>> The missing part for JIT is core serialization (also called context
>> synchronization). icache flush is already handled by pre-existing
>> means.
>
> Can you explain what "core serialization" means for the non-ARM-using
> dummies in the audience? :) That is, what does it actually guarantee.

Those parts of the ARMv7 A/R Architecture Reference Manual are relevant:

A3.8.3 Memory barriers

"Instruction Synchronization Barrier (ISB)"

"An ISB instruction flushes the pipeline in the processor, so that all
instructions that come after the ISB instruction in program order are
fetched from cache or memory only after the ISB instruction has completed.
Using an ISB ensures that the effects of context-changing operations
executed before the ISB are visible to the instructions fetched after
the ISB instruction. Examples of context-changing operations that require
the insertion of an ISB instruction to ensure the effects of the operation
are visible to instructions fetched after the ISB instruction are:

• completed cache, TLB, and branch predictor maintenance operations
• changes to system control registers.

Any context-changing operations appearing in program order after the
ISB instruction only take effect after the ISB has been executed."

The following sections explain more about cache maintenance operations:

A3.9.3 Implication of caches for the application programmer
B2.2.9 Ordering of cache and branch predictor maintenance operations

AFAIU, ARMv7 has incoherent icache and dcache, so updating code requires
the appropriate barriers (DMB), d-cache and i-cache maintenance operations,
and a context synchronizing instruction (e.g. ISB) per core that has
observed the old code before it returns to user-space and possibly
starts executing the new code.

>
>>
>> So the promise here given by membarrier_arch_mm_sync_core() is that
>> a core serializing instruction is issued before the next time we return
>> to usermode on the current thread. However, we only need that guarantee
>> if the current thread's mm is a registered MEMBARRIER_{...}_SYNC_CORE user.
>
> Why not make is so that it guarantees core serialization before the
> next time we return to usermode on the current thread regardless of
> membarrier details and to push the membarrier details into the caller?
> Also, do you really mean "current thread" or do you mean "current
> mm", perhaps, or even "current CPU"? The latter makes the most sense
> to me.

You're right, it's not about the current thread. We could have this
situation:

CPU 0

Process P1 (mm needs core serialization)
Thread T1
Thread T2

Let's consider that arch_mm_sync_core() is issued for thread T1. The goal
here is to ensure that CPU 0 issues a core serializing instruction before
returning to user-space for any thread of P1 on CPU 0. Given that only
switching mm ends up triggering this, we could very well have T2 scheduled
right before we are about to go back to T1's userspace. Running T2 without
issuing a core serializing instruction would be a bug.

The exact condition we're looking for is "we want to execute a core
serializing instruction before the current CPU returns to user-space
for the current mm".

Indeed, just blindly issuing the isync insn before the current CPU
returns to user-space fits that description (it's a slightly stronger
guarantee than the bare minimum, which should be fine).


>
>>
>> Regarding the existing migration bug, what I think you want is a kind
>> of weaker "sync_core()", which ensures that a core serializing
>> instruction is issued before the next time the current thread returns
>> to usermode.
>

^ should be "before the next time the current CPU returns to usermode".

> ISTM that would also satisfy membarrier's needs.
>
>>
>> It could be e.g.: set_tsk_need_core_sync() which would set a
>> TIF_NEED_CORE_SYNC thread flag on the current thread.
>
> Nah, only x86 and maybe power are weird enough to need thread info
> flags. Let's keep implementation details like that out of the
> interface.

ok. And anyhow, it's not a per-thread thing, as discussed above.

>
>> What I suggest is that I update the comment above
>> membarrier_arch_mm_sync_core to spell out more clearly that all we
>> need is to have a core serializing instruction issued before the next
>> time the current thread returns to user-space.
>
> I would want more justification before x86 adds the "current thread"
> mechanism. x86 has an existing bug that needs fixing. Once that bug
> is fixed, I think you don't need anything that follows the thread
> around if it migrates before the core sync happens. With that bug
> unfixed, I think this whole exercise is pointless on x86 -- we're
> already buggy, and your series doesn't actually fix the bug.

So let's consider we add:

sync_core_before_usermode()

which would ensure that the current CPU issues a core serializing
instruction before returning to usermode. A trivial way to implement
it right away on x86 would be:

/*
* Issue a core serializing instruction before the current CPU returns
* to user-mode.
*/
static inline void sync_core_before_usermode()
{
sync_core();
}

Then all we need to do in order to fix the migration bug would be
to invoke sync_core_before_usermode() whenever a task is migrated
to a new CPU. This could be done by adding a "need_sync_core" flag
to the scheduler runqueue, set by migration, which would ensure the
scheduler invokes sync_core_before_usermode() before its CPU returns
to usermode.

Later on, as an optimization, we can then do more fancy stuff like
just setting a per-cpu mask, which is tested before returning to
user-mode. But I would prefer to get the most simple fix in place
first, and then focus on optimization later on.

>
>> I can still use
>> sync_core for now, and we can then improve the implementation
>> whenever a new thread flag is introduced. The new comment would look
>> like:
>>
>> /*
>> * x86-64 implements return to user-space through sysret, which is not a
>> * core-serializing instruction. Therefore, we need an explicit core
>> * serializing instruction after going from kernel thread back to
>> * user-space thread (active_mm moved back to current mm).
>> *
>> * This function ensures that a core serializing instruction is issued
>> * before the current thread returns to user-space.
>> */
>>
>
> What I'm suggesting is that you put something like the second
> paragraph into the generic header. But I still think that acting on
> the current *thread* is a mistake. On any architecture where you sync
> a thread properly but then get unsynced on migration, you have a
> problem just like x86 has now. Once we've logically synced a thread,
> I think it needs to remain synced regardless of migration. Also, what
> happens to all the other non-running threads that belong to the same
> mm? I.e. what's at all special about current?

Yeah, as discussed above, you're right. It's not about the current thread,
but rather about "before any thread part of the given mm returns to
usermode on the current CPU".

Does my sync_core_before_usermode() and migration fix proposal make sense ?

I can then move my arch-specific membarrier_arch_mm_sync_core to a generic header
and call it "membarrier_mm_sync_core_before_usermode", and implement it as:

if (unlikely(atomic_read(&mm->membarrier_state) & MEMBARRIER_STATE_SYNC_CORE))
sync_core_before_usermode();

The reason for having the membarrier_mm_sync_core_before_usermode rather than
having the mask check in the caller is because we want to handle CONFIG_MEMBARRIER=n.

Thoughts ?

Thanks,

Mathieu


>
> --Andy

--
Mathieu Desnoyers
EfficiOS Inc.
http://www.efficios.com

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