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SubjectRe: ftrace: Save module init functions kallsyms symbols for tracing
+++ Steven Rostedt [19/09/17 14:28 +0000]:
>From: "Steven Rostedt (VMware)" <rostedt@goodmis.org>
>
>If function tracing is active when the module init functions are freed, then
>store them to be referenced by kallsyms. As module init functions can now be
>traced on module load, they were useless:
>
> ># echo ':mod:snd_seq' > set_ftrace_filter
> ># echo function > current_tracer
> ># modprobe snd_seq
> ># cat trace
> # tracer: function
> #
> # _-----=> irqs-off
> # / _----=> need-resched
> # | / _---=> hardirq/softirq
> # || / _--=> preempt-depth
> # ||| / delay
> # TASK-PID CPU# |||| TIMESTAMP FUNCTION
> # | | | |||| | |
> modprobe-2786 [000] .... 3189.037874: 0xffffffffa0860000 <-do_one_initcall
> modprobe-2786 [000] .... 3189.037876: 0xffffffffa086004d <-0xffffffffa086000f
> modprobe-2786 [000] .... 3189.037876: 0xffffffffa086010d <-0xffffffffa0860018
> modprobe-2786 [000] .... 3189.037877: 0xffffffffa086011a <-0xffffffffa0860021
> modprobe-2786 [000] .... 3189.037877: 0xffffffffa0860080 <-0xffffffffa086002a
> modprobe-2786 [000] .... 3189.039523: 0xffffffffa0860400 <-0xffffffffa0860033
> modprobe-2786 [000] .... 3189.039523: 0xffffffffa086038a <-0xffffffffa086041c
> modprobe-2786 [000] .... 3189.039591: 0xffffffffa086038a <-0xffffffffa0860436
> modprobe-2786 [000] .... 3189.039657: 0xffffffffa086038a <-0xffffffffa0860450
> modprobe-2786 [000] .... 3189.039719: 0xffffffffa0860127 <-0xffffffffa086003c
> modprobe-2786 [000] .... 3189.039742: snd_seq_create_kernel_client <-0xffffffffa08601f6
>
>When the output is shown, the kallsyms for the module init functions have
>already been freed, and the output of the trace can not convert them to
>their function names.
>
>Now this looks like this:
>
> # tracer: function
> #
> # _-----=> irqs-off
> # / _----=> need-resched
> # | / _---=> hardirq/softirq
> # || / _--=> preempt-depth
> # ||| / delay
> # TASK-PID CPU# |||| TIMESTAMP FUNCTION
> # | | | |||| | |
> modprobe-2463 [002] .... 174.243237: alsa_seq_init <-do_one_initcall
> modprobe-2463 [002] .... 174.243239: client_init_data <-alsa_seq_init
> modprobe-2463 [002] .... 174.243240: snd_sequencer_memory_init <-alsa_seq_init
> modprobe-2463 [002] .... 174.243240: snd_seq_queues_init <-alsa_seq_init
> modprobe-2463 [002] .... 174.243240: snd_sequencer_device_init <-alsa_seq_init
> modprobe-2463 [002] .... 174.244860: snd_seq_info_init <-alsa_seq_init
> modprobe-2463 [002] .... 174.244861: create_info_entry <-snd_seq_info_init
> modprobe-2463 [002] .... 174.244936: create_info_entry <-snd_seq_info_init
> modprobe-2463 [002] .... 174.245003: create_info_entry <-snd_seq_info_init
> modprobe-2463 [002] .... 174.245072: snd_seq_system_client_init <-alsa_seq_init
> modprobe-2463 [002] .... 174.245094: snd_seq_create_kernel_client <-snd_seq_system_client_init
>
>Signed-off-by: Steven Rostedt (VMware) <rostedt@goodmis.org>

Hi Steven,

Hm, I think there may be a way to make this easier and avoid all this
copying and freeing of ftrace_mod* descriptors. It is trivially easy
to save module init symbol information in the module's copy of the
symbol table (mod->kallsyms). Currently the module loader just ignores
symbols in init sections when building the module symtab. If we just
make that information available, ftrace can easily walk the module's
symtab to look for the init function symbol, its (former, before it
was freed) address, and its name in the module's strtab. If this
change is implemented we could probably omit patch 05 as well.

This might look like the following (patch applies on top of patches 01-04)
(not thoroughly tested yet!):

-->8--
diff --git a/include/linux/module.h b/include/linux/module.h
index fe5aa3736707..8a8bdf8397d3 100644
--- a/include/linux/module.h
+++ b/include/linux/module.h
@@ -541,6 +541,10 @@ const struct kernel_symbol *find_symbol(const char *name,
bool gplok,
bool warn);

+const char *get_module_ksymbol(struct module *mod,
+ unsigned long addr,
+ unsigned long *size,
+ unsigned long *offset);
/*
* Walk the exported symbol table
*
diff --git a/kernel/module.c b/kernel/module.c
index 279a469dc375..db85e47d4f2f 100644
--- a/kernel/module.c
+++ b/kernel/module.c
@@ -2596,7 +2596,7 @@ static bool is_core_symbol(const Elf_Sym *src, const Elf_Shdr *sechdrs,
#ifndef CONFIG_KALLSYMS_ALL
|| !(sec->sh_flags & SHF_EXECINSTR)
#endif
- || (sec->sh_entsize & INIT_OFFSET_MASK))
+ )
return false;

return true;
@@ -3885,25 +3885,20 @@ static const char *symname(struct mod_kallsyms *kallsyms, unsigned int symnum)
return kallsyms->strtab + kallsyms->symtab[symnum].st_name;
}

-static const char *get_ksymbol(struct module *mod,
+const char *get_module_ksymbol(struct module *mod,
unsigned long addr,
unsigned long *size,
unsigned long *offset)
{
- unsigned int i, best = 0;
- unsigned long nextval;
+ unsigned int i, found = 0;
struct mod_kallsyms *kallsyms = rcu_dereference_sched(mod->kallsyms);
+ Elf_Sym *sym, *symtab = kallsyms->symtab;

- /* At worse, next value is at end of module */
- if (within_module_init(addr, mod))
- nextval = (unsigned long)mod->init_layout.base+mod->init_layout.text_size;
- else
- nextval = (unsigned long)mod->core_layout.base+mod->core_layout.text_size;
-
- /* Scan for closest preceding symbol, and next symbol. (ELF
- starts real symbols at 1). */
+ /* Note: ELF symbols in a symbol table start at index 1). */
for (i = 1; i < kallsyms->num_symtab; i++) {
- if (kallsyms->symtab[i].st_shndx == SHN_UNDEF)
+ sym = &symtab[i];
+
+ if (sym->st_shndx == SHN_UNDEF)
continue;

/* We ignore unnamed symbols: they're uninformative
@@ -3912,22 +3907,30 @@ static const char *get_ksymbol(struct module *mod,
|| is_arm_mapping_symbol(symname(kallsyms, i)))
continue;

- if (kallsyms->symtab[i].st_value <= addr
- && kallsyms->symtab[i].st_value > kallsyms->symtab[best].st_value)
- best = i;
- if (kallsyms->symtab[i].st_value > addr
- && kallsyms->symtab[i].st_value < nextval)
- nextval = kallsyms->symtab[i].st_value;
+ /*
+ * These are "internal" symbols aliased to the real init and
+ * exit functions in a module. But they're not particularly
+ * informative in oopses/tracing. Skip them and use the module's
+ * real init/exit functions instead.
+ */
+ if (strcmp(symname(kallsyms, i), "init_module") == 0 ||
+ strcmp(symname(kallsyms, i), "cleanup_module") == 0)
+ continue;
+
+ if (sym->st_value <= addr &&
+ addr < sym->st_value + sym->st_size)
+ found = i;
}

- if (!best)
+ if (!found)
return NULL;

if (size)
- *size = nextval - kallsyms->symtab[best].st_value;
+ *size = symtab[found].st_size;
if (offset)
- *offset = addr - kallsyms->symtab[best].st_value;
- return symname(kallsyms, best);
+ *offset = addr - symtab[found].st_value;
+
+ return symname(kallsyms, found);
}

/* For kallsyms to ask for address resolution. NULL means not found. Careful
@@ -3946,7 +3949,7 @@ const char *module_address_lookup(unsigned long addr,
if (mod) {
if (modname)
*modname = mod->name;
- ret = get_ksymbol(mod, addr, size, offset);
+ ret = get_module_ksymbol(mod, addr, size, offset);
}
/* Make a copy in here where it's safe */
if (ret) {
@@ -3969,7 +3972,7 @@ int lookup_module_symbol_name(unsigned long addr, char *symname)
if (within_module(addr, mod)) {
const char *sym;

- sym = get_ksymbol(mod, addr, NULL, NULL);
+ sym = get_module_ksymbol(mod, addr, NULL, NULL);
if (!sym)
goto out;
strlcpy(symname, sym, KSYM_NAME_LEN);
@@ -3994,7 +3997,7 @@ int lookup_module_symbol_attrs(unsigned long addr, unsigned long *size,
if (within_module(addr, mod)) {
const char *sym;

- sym = get_ksymbol(mod, addr, size, offset);
+ sym = get_module_ksymbol(mod, addr, size, offset);
if (!sym)
goto out;
if (modname)
diff --git a/kernel/trace/ftrace.c b/kernel/trace/ftrace.c
index f0af3573b808..c9862ddd3954 100644
--- a/kernel/trace/ftrace.c
+++ b/kernel/trace/ftrace.c
@@ -5675,20 +5675,12 @@ static int ftrace_process_locs(struct module *mod,
return ret;
}

-struct ftrace_mod_func {
- struct list_head list;
- char *name;
- unsigned long ip;
- unsigned int size;
-};
-
struct ftrace_mod_map {
struct rcu_head rcu;
struct list_head list;
struct module *mod;
unsigned long start_addr;
unsigned long end_addr;
- struct list_head funcs;
};

#ifdef CONFIG_MODULES
@@ -5753,15 +5745,6 @@ static void clear_mod_from_hashes(struct ftrace_page *pg)
static void ftrace_free_mod_map(struct rcu_head *rcu)
{
struct ftrace_mod_map *mod_map = container_of(rcu, struct ftrace_mod_map, rcu);
- struct ftrace_mod_func *mod_func;
- struct ftrace_mod_func *n;
-
- /* All the contents of mod_map are now not visible to readers */
- list_for_each_entry_safe(mod_func, n, &mod_map->funcs, list) {
- kfree(mod_func->name);
- list_del(&mod_func->list);
- kfree(mod_func);
- }

kfree(mod_map);
}
@@ -5912,36 +5895,6 @@ void ftrace_module_init(struct module *mod)
mod->ftrace_callsites + mod->num_ftrace_callsites);
}

-static void save_ftrace_mod_rec(struct ftrace_mod_map *mod_map,
- struct dyn_ftrace *rec)
-{
- struct ftrace_mod_func *mod_func;
- unsigned long symsize;
- unsigned long offset;
- char str[KSYM_SYMBOL_LEN];
- char *modname;
- const char *ret;
-
- ret = kallsyms_lookup(rec->ip, &symsize, &offset, &modname, str);
- if (!ret)
- return;
-
- mod_func = kmalloc(sizeof(*mod_func), GFP_KERNEL);
- if (!mod_func)
- return;
-
- mod_func->name = kstrdup(str, GFP_KERNEL);
- if (!mod_func->name) {
- kfree(mod_func);
- return;
- }
-
- mod_func->ip = rec->ip - offset;
- mod_func->size = symsize;
-
- list_add_rcu(&mod_func->list, &mod_map->funcs);
-}
-
static struct ftrace_mod_map *
allocate_ftrace_mod_map(struct module *mod,
unsigned long start, unsigned long end)
@@ -5956,43 +5909,11 @@ allocate_ftrace_mod_map(struct module *mod,
mod_map->start_addr = start;
mod_map->end_addr = end;

- INIT_LIST_HEAD_RCU(&mod_map->funcs);
-
list_add_rcu(&mod_map->list, &ftrace_mod_maps);

return mod_map;
}

-static const char *
-ftrace_func_address_lookup(struct ftrace_mod_map *mod_map,
- unsigned long addr, unsigned long *size,
- unsigned long *off, char *sym)
-{
- struct ftrace_mod_func *found_func = NULL;
- struct ftrace_mod_func *mod_func;
-
- list_for_each_entry_rcu(mod_func, &mod_map->funcs, list) {
- if (addr >= mod_func->ip &&
- addr < mod_func->ip + mod_func->size) {
- found_func = mod_func;
- break;
- }
- }
-
- if (found_func) {
- if (size)
- *size = found_func->size;
- if (off)
- *off = addr - found_func->ip;
- if (sym)
- strlcpy(sym, found_func->name, KSYM_NAME_LEN);
-
- return found_func->name;
- }
-
- return NULL;
-}
-
const char *
ftrace_mod_address_lookup(unsigned long addr, unsigned long *size,
unsigned long *off, char **modname, char *sym)
@@ -6003,10 +5924,12 @@ ftrace_mod_address_lookup(unsigned long addr, unsigned long *size,
/* mod_map is freed via call_rcu_sched() */
preempt_disable();
list_for_each_entry_rcu(mod_map, &ftrace_mod_maps, list) {
- ret = ftrace_func_address_lookup(mod_map, addr, size, off, sym);
+ ret = get_module_ksymbol(mod_map->mod, addr, size, off);
if (ret) {
if (modname)
*modname = mod_map->mod->name;
+ if (sym)
+ strlcpy(sym, ret, KSYM_NAME_LEN);
break;
}
}
@@ -6060,9 +5983,6 @@ void ftrace_free_mem(struct module *mod, void *start_ptr, void *end_ptr)
if (!rec)
continue;

- if (mod_map)
- save_ftrace_mod_rec(mod_map, rec);
-
pg->index--;
ftrace_update_tot_cnt--;
if (!pg->index) {
-->8--
Using the snd_seq example from patch 03, I get the same human-readable trace:

# tracer: function
#
# _-----=> irqs-off
# / _----=> need-resched
# | / _---=> hardirq/softirq
# || / _--=> preempt-depth
# ||| / delay
# TASK-PID CPU# |||| TIMESTAMP FUNCTION
# | | | |||| | |
modprobe-12748 [005] .... 138.964923: alsa_seq_init <-do_one_initcall
modprobe-12748 [005] .... 138.964924: client_init_data <-alsa_seq_init
modprobe-12748 [005] .... 138.964924: snd_sequencer_memory_init <-alsa_seq_init
modprobe-12748 [005] .... 138.964924: snd_seq_queues_init <-alsa_seq_init
modprobe-12748 [005] .... 138.964924: snd_sequencer_device_init <-alsa_seq_init
modprobe-12748 [005] .... 138.964956: snd_seq_info_init <-alsa_seq_init
modprobe-12748 [005] .... 138.964956: create_info_entry <-snd_seq_info_init
modprobe-12748 [005] .... 138.964958: create_info_entry <-snd_seq_info_init
modprobe-12748 [005] .... 138.964959: create_info_entry <-snd_seq_info_init
modprobe-12748 [005] .... 138.964960: snd_seq_system_client_init <-alsa_seq_init
modprobe-12748 [005] .... 138.964960: snd_seq_create_kernel_client <-snd_seq_system_client_init
In addition, the module init functions appear in /proc/kallsyms as
well. Thoughts? Would saving init symbol information in the module
symtab be sufficient for ftrace?

Thanks,

Jessica

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