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Subject[RFC PATCH -tip 5/5] kprobes: docs: Remove jprobe related document
Remove jprobe related documentations from kprobes.txt.
It also add some migration advice for the people who still
using jprobe.

Signed-off-by: Masami Hiramatsu <>
Documentation/kprobes.txt | 153 +++++++++++++++------------------------------
1 file changed, 51 insertions(+), 102 deletions(-)

diff --git a/Documentation/kprobes.txt b/Documentation/kprobes.txt
index 2335715bf471..e8dceb1435e0 100644
--- a/Documentation/kprobes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/kprobes.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ Kernel Probes (Kprobes)


- 1. Concepts: Kprobes, Jprobes, Return Probes
+ 1. Concepts: Kprobes, and Return Probes
2. Architectures Supported
3. Configuring Kprobes
4. API Reference
@@ -16,12 +16,12 @@ Kernel Probes (Kprobes)
6. Probe Overhead
8. Kprobes Example
- 9. Jprobes Example
- 10. Kretprobes Example
+ 9. Kretprobes Example
+ 10. Deprecated feature
Appendix A: The kprobes debugfs interface
Appendix B: The kprobes sysctl interface

-Concepts: Kprobes, Jprobes, Return Probes
+Concepts: Kprobes and Return Probes

Kprobes enables you to dynamically break into any kernel routine and
@@ -32,12 +32,10 @@ routine to be invoked when the breakpoint is hit.
.. [1] some parts of the kernel code can not be trapped, see

-There are currently three types of probes: kprobes, jprobes, and
-kretprobes (also called return probes). A kprobe can be inserted
-on virtually any instruction in the kernel. A jprobe is inserted at
-the entry to a kernel function, and provides convenient access to the
-function's arguments. A return probe fires when a specified function
+There are currently two types of probes: kprobes, and kretprobes
+(also called return probes). A kprobe can be inserted on virtually
+any instruction in the kernel. A return probe fires when a specified
+function returns.

In the typical case, Kprobes-based instrumentation is packaged as
a kernel module. The module's init function installs ("registers")
@@ -82,45 +80,6 @@ After the instruction is single-stepped, Kprobes executes the
"post_handler," if any, that is associated with the kprobe.
Execution then continues with the instruction following the probepoint.

-How Does a Jprobe Work?
-A jprobe is implemented using a kprobe that is placed on a function's
-entry point. It employs a simple mirroring principle to allow
-seamless access to the probed function's arguments. The jprobe
-handler routine should have the same signature (arg list and return
-type) as the function being probed, and must always end by calling
-the Kprobes function jprobe_return().
-Here's how it works. When the probe is hit, Kprobes makes a copy of
-the saved registers and a generous portion of the stack (see below).
-Kprobes then points the saved instruction pointer at the jprobe's
-handler routine, and returns from the trap. As a result, control
-passes to the handler, which is presented with the same register and
-stack contents as the probed function. When it is done, the handler
-calls jprobe_return(), which traps again to restore the original stack
-contents and processor state and switch to the probed function.
-By convention, the callee owns its arguments, so gcc may produce code
-that unexpectedly modifies that portion of the stack. This is why
-Kprobes saves a copy of the stack and restores it after the jprobe
-handler has run. Up to MAX_STACK_SIZE bytes are copied -- e.g.,
-64 bytes on i386.
-Note that the probed function's args may be passed on the stack
-or in registers. The jprobe will work in either case, so long as the
-handler's prototype matches that of the probed function.
-Note that in some architectures (e.g.: arm64 and sparc64) the stack
-copy is not done, as the actual location of stacked parameters may be
-outside of a reasonable MAX_STACK_SIZE value and because that location
-cannot be determined by the jprobes code. In this case the jprobes
-user must be careful to make certain the calling signature of the
-function does not cause parameters to be passed on the stack (e.g.:
-more than eight function arguments, an argument of more than sixteen
-bytes, or more than 64 bytes of argument data, depending on
Return Probes

@@ -245,8 +204,7 @@ Pre-optimization
After preparing the detour buffer, Kprobes verifies that none of the
following situations exist:

-- The probe has either a break_handler (i.e., it's a jprobe) or a
- post_handler.
+- The probe has a post_handler.
- Other instructions in the optimized region are probed.
- The probe is disabled.

@@ -331,7 +289,7 @@ rejects registering it, if the given address is in the blacklist.
Architectures Supported

-Kprobes, jprobes, and return probes are implemented on the following
+Kprobes and return probes are implemented on the following

- i386 (Supports jump optimization)
@@ -446,27 +404,6 @@ architecture-specific trap number associated with the fault (e.g.,
on i386, 13 for a general protection fault or 14 for a page fault).
Returns 1 if it successfully handled the exception.

- #include <linux/kprobes.h>
- int register_jprobe(struct jprobe *jp)
-Sets a breakpoint at the address jp->kp.addr, which must be the address
-of the first instruction of a function. When the breakpoint is hit,
-Kprobes runs the handler whose address is jp->entry.
-The handler should have the same arg list and return type as the probed
-function; and just before it returns, it must call jprobe_return().
-(The handler never actually returns, since jprobe_return() returns
-control to Kprobes.) If the probed function is declared asmlinkage
-or anything else that affects how args are passed, the handler's
-declaration must match.
-register_jprobe() returns 0 on success, or a negative errno otherwise.

@@ -513,7 +450,6 @@ unregister_*probe

#include <linux/kprobes.h>
void unregister_kprobe(struct kprobe *kp);
- void unregister_jprobe(struct jprobe *jp);
void unregister_kretprobe(struct kretprobe *rp);

Removes the specified probe. The unregister function can be called
@@ -532,7 +468,6 @@ register_*probes
#include <linux/kprobes.h>
int register_kprobes(struct kprobe **kps, int num);
int register_kretprobes(struct kretprobe **rps, int num);
- int register_jprobes(struct jprobe **jps, int num);

Registers each of the num probes in the specified array. If any
error occurs during registration, all probes in the array, up to
@@ -555,7 +490,6 @@ unregister_*probes
#include <linux/kprobes.h>
void unregister_kprobes(struct kprobe **kps, int num);
void unregister_kretprobes(struct kretprobe **rps, int num);
- void unregister_jprobes(struct jprobe **jps, int num);

Removes each of the num probes in the specified array at once.

@@ -574,7 +508,6 @@ disable_*probe
#include <linux/kprobes.h>
int disable_kprobe(struct kprobe *kp);
int disable_kretprobe(struct kretprobe *rp);
- int disable_jprobe(struct jprobe *jp);

Temporarily disables the specified ``*probe``. You can enable it again by using
enable_*probe(). You must specify the probe which has been registered.
@@ -587,7 +520,6 @@ enable_*probe
#include <linux/kprobes.h>
int enable_kprobe(struct kprobe *kp);
int enable_kretprobe(struct kretprobe *rp);
- int enable_jprobe(struct jprobe *jp);

Enables ``*probe`` which has been disabled by disable_*probe(). You must specify
the probe which has been registered.
@@ -595,12 +527,10 @@ the probe which has been registered.
Kprobes Features and Limitations

-Kprobes allows multiple probes at the same address. Currently,
-however, there cannot be multiple jprobes on the same function at
-the same time. Also, a probepoint for which there is a jprobe or
-a post_handler cannot be optimized. So if you install a jprobe,
-or a kprobe with a post_handler, at an optimized probepoint, the
-probepoint will be unoptimized automatically.
+Kprobes allows multiple probes at the same address. Also,
+a probepoint for which there is a post_handler cannot be optimized.
+So if you install a kprobe with a post_handler, at an optimized
+probepoint, the probepoint will be unoptimized automatically.

In general, you can install a probe anywhere in the kernel.
In particular, you can probe interrupt handlers. Known exceptions
@@ -662,7 +592,7 @@ We're unaware of other specific cases where this could be a problem.
If, upon entry to or exit from a function, the CPU is running on
a stack other than that of the current task, registering a return
probe on that function may produce undesirable results. For this
-reason, Kprobes doesn't support return probes (or kprobes or jprobes)
+reason, Kprobes doesn't support return probes (or kprobes)
on the x86_64 version of __switch_to(); the registration functions
return -EINVAL.

@@ -706,24 +636,24 @@ Probe Overhead
On a typical CPU in use in 2005, a kprobe hit takes 0.5 to 1.0
microseconds to process. Specifically, a benchmark that hits the same
probepoint repeatedly, firing a simple handler each time, reports 1-2
-million hits per second, depending on the architecture. A jprobe or
-return-probe hit typically takes 50-75% longer than a kprobe hit.
+million hits per second, depending on the architecture. A return-probe
+hit typically takes 50-75% longer than a kprobe hit.
When you have a return probe set on a function, adding a kprobe at
the entry to that function adds essentially no overhead.

Here are sample overhead figures (in usec) for different architectures::

- k = kprobe; j = jprobe; r = return probe; kr = kprobe + return probe
- on same function; jr = jprobe + return probe on same function::
+ k = kprobe; r = return probe; kr = kprobe + return probe
+ on same function

i386: Intel Pentium M, 1495 MHz, 2957.31 bogomips
- k = 0.57 usec; j = 1.00; r = 0.92; kr = 0.99; jr = 1.40
+ k = 0.57 usec; r = 0.92; kr = 0.99

x86_64: AMD Opteron 246, 1994 MHz, 3971.48 bogomips
- k = 0.49 usec; j = 0.76; r = 0.80; kr = 0.82; jr = 1.07
+ k = 0.49 usec; r = 0.80; kr = 0.82

ppc64: POWER5 (gr), 1656 MHz (SMT disabled, 1 virtual CPU per physical CPU)
- k = 0.77 usec; j = 1.31; r = 1.26; kr = 1.45; jr = 1.99
+ k = 0.77 usec; r = 1.26; kr = 1.45

Optimized Probe Overhead
@@ -755,11 +685,6 @@ Kprobes Example

See samples/kprobes/kprobe_example.c

-Jprobes Example
-See samples/kprobes/jprobe_example.c
Kretprobes Example

@@ -772,6 +697,31 @@ For additional information on Kprobes, refer to the following URLs:
- (pages 101-115)

+Deprecated Features
+Jprobe is now deprecated feature. People who are depending on it, must
+migrate to other tracing features. Please consider to migrate your tool
+to following options.
+- Use trace-event to trace target function with arguments
+ trace-event is a low-overhead (and almost no visible overhead if it
+ is off) statically defined event interface. You can define new events
+ and trace it via ftrace or any other tracing tools.
+ See following urls,
+ -
+ -
+ -
+- Use ftrace dynamic events (kprobe event) with perf-probe
+ If you build your kernel with debug info (CONFIG_DEBUG_INFO), you can
+ find which register/stack is assigned to which local variable or arguments
+ by using perf-probe and set up new event to trace it.
+ See following documents,
+ - Documentation/trace/kprobetrace.txt
+ - Documentation/trace/events.txt
+ - tools/perf/Documentation/perf-probe.txt

The kprobes debugfs interface
@@ -783,14 +733,13 @@ under the /sys/kernel/debug/kprobes/ directory (assuming debugfs is mounted at /
/sys/kernel/debug/kprobes/list: Lists all registered probes on the system::

c015d71a k vfs_read+0x0
- c011a316 j do_fork+0x0
c03dedc5 r tcp_v4_rcv+0x0

The first column provides the kernel address where the probe is inserted.
-The second column identifies the type of probe (k - kprobe, r - kretprobe
-and j - jprobe), while the third column specifies the symbol+offset of
-the probe. If the probed function belongs to a module, the module name
-is also specified. Following columns show probe status. If the probe is on
+The second column identifies the type of probe (k - kprobe and r - kretprobe)
+while the third column specifies the symbol+offset of the probe.
+If the probed function belongs to a module, the module name is also
+specified. Following columns show probe status. If the probe is on
a virtual address that is no longer valid (module init sections, module
virtual addresses that correspond to modules that've been unloaded),
such probes are marked with [GONE]. If the probe is temporarily disabled,
 \ /
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