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SubjectRe: [PATCH 2/3] locking/barriers: Kill lockless_dereference
On Thu, Oct 12, 2017 at 03:26:16PM +0100, Will Deacon wrote:
> lockless_dereference is a nice idea, but its gained little traction in
> kernel code since it's introduction three years ago. This is partly
> because it's a pain to type, but also because using READ_ONCE instead
> will work correctly on all architectures apart from Alpha, which is a
> fully supported but somewhat niche architecture these days.
>
> This patch moves smp_read_barrier_depends() (a NOP on all architectures
> other than Alpha) from lockless_dereference into READ_ONCE, converts
> the few actual users over to READ_ONCE and then finally removes
> lockless_dereference altogether.
>
> Signed-off-by: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>

Reviewed-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>

> ---
> Documentation/memory-barriers.txt | 12 ------------
> .../translations/ko_KR/memory-barriers.txt | 12 ------------
> arch/x86/events/core.c | 2 +-
> arch/x86/include/asm/mmu_context.h | 4 ++--
> arch/x86/kernel/ldt.c | 2 +-
> drivers/md/dm-mpath.c | 20 ++++++++++----------
> fs/dcache.c | 4 ++--
> fs/overlayfs/ovl_entry.h | 2 +-
> fs/overlayfs/readdir.c | 2 +-
> include/linux/compiler.h | 21 +--------------------
> include/linux/rculist.h | 4 ++--
> include/linux/rcupdate.h | 4 ++--
> kernel/events/core.c | 4 ++--
> kernel/seccomp.c | 2 +-
> kernel/task_work.c | 2 +-
> mm/slab.h | 2 +-
> 16 files changed, 28 insertions(+), 71 deletions(-)
>
> diff --git a/Documentation/memory-barriers.txt b/Documentation/memory-barriers.txt
> index b759a60624fd..470a682f3fa4 100644
> --- a/Documentation/memory-barriers.txt
> +++ b/Documentation/memory-barriers.txt
> @@ -1886,18 +1886,6 @@ There are some more advanced barrier functions:
> See Documentation/atomic_{t,bitops}.txt for more information.
>
>
> - (*) lockless_dereference();
> -
> - This can be thought of as a pointer-fetch wrapper around the
> - smp_read_barrier_depends() data-dependency barrier.
> -
> - This is also similar to rcu_dereference(), but in cases where
> - object lifetime is handled by some mechanism other than RCU, for
> - example, when the objects removed only when the system goes down.
> - In addition, lockless_dereference() is used in some data structures
> - that can be used both with and without RCU.
> -
> -
> (*) dma_wmb();
> (*) dma_rmb();
>
> diff --git a/Documentation/translations/ko_KR/memory-barriers.txt b/Documentation/translations/ko_KR/memory-barriers.txt
> index a7a813258013..ec3b46e27b7a 100644
> --- a/Documentation/translations/ko_KR/memory-barriers.txt
> +++ b/Documentation/translations/ko_KR/memory-barriers.txt
> @@ -1858,18 +1858,6 @@ Mandatory 배리어들은 SMP 시스템에서도 UP 시스템에서도 SMP 효
> 참고하세요.
>
>
> - (*) lockless_dereference();
> -
> - 이 함수는 smp_read_barrier_depends() 데이터 의존성 배리어를 사용하는
> - 포인터 읽어오기 래퍼(wrapper) 함수로 생각될 수 있습니다.
> -
> - 객체의 라이프타임이 RCU 외의 메커니즘으로 관리된다는 점을 제외하면
> - rcu_dereference() 와도 유사한데, 예를 들면 객체가 시스템이 꺼질 때에만
> - 제거되는 경우 등입니다. 또한, lockless_dereference() 은 RCU 와 함께
> - 사용될수도, RCU 없이 사용될 수도 있는 일부 데이터 구조에 사용되고
> - 있습니다.
> -
> -
> (*) dma_wmb();
> (*) dma_rmb();
>
> diff --git a/arch/x86/events/core.c b/arch/x86/events/core.c
> index 80534d3c2480..589af1eec7c1 100644
> --- a/arch/x86/events/core.c
> +++ b/arch/x86/events/core.c
> @@ -2371,7 +2371,7 @@ static unsigned long get_segment_base(unsigned int segment)
> struct ldt_struct *ldt;
>
> /* IRQs are off, so this synchronizes with smp_store_release */
> - ldt = lockless_dereference(current->active_mm->context.ldt);
> + ldt = READ_ONCE(current->active_mm->context.ldt);
> if (!ldt || idx >= ldt->nr_entries)
> return 0;
>
> diff --git a/arch/x86/include/asm/mmu_context.h b/arch/x86/include/asm/mmu_context.h
> index c120b5db178a..9037a4e546e8 100644
> --- a/arch/x86/include/asm/mmu_context.h
> +++ b/arch/x86/include/asm/mmu_context.h
> @@ -72,8 +72,8 @@ static inline void load_mm_ldt(struct mm_struct *mm)
> #ifdef CONFIG_MODIFY_LDT_SYSCALL
> struct ldt_struct *ldt;
>
> - /* lockless_dereference synchronizes with smp_store_release */
> - ldt = lockless_dereference(mm->context.ldt);
> + /* READ_ONCE synchronizes with smp_store_release */
> + ldt = READ_ONCE(mm->context.ldt);
>
> /*
> * Any change to mm->context.ldt is followed by an IPI to all
> diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/ldt.c b/arch/x86/kernel/ldt.c
> index f0e64db18ac8..0a21390642c4 100644
> --- a/arch/x86/kernel/ldt.c
> +++ b/arch/x86/kernel/ldt.c
> @@ -101,7 +101,7 @@ static void finalize_ldt_struct(struct ldt_struct *ldt)
> static void install_ldt(struct mm_struct *current_mm,
> struct ldt_struct *ldt)
> {
> - /* Synchronizes with lockless_dereference in load_mm_ldt. */
> + /* Synchronizes with READ_ONCE in load_mm_ldt. */
> smp_store_release(&current_mm->context.ldt, ldt);
>
> /* Activate the LDT for all CPUs using current_mm. */
> diff --git a/drivers/md/dm-mpath.c b/drivers/md/dm-mpath.c
> index 11f273d2f018..3f88c9d32f7e 100644
> --- a/drivers/md/dm-mpath.c
> +++ b/drivers/md/dm-mpath.c
> @@ -366,7 +366,7 @@ static struct pgpath *choose_path_in_pg(struct multipath *m,
>
> pgpath = path_to_pgpath(path);
>
> - if (unlikely(lockless_dereference(m->current_pg) != pg)) {
> + if (unlikely(READ_ONCE(m->current_pg) != pg)) {
> /* Only update current_pgpath if pg changed */
> spin_lock_irqsave(&m->lock, flags);
> m->current_pgpath = pgpath;
> @@ -390,7 +390,7 @@ static struct pgpath *choose_pgpath(struct multipath *m, size_t nr_bytes)
> }
>
> /* Were we instructed to switch PG? */
> - if (lockless_dereference(m->next_pg)) {
> + if (READ_ONCE(m->next_pg)) {
> spin_lock_irqsave(&m->lock, flags);
> pg = m->next_pg;
> if (!pg) {
> @@ -406,7 +406,7 @@ static struct pgpath *choose_pgpath(struct multipath *m, size_t nr_bytes)
>
> /* Don't change PG until it has no remaining paths */
> check_current_pg:
> - pg = lockless_dereference(m->current_pg);
> + pg = READ_ONCE(m->current_pg);
> if (pg) {
> pgpath = choose_path_in_pg(m, pg, nr_bytes);
> if (!IS_ERR_OR_NULL(pgpath))
> @@ -473,7 +473,7 @@ static int multipath_clone_and_map(struct dm_target *ti, struct request *rq,
> struct request *clone;
>
> /* Do we need to select a new pgpath? */
> - pgpath = lockless_dereference(m->current_pgpath);
> + pgpath = READ_ONCE(m->current_pgpath);
> if (!pgpath || !test_bit(MPATHF_QUEUE_IO, &m->flags))
> pgpath = choose_pgpath(m, nr_bytes);
>
> @@ -535,7 +535,7 @@ static int __multipath_map_bio(struct multipath *m, struct bio *bio, struct dm_m
> bool queue_io;
>
> /* Do we need to select a new pgpath? */
> - pgpath = lockless_dereference(m->current_pgpath);
> + pgpath = READ_ONCE(m->current_pgpath);
> queue_io = test_bit(MPATHF_QUEUE_IO, &m->flags);
> if (!pgpath || !queue_io)
> pgpath = choose_pgpath(m, nr_bytes);
> @@ -1804,7 +1804,7 @@ static int multipath_prepare_ioctl(struct dm_target *ti,
> struct pgpath *current_pgpath;
> int r;
>
> - current_pgpath = lockless_dereference(m->current_pgpath);
> + current_pgpath = READ_ONCE(m->current_pgpath);
> if (!current_pgpath)
> current_pgpath = choose_pgpath(m, 0);
>
> @@ -1826,7 +1826,7 @@ static int multipath_prepare_ioctl(struct dm_target *ti,
> }
>
> if (r == -ENOTCONN) {
> - if (!lockless_dereference(m->current_pg)) {
> + if (!READ_ONCE(m->current_pg)) {
> /* Path status changed, redo selection */
> (void) choose_pgpath(m, 0);
> }
> @@ -1895,9 +1895,9 @@ static int multipath_busy(struct dm_target *ti)
> return (m->queue_mode != DM_TYPE_MQ_REQUEST_BASED);
>
> /* Guess which priority_group will be used at next mapping time */
> - pg = lockless_dereference(m->current_pg);
> - next_pg = lockless_dereference(m->next_pg);
> - if (unlikely(!lockless_dereference(m->current_pgpath) && next_pg))
> + pg = READ_ONCE(m->current_pg);
> + next_pg = READ_ONCE(m->next_pg);
> + if (unlikely(!READ_ONCE(m->current_pgpath) && next_pg))
> pg = next_pg;
>
> if (!pg) {
> diff --git a/fs/dcache.c b/fs/dcache.c
> index f90141387f01..34c852af215c 100644
> --- a/fs/dcache.c
> +++ b/fs/dcache.c
> @@ -231,7 +231,7 @@ static inline int dentry_cmp(const struct dentry *dentry, const unsigned char *c
> {
> /*
> * Be careful about RCU walk racing with rename:
> - * use 'lockless_dereference' to fetch the name pointer.
> + * use 'READ_ONCE' to fetch the name pointer.
> *
> * NOTE! Even if a rename will mean that the length
> * was not loaded atomically, we don't care. The
> @@ -245,7 +245,7 @@ static inline int dentry_cmp(const struct dentry *dentry, const unsigned char *c
> * early because the data cannot match (there can
> * be no NUL in the ct/tcount data)
> */
> - const unsigned char *cs = lockless_dereference(dentry->d_name.name);
> + const unsigned char *cs = READ_ONCE(dentry->d_name.name);
>
> return dentry_string_cmp(cs, ct, tcount);
> }
> diff --git a/fs/overlayfs/ovl_entry.h b/fs/overlayfs/ovl_entry.h
> index 25d9b5adcd42..36b49bd09264 100644
> --- a/fs/overlayfs/ovl_entry.h
> +++ b/fs/overlayfs/ovl_entry.h
> @@ -77,5 +77,5 @@ static inline struct ovl_inode *OVL_I(struct inode *inode)
>
> static inline struct dentry *ovl_upperdentry_dereference(struct ovl_inode *oi)
> {
> - return lockless_dereference(oi->__upperdentry);
> + return READ_ONCE(oi->__upperdentry);
> }
> diff --git a/fs/overlayfs/readdir.c b/fs/overlayfs/readdir.c
> index 0f85ee9c3268..c67a7703296b 100644
> --- a/fs/overlayfs/readdir.c
> +++ b/fs/overlayfs/readdir.c
> @@ -754,7 +754,7 @@ static int ovl_dir_fsync(struct file *file, loff_t start, loff_t end,
> if (!od->is_upper && OVL_TYPE_UPPER(ovl_path_type(dentry))) {
> struct inode *inode = file_inode(file);
>
> - realfile = lockless_dereference(od->upperfile);
> + realfile = READ_ONCE(od->upperfile);
> if (!realfile) {
> struct path upperpath;
>
> diff --git a/include/linux/compiler.h b/include/linux/compiler.h
> index c714239f453f..4517662f128c 100644
> --- a/include/linux/compiler.h
> +++ b/include/linux/compiler.h
> @@ -242,6 +242,7 @@ static __always_inline void __write_once_size(volatile void *p, void *res, int s
> __read_once_size(&(x), __u.__c, sizeof(x)); \
> else \
> __read_once_size_nocheck(&(x), __u.__c, sizeof(x)); \
> + smp_read_barrier_depends(); /* Enforce dependency ordering from x */ \
> __u.__val; \
> })
> #define READ_ONCE(x) __READ_ONCE(x, 1)
> @@ -345,24 +346,4 @@ static __always_inline void __write_once_size(volatile void *p, void *res, int s
> (volatile typeof(x) *)&(x); })
> #define ACCESS_ONCE(x) (*__ACCESS_ONCE(x))
>
> -/**
> - * lockless_dereference() - safely load a pointer for later dereference
> - * @p: The pointer to load
> - *
> - * Similar to rcu_dereference(), but for situations where the pointed-to
> - * object's lifetime is managed by something other than RCU. That
> - * "something other" might be reference counting or simple immortality.
> - *
> - * The seemingly unused variable ___typecheck_p validates that @p is
> - * indeed a pointer type by using a pointer to typeof(*p) as the type.
> - * Taking a pointer to typeof(*p) again is needed in case p is void *.
> - */
> -#define lockless_dereference(p) \
> -({ \
> - typeof(p) _________p1 = READ_ONCE(p); \
> - typeof(*(p)) *___typecheck_p __maybe_unused; \
> - smp_read_barrier_depends(); /* Dependency order vs. p above. */ \
> - (_________p1); \
> -})
> -
> #endif /* __LINUX_COMPILER_H */
> diff --git a/include/linux/rculist.h b/include/linux/rculist.h
> index b1fd8bf85fdc..3a2bb7d8ed4d 100644
> --- a/include/linux/rculist.h
> +++ b/include/linux/rculist.h
> @@ -274,7 +274,7 @@ static inline void list_splice_tail_init_rcu(struct list_head *list,
> * primitives such as list_add_rcu() as long as it's guarded by rcu_read_lock().
> */
> #define list_entry_rcu(ptr, type, member) \
> - container_of(lockless_dereference(ptr), type, member)
> + container_of(READ_ONCE(ptr), type, member)
>
> /**
> * Where are list_empty_rcu() and list_first_entry_rcu()?
> @@ -367,7 +367,7 @@ static inline void list_splice_tail_init_rcu(struct list_head *list,
> * example is when items are added to the list, but never deleted.
> */
> #define list_entry_lockless(ptr, type, member) \
> - container_of((typeof(ptr))lockless_dereference(ptr), type, member)
> + container_of((typeof(ptr))READ_ONCE(ptr), type, member)
>
> /**
> * list_for_each_entry_lockless - iterate over rcu list of given type
> diff --git a/include/linux/rcupdate.h b/include/linux/rcupdate.h
> index de50d8a4cf41..380a3aeb09d7 100644
> --- a/include/linux/rcupdate.h
> +++ b/include/linux/rcupdate.h
> @@ -346,7 +346,7 @@ static inline void rcu_preempt_sleep_check(void) { }
> #define __rcu_dereference_check(p, c, space) \
> ({ \
> /* Dependency order vs. p above. */ \
> - typeof(*p) *________p1 = (typeof(*p) *__force)lockless_dereference(p); \
> + typeof(*p) *________p1 = (typeof(*p) *__force)READ_ONCE(p); \
> RCU_LOCKDEP_WARN(!(c), "suspicious rcu_dereference_check() usage"); \
> rcu_dereference_sparse(p, space); \
> ((typeof(*p) __force __kernel *)(________p1)); \
> @@ -360,7 +360,7 @@ static inline void rcu_preempt_sleep_check(void) { }
> #define rcu_dereference_raw(p) \
> ({ \
> /* Dependency order vs. p above. */ \
> - typeof(p) ________p1 = lockless_dereference(p); \
> + typeof(p) ________p1 = READ_ONCE(p); \
> ((typeof(*p) __force __kernel *)(________p1)); \
> })
>
> diff --git a/kernel/events/core.c b/kernel/events/core.c
> index 6bc21e202ae4..417812ce0099 100644
> --- a/kernel/events/core.c
> +++ b/kernel/events/core.c
> @@ -4231,7 +4231,7 @@ static void perf_remove_from_owner(struct perf_event *event)
> * indeed free this event, otherwise we need to serialize on
> * owner->perf_event_mutex.
> */
> - owner = lockless_dereference(event->owner);
> + owner = READ_ONCE(event->owner);
> if (owner) {
> /*
> * Since delayed_put_task_struct() also drops the last
> @@ -4328,7 +4328,7 @@ int perf_event_release_kernel(struct perf_event *event)
> * Cannot change, child events are not migrated, see the
> * comment with perf_event_ctx_lock_nested().
> */
> - ctx = lockless_dereference(child->ctx);
> + ctx = READ_ONCE(child->ctx);
> /*
> * Since child_mutex nests inside ctx::mutex, we must jump
> * through hoops. We start by grabbing a reference on the ctx.
> diff --git a/kernel/seccomp.c b/kernel/seccomp.c
> index bb3a38005b9c..1daa8b61a268 100644
> --- a/kernel/seccomp.c
> +++ b/kernel/seccomp.c
> @@ -189,7 +189,7 @@ static u32 seccomp_run_filters(const struct seccomp_data *sd,
> u32 ret = SECCOMP_RET_ALLOW;
> /* Make sure cross-thread synced filter points somewhere sane. */
> struct seccomp_filter *f =
> - lockless_dereference(current->seccomp.filter);
> + READ_ONCE(current->seccomp.filter);
>
> /* Ensure unexpected behavior doesn't result in failing open. */
> if (unlikely(WARN_ON(f == NULL)))
> diff --git a/kernel/task_work.c b/kernel/task_work.c
> index 836a72a66fba..9a9f262fc53d 100644
> --- a/kernel/task_work.c
> +++ b/kernel/task_work.c
> @@ -67,7 +67,7 @@ task_work_cancel(struct task_struct *task, task_work_func_t func)
> * we raced with task_work_run(), *pprev == NULL/exited.
> */
> raw_spin_lock_irqsave(&task->pi_lock, flags);
> - while ((work = lockless_dereference(*pprev))) {
> + while ((work = READ_ONCE(*pprev))) {
> if (work->func != func)
> pprev = &work->next;
> else if (cmpxchg(pprev, work, work->next) == work)
> diff --git a/mm/slab.h b/mm/slab.h
> index 073362816acc..8894f811a89d 100644
> --- a/mm/slab.h
> +++ b/mm/slab.h
> @@ -258,7 +258,7 @@ cache_from_memcg_idx(struct kmem_cache *s, int idx)
> * memcg_caches issues a write barrier to match this (see
> * memcg_create_kmem_cache()).
> */
> - cachep = lockless_dereference(arr->entries[idx]);
> + cachep = READ_ONCE(arr->entries[idx]);
> rcu_read_unlock();
>
> return cachep;
> --
> 2.1.4
>

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