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Subject[PATCH v2 1/3] lib/kobject: fix memory leak in error path of kset_create_and_add()
Date
In kset_create_and_add(), the name duped into the kset's kobject by
kset_create() gets leaked if the call to kset_register() fails.

Indeed, triggering failure by invoking kset_create_and_add() with a
duplicate name makes kmemleak reporting

unreferenced object 0xffff8800b4a1f428 (size 16):
comm "insmod", pid 682, jiffies 4294745489 (age 50.477s)
hex dump (first 16 bytes):
64 75 70 6c 69 63 61 74 65 00 6b 6b 6b 6b 6b a5 duplicate.kkkkk.
backtrace:
[<ffffffff814380ee>] kmemleak_alloc+0x4e/0xb0
[<ffffffff811aab01>] __kmalloc_track_caller+0x2b1/0x390
[<ffffffff811797f1>] kstrdup+0x31/0x60
[<ffffffff81179843>] kstrdup_const+0x23/0x30
[<ffffffff81290254>] kvasprintf_const+0x54/0x90
[<ffffffff81284d21>] kobject_set_name_vargs+0x21/0xa0
[<ffffffff81284dee>] kobject_set_name+0x4e/0x70
[<ffffffff812854f5>] kset_create_and_add+0x45/0xa0
[...]

Similar problems exist at all call sites of kset_register(), that is
in drivers/base, fs/ext4 and in fs/ocfs2.

However, since class registration usually does not fail, there is virtually
no real world impact.

The deeper cause behind this are the current semantics of the kset
initialization, creation and registration functions which differ from the
ones of their corresponding kobject counterparts.
Namely,
- there is no _exported_ kset initialization function,
- the (not exported) kset_create() creates a halfway initialized kset
object,
- and the kset_register() finishes a kset object's initialization but
expects its name to already have been set at its entry.

To fix this:
- Export kset_init() and let it mimic the semantics of kobject_init().
Especially it takes and sets a kobj_type which makes the kset object
kset_put()able upon return.
- Let the internal kset_create() do the complete initialization by means
of kset_init().
- Remove any kset initialization from kset_register(): it expects a
readily initialized kset object now. Furthermore, let kset_register()
take and set the kset object's name. This resembles the behaviour of
kobject_add(). In analogy to the latter, require the caller to call
kset_put() or kset_unregister() unconditionally, even on failure.

At the call sites of kset_register():
- Replace the open coded kset object initialization by a call to
kset_init().
- Remove the explicit name setting and let the kset_register() call do
that work.
- Replace any kfree()s by kset_put()s where appropriate.

Signed-off-by: Nicolai Stange <nicstange@gmail.com>
---
drivers/base/bus.c | 14 ++-----
drivers/base/class.c | 38 ++++++++++++++-----
fs/ext4/sysfs.c | 13 +++----
fs/ocfs2/cluster/masklog.c | 13 ++++---
include/linux/kobject.h | 6 ++-
lib/kobject.c | 94 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++------------------
6 files changed, 109 insertions(+), 69 deletions(-)

diff --git a/drivers/base/bus.c b/drivers/base/bus.c
index 5005924..a81227c 100644
--- a/drivers/base/bus.c
+++ b/drivers/base/bus.c
@@ -900,15 +900,11 @@ int bus_register(struct bus_type *bus)

BLOCKING_INIT_NOTIFIER_HEAD(&priv->bus_notifier);

- retval = kobject_set_name(&priv->subsys.kobj, "%s", bus->name);
- if (retval)
- goto out;
-
- priv->subsys.kobj.kset = bus_kset;
- priv->subsys.kobj.ktype = &bus_ktype;
priv->drivers_autoprobe = 1;

- retval = kset_register(&priv->subsys);
+ kset_init(&priv->subsys, &bus_ktype, NULL);
+ priv->subsys.kobj.kset = bus_kset;
+ retval = kset_register(&priv->subsys, bus->name, NULL);
if (retval)
goto out;

@@ -955,10 +951,8 @@ bus_drivers_fail:
bus_devices_fail:
bus_remove_file(bus, &bus_attr_uevent);
bus_uevent_fail:
- kset_unregister(&bus->p->subsys);
out:
- kfree(bus->p);
- bus->p = NULL;
+ kset_unregister(&bus->p->subsys);
return retval;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(bus_register);
diff --git a/drivers/base/class.c b/drivers/base/class.c
index 71059e3..c9683cf 100644
--- a/drivers/base/class.c
+++ b/drivers/base/class.c
@@ -19,6 +19,7 @@
#include <linux/slab.h>
#include <linux/genhd.h>
#include <linux/mutex.h>
+#include <linux/bug.h>
#include "base.h"

#define to_class_attr(_attr) container_of(_attr, struct class_attribute, attr)
@@ -82,6 +83,23 @@ static struct kobj_type class_ktype = {
.child_ns_type = class_child_ns_type,
};

+static void glue_dirs_release_dummy(struct kobject *kobj)
+{
+ /*
+ * The glue_dirs kset member of struct subsys_private is never
+ * registered and thus, never unregistered.
+ * This release function is a dummy to make kset_init() happy.
+ */
+ WARN(1,
+ "class (%p): unexpected kset_put() on glue_dirs, something is broken.",
+ container_of(kobj, struct subsys_private,
+ glue_dirs.kobj)->class);
+}
+
+static struct kobj_type glue_dirs_ktype = {
+ .release = glue_dirs_release_dummy,
+};
+
/* Hotplug events for classes go to the class subsys */
static struct kset *class_kset;

@@ -175,18 +193,14 @@ int __class_register(struct class *cls, struct lock_class_key *key)
return -ENOMEM;
klist_init(&cp->klist_devices, klist_class_dev_get, klist_class_dev_put);
INIT_LIST_HEAD(&cp->interfaces);
- kset_init(&cp->glue_dirs);
+ kset_init(&cp->glue_dirs, &glue_dirs_ktype, NULL);
__mutex_init(&cp->mutex, "subsys mutex", key);
- error = kobject_set_name(&cp->subsys.kobj, "%s", cls->name);
- if (error) {
- kfree(cp);
- return error;
- }

/* set the default /sys/dev directory for devices of this class */
if (!cls->dev_kobj)
cls->dev_kobj = sysfs_dev_char_kobj;

+ kset_init(&cp->subsys, &class_ktype, NULL);
#if defined(CONFIG_BLOCK)
/* let the block class directory show up in the root of sysfs */
if (!sysfs_deprecated || cls != &block_class)
@@ -194,13 +208,19 @@ int __class_register(struct class *cls, struct lock_class_key *key)
#else
cp->subsys.kobj.kset = class_kset;
#endif
- cp->subsys.kobj.ktype = &class_ktype;
cp->class = cls;
cls->p = cp;

- error = kset_register(&cp->subsys);
+ error = kset_register(&cp->subsys, cls->name, NULL);
if (error) {
- kfree(cp);
+ /*
+ * class->release() would be called by cp->subsys'
+ * release function. Prevent this from happening in
+ * the error case by zeroing cp->class out.
+ */
+ cp->class = NULL;
+ cls->p = NULL;
+ kset_put(&cp->subsys);
return error;
}
error = add_class_attrs(class_get(cls));
diff --git a/fs/ext4/sysfs.c b/fs/ext4/sysfs.c
index 1b57c72..4011dd4 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/sysfs.c
+++ b/fs/ext4/sysfs.c
@@ -339,9 +339,7 @@ static struct kobj_type ext4_ktype = {
.sysfs_ops = &ext4_attr_ops,
};

-static struct kset ext4_kset = {
- .kobj = {.ktype = &ext4_ktype},
-};
+static struct kset ext4_kset;

static struct kobj_type ext4_feat_ktype = {
.default_attrs = ext4_feat_attrs,
@@ -423,11 +421,12 @@ int __init ext4_init_sysfs(void)
{
int ret;

- kobject_set_name(&ext4_kset.kobj, "ext4");
- ext4_kset.kobj.parent = fs_kobj;
- ret = kset_register(&ext4_kset);
- if (ret)
+ kset_init(&ext4_kset, &ext4_ktype, NULL);
+ ret = kset_register(&ext4_kset, "ext4", fs_kobj);
+ if (ret) {
+ kset_put(&ext4_kset);
return ret;
+ }

ret = kobject_init_and_add(&ext4_feat, &ext4_feat_ktype,
NULL, "features");
diff --git a/fs/ocfs2/cluster/masklog.c b/fs/ocfs2/cluster/masklog.c
index dfe162f..5763407 100644
--- a/fs/ocfs2/cluster/masklog.c
+++ b/fs/ocfs2/cluster/masklog.c
@@ -164,13 +164,12 @@ static struct kobj_type mlog_ktype = {
.sysfs_ops = &mlog_attr_ops,
};

-static struct kset mlog_kset = {
- .kobj = {.ktype = &mlog_ktype},
-};
+static struct kset mlog_kset;

int mlog_sys_init(struct kset *o2cb_kset)
{
int i = 0;
+ int ret;

while (mlog_attrs[i].attr.mode) {
mlog_attr_ptrs[i] = &mlog_attrs[i].attr;
@@ -178,9 +177,13 @@ int mlog_sys_init(struct kset *o2cb_kset)
}
mlog_attr_ptrs[i] = NULL;

- kobject_set_name(&mlog_kset.kobj, "logmask");
+ kset_init(&mlog_kset, &mlog_ktype, NULL);
mlog_kset.kobj.kset = o2cb_kset;
- return kset_register(&mlog_kset);
+ ret = kset_register(&mlog_kset, "logmask", NULL);
+ if (ret)
+ kset_put(&mlog_kset);
+
+ return ret;
}

void mlog_sys_shutdown(void)
diff --git a/include/linux/kobject.h b/include/linux/kobject.h
index e628459..d081817 100644
--- a/include/linux/kobject.h
+++ b/include/linux/kobject.h
@@ -172,8 +172,10 @@ struct kset {
const struct kset_uevent_ops *uevent_ops;
};

-extern void kset_init(struct kset *kset);
-extern int __must_check kset_register(struct kset *kset);
+extern void kset_init(struct kset *kset, struct kobj_type *ktype,
+ const struct kset_uevent_ops *uevent_ops);
+extern int __must_check kset_register(struct kset *kset, const char *name,
+ struct kobject *parent_kobj);
extern void kset_unregister(struct kset *kset);
extern struct kset * __must_check kset_create_and_add(const char *name,
const struct kset_uevent_ops *u,
diff --git a/lib/kobject.c b/lib/kobject.c
index 7cbccd2..0327157 100644
--- a/lib/kobject.c
+++ b/lib/kobject.c
@@ -761,15 +761,35 @@ struct kobject *kobject_create_and_add(const char *name, struct kobject *parent)
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(kobject_create_and_add);

/**
- * kset_init - initialize a kset for use
- * @k: kset
+ * kset_init - initialize a kset structure
+ * @kset: pointer to the kset to initialize
+ * @ktype: pointer to the ktype for this kset's contained kobject.
+ * @uevent_ops: an optional struct kset_uevent_ops for the kset.
+ *
+ * This function will properly initialize a kset such that it can then
+ * be passed to the kset_register() call.
+ *
+ * Note that there are only very few circumstances where you would
+ * initialize a kset by yourself, i.e. by calling kset_init()! The
+ * normal way to get a working kset object is through
+ * kset_create_and_add().
+ *
+ * Repeating the warning from kobject_init():
+ * after this function has been called, the kset MUST be cleaned up by
+ * a call to either kset_put() or, if it has been registered through
+ * kset_register(), to kset_unregister(). You shall not free it by a
+ * call to kfree() directly in order to ensure that all of the memory
+ * is cleaned up properly.
*/
-void kset_init(struct kset *k)
+void kset_init(struct kset *kset, struct kobj_type *ktype,
+ const struct kset_uevent_ops *uevent_ops)
{
- kobject_init_internal(&k->kobj);
- INIT_LIST_HEAD(&k->list);
- spin_lock_init(&k->list_lock);
+ kobject_init(&kset->kobj, ktype);
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&kset->list);
+ spin_lock_init(&kset->list_lock);
+ kset->uevent_ops = uevent_ops;
}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(kset_init);

/* default kobject attribute operations */
static ssize_t kobj_attr_show(struct kobject *kobj, struct attribute *attr,
@@ -803,17 +823,37 @@ const struct sysfs_ops kobj_sysfs_ops = {
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(kobj_sysfs_ops);

/**
- * kset_register - initialize and add a kset.
- * @k: kset.
+ * kset_register - add a struct kset to sysfs.
+ * @k: the kset to add
+ * @name: the name for the kset
+ * @parent_kobj: the parent kobject of this kset, if any.
+ *
+ * The kset @name is set and added to the kobject hierarchy in this
+ * function. This function is for ksets what kobject_add() is for kobjects.
+ *
+ * The rules to determine the parent kobject are the same as for
+ * kobject_add().
+ *
+ * If this function returns an error, either kset_put() (preferred) or
+ * kset_unregister() must be called to properly clean up the memory
+ * associated with the object. Under no instance should the kset
+ * that is passed to this function be directly freed with a call to
+ * kfree(), that will leak memory.
+ *
+ * Note, that an "add" uevent will be created with this call.
*/
-int kset_register(struct kset *k)
+int kset_register(struct kset *k, const char *name, struct kobject *parent_kobj)
{
int err;

if (!k)
return -EINVAL;

- kset_init(k);
+ err = kobject_set_name(&k->kobj, "%s", name);
+ if (err)
+ return err;
+
+ k->kobj.parent = parent_kobj;
err = kobject_add_internal(&k->kobj);
if (err)
return err;
@@ -823,7 +863,7 @@ int kset_register(struct kset *k)
EXPORT_SYMBOL(kset_register);

/**
- * kset_unregister - remove a kset.
+ * kset_unregister - unlink a kset from hierarchy and decrement its refcount.
* @k: kset.
*/
void kset_unregister(struct kset *k)
@@ -878,9 +918,7 @@ static struct kobj_type kset_ktype = {
/**
* kset_create - create a struct kset dynamically
*
- * @name: the name for the kset
- * @uevent_ops: a struct kset_uevent_ops for the kset
- * @parent_kobj: the parent kobject of this kset, if any.
+ * @uevent_ops: an optional struct kset_uevent_ops for the kset
*
* This function creates a kset structure dynamically. This structure can
* then be registered with the system and show up in sysfs with a call to
@@ -890,32 +928,15 @@ static struct kobj_type kset_ktype = {
*
* If the kset was not able to be created, NULL will be returned.
*/
-static struct kset *kset_create(const char *name,
- const struct kset_uevent_ops *uevent_ops,
- struct kobject *parent_kobj)
+static struct kset *kset_create(const struct kset_uevent_ops *uevent_ops)
{
struct kset *kset;
- int retval;

kset = kzalloc(sizeof(*kset), GFP_KERNEL);
if (!kset)
return NULL;
- retval = kobject_set_name(&kset->kobj, "%s", name);
- if (retval) {
- kfree(kset);
- return NULL;
- }
- kset->uevent_ops = uevent_ops;
- kset->kobj.parent = parent_kobj;
-
- /*
- * The kobject of this kset will have a type of kset_ktype and belong to
- * no kset itself. That way we can properly free it when it is
- * finished being used.
- */
- kset->kobj.ktype = &kset_ktype;
- kset->kobj.kset = NULL;

+ kset_init(kset, &kset_ktype, uevent_ops);
return kset;
}

@@ -940,12 +961,13 @@ struct kset *kset_create_and_add(const char *name,
struct kset *kset;
int error;

- kset = kset_create(name, uevent_ops, parent_kobj);
+ kset = kset_create(uevent_ops);
if (!kset)
return NULL;
- error = kset_register(kset);
+
+ error = kset_register(kset, name, parent_kobj);
if (error) {
- kfree(kset);
+ kset_put(kset);
return NULL;
}
return kset;
--
2.6.3


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