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Subject[PATCH] Rewrite Documentation/SubmittingPatches.
From
This updates the documentation on how to create patches and send
these to the kernel mailing list.

The documentation before was written in times before git was there,
so the crafting of the patch needed to be done manually by diff -up
in the right directory.

This patch aims at simplifying the patch sending process, without
breaking the output results.

A discussion can be found at
https://plus.google.com/111049168280159033135/posts/ekAxK9achsA

Signed-off-by: Stefan Beller <stefanbeller@googlemail.com>
Acked-by: Jeff Garzik jgarzik@pobox.com
---
Documentation/SubmittingPatches | 191 ++++++++++++++++++++++++----------------
1 file changed, 116 insertions(+), 75 deletions(-)
diff --git a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
index c379a2a..ac00451 100644
--- a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
+++ b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
@@ -20,57 +20,26 @@ Documentation/SubmittingDrivers.
SECTION 1 - CREATING AND SENDING YOUR CHANGE
--------------------------------------------

+If you don't have access to git for whatever reason and would like to
+submit a patch, you can use the diff tool. Replace step 1 and 5 by
+step 18.


-1) "diff -up"
+1) Using git
------------

-Use "diff -up" or "diff -uprN" to create patches.
+Use the distributed version control git to commit your changes
+into your local git repository.

-All changes to the Linux kernel occur in the form of patches, as
-generated by diff(1). When creating your patch, make sure to create it
-in "unified diff" format, as supplied by the '-u' argument to diff(1).
-Also, please use the '-p' argument which shows which C function each
-change is in - that makes the resultant diff a lot easier to read.
-Patches should be based in the root kernel source directory,
-not in any lower subdirectory.
-
-To create a patch for a single file, it is often sufficient to do:
-
- SRCTREE= linux-2.6
- MYFILE= drivers/net/mydriver.c
-
- cd $SRCTREE
- cp $MYFILE $MYFILE.orig
- vi $MYFILE # make your change
- cd ..
- diff -up $SRCTREE/$MYFILE{.orig,} > /tmp/patch
-
-To create a patch for multiple files, you should unpack a "vanilla",
-or unmodified kernel source tree, and generate a diff against your
-own source tree. For example:
-
- MYSRC= /devel/linux-2.6
-
- tar xvfz linux-2.6.12.tar.gz
- mv linux-2.6.12 linux-2.6.12-vanilla
- diff -uprN -X linux-2.6.12-vanilla/Documentation/dontdiff \
- linux-2.6.12-vanilla $MYSRC > /tmp/patch
-
-"dontdiff" is a list of files which are generated by the kernel during
-the build process, and should be ignored in any diff(1)-generated
-patch. The "dontdiff" file is included in the kernel tree in
-2.6.12 and later. For earlier kernel versions, you can get it
-from <http://www.xenotime.net/linux/doc/dontdiff>.
-
-Make sure your patch does not include any extra files which do not
-belong in a patch submission. Make sure to review your patch -after-
-generated it with diff(1), to ensure accuracy.
+Make sure your commits do not include any extra files which do not
+belong in a commit submission. Make sure to review your commits with
+a git viewer of your choice such as gitk, to ensure accuracy.

If your changes produce a lot of deltas, you may want to look into
splitting them into individual patches which modify things in
logical stages. This will facilitate easier reviewing by other
kernel developers, very important if you want your patch accepted.
+
There are a number of scripts which can aid in this:

Quilt:
@@ -83,7 +52,7 @@ tool (see above).



-2) Describe your changes.
+2) A detour on "How to use git": Describe your changes.

Describe the technical detail of the change(s) your patch includes.

@@ -91,10 +60,6 @@ Be as specific as possible. The WORST descriptions
possible include
things like "update driver X", "bug fix for driver X", or "this patch
includes updates for subsystem X. Please apply."

-The maintainer will thank you if you write your patch description in a
-form which can be easily pulled into Linux's source code management
-system, git, as a "commit log". See #15, below.
-
If your description starts to get long, that's a sign that you probably
need to split up your patch. See #3, next.

@@ -111,33 +76,34 @@ If the patch fixes a logged bug entry, refer to
that bug entry by
number and URL.


-3) Separate your changes.
+
+3) A detour on "How to use git": Separate your changes.

Separate _logical changes_ into a single patch file.

For example, if your changes include both bug fixes and performance
enhancements for a single driver, separate those changes into two
-or more patches. If your changes include an API update, and a new
-driver which uses that new API, separate those into two patches.
+or more commits. If your changes include an API update, and a new
+driver which uses that new API, separate those into two commits.

On the other hand, if you make a single change to numerous files,
-group those changes into a single patch. Thus a single logical change
-is contained within a single patch.
+group those changes into a single commit. Thus a single logical change
+is contained within a single commit.

-If one patch depends on another patch in order for a change to be
-complete, that is OK. Simply note "this patch depends on patch X"
-in your patch description.
+If one commit depends on another commit in order for a change to be
+complete, that is OK. Simply note "this commit depends on commit X"
+in your commit description.

-If you cannot condense your patch set into a smaller set of patches,
+If you cannot condense your commit set into a smaller set of commits,
then only post say 15 or so at a time and wait for review and integration.



4) Style check your changes.

-Check your patch for basic style violations, details of which can be
+Check your commit for basic style violations, details of which can be
found in Documentation/CodingStyle. Failure to do so simply wastes
-the reviewers time and will get your patch rejected, probably
+the reviewers time and will get your commit rejected, probably
without even being read.

At a minimum you should check your patches with the patch style
@@ -146,7 +112,35 @@ be able to justify all violations that remain in
your patch.



-5) Select e-mail destination.
+5) "git format-patch HEAD~n"
+
+Use "git format-patch HEAD~n" to extract the last n patches from your
+git repository. They will be be saved in textfiles named
+
+ 0001-Introduce-new-Feature.patch
+ 0002-Improve-Documentation.patch
+
+The first lines of such a file might look like
+
+1 From d39e331c30cb563fd152f484f7ca1d14dc98d57e Mon Sep 17 00:00:00 2001
+2 From: Stefan Beller <stefanbeller@googlemail.com>
+3 Date: Fri, 13 Jul 2012 12:55:54 +0200
+4 Subject: [PATCH] Rewrite Documentation/SubmittingPatches.
+5
+6 This updates the documentation on how to create patches and send
+7 these to the kernel mailing list.
+8 ...
+
+Take the body of these files starting from line 6 as your email body and
+as email subject choose the subject as in line 4.
+In this example case the subject would be
+ [PATCH] Rewrite Documentation/SubmittingPatches.
+
+For further formatting of the email,
+see #8 (No MIME, no links, no compression, no attachments. Just plain text.)
+
+
+6) Select e-mail destination.

Look through the MAINTAINERS file and the source code, and determine
if your change applies to a specific subsystem of the kernel, with
@@ -163,9 +157,9 @@ Do not send more than 15 patches at once to the
vger mailing lists!!!


Linus Torvalds is the final arbiter of all changes accepted into the
-Linux kernel. His e-mail address is <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>.
+Linux kernel. His e-mail address is <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>.
He gets a lot of e-mail, so typically you should do your best to -avoid-
-sending him e-mail.
+sending him e-mail.

Patches which are bug fixes, are "obvious" changes, or similarly
require little discussion should be sent or CC'd to Linus. Patches
@@ -175,7 +169,7 @@ discussed should the patch then be submitted to Linus.



-6) Select your CC (e-mail carbon copy) list.
+7) Select your CC (e-mail carbon copy) list.

Unless you have a reason NOT to do so, CC linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org.

@@ -216,7 +210,7 @@ Trivial patches must qualify for one of the following rules:



-7) No MIME, no links, no compression, no attachments. Just plain text.
+8) No MIME, no links, no compression, no attachments. Just plain text.

Linus and other kernel developers need to be able to read and comment
on the changes you are submitting. It is important for a kernel
@@ -239,9 +233,9 @@ you to re-send them using MIME.
See Documentation/email-clients.txt for hints about configuring
your e-mail client so that it sends your patches untouched.

-8) E-mail size.
+9) E-mail size.

-When sending patches to Linus, always follow step #7.
+When sending patches to Linus, always follow step #8.

Large changes are not appropriate for mailing lists, and some
maintainers. If your patch, uncompressed, exceeds 300 kB in size,
@@ -250,7 +244,7 @@ server, and provide instead a URL (link) pointing
to your patch.



-9) Name your kernel version.
+10) Name your kernel version.

It is important to note, either in the subject line or in the patch
description, the kernel version to which this patch applies.
@@ -260,7 +254,7 @@ Linus will not apply it.



-10) Don't get discouraged. Re-submit.
+11) Don't get discouraged. Re-submit.

After you have submitted your change, be patient and wait. If Linus
likes your change and applies it, it will appear in the next version
@@ -276,8 +270,8 @@ That's the nature of the system. If he drops your
patch, it could be
due to
* Your patch did not apply cleanly to the latest kernel version.
* Your patch was not sufficiently discussed on linux-kernel.
-* A style issue (see section 2).
-* An e-mail formatting issue (re-read this section).
+* A style issue (see section #2, #3, #4).
+* An e-mail formatting issue (re-read this section or section #8).
* A technical problem with your change.
* He gets tons of e-mail, and yours got lost in the shuffle.
* You are being annoying.
@@ -286,7 +280,7 @@ When in doubt, solicit comments on linux-kernel
mailing list.



-11) Include PATCH in the subject
+12) Include PATCH in the subject

Due to high e-mail traffic to Linus, and to linux-kernel, it is common
convention to prefix your subject line with [PATCH]. This lets Linus
@@ -295,7 +289,7 @@ e-mail discussions.



-12) Sign your work
+13) Sign your work

To improve tracking of who did what, especially with patches that can
percolate to their final resting place in the kernel through several
@@ -341,7 +335,7 @@ using your real name (sorry, no pseudonyms or
anonymous contributions.)

Some people also put extra tags at the end. They'll just be ignored for
now, but you can do this to mark internal company procedures or just
-point out some special detail about the sign-off.
+point out some special detail about the sign-off.

If you are a subsystem or branch maintainer, sometimes you need to slightly
modify patches you receive in order to merge them, because the code is not
@@ -390,7 +384,7 @@ tracking your trees, and to people trying to
trouble-shoot bugs in your
tree.


-13) When to use Acked-by: and Cc:
+14) When to use Acked-by: and Cc:

The Signed-off-by: tag indicates that the signer was involved in the
development of the patch, or that he/she was in the patch's delivery path.
@@ -421,7 +415,7 @@ person it names. This tag documents that
potentially interested parties
have been included in the discussion


-14) Using Reported-by:, Tested-by: and Reviewed-by:
+15) Using Reported-by:, Tested-by: and Reviewed-by:

If this patch fixes a problem reported by somebody else, consider adding a
Reported-by: tag to credit the reporter for their contribution. Please
@@ -470,7 +464,7 @@ understand the subject area and to perform
thorough reviews, will normally
increase the likelihood of your patch getting into the kernel.


-15) The canonical patch format
+16) The canonical patch format

The canonical patch subject line is:

@@ -584,7 +578,7 @@ See more details on the proper patch format in the following
references.


-16) Sending "git pull" requests (from Linus emails)
+17) Sending "git pull" requests (from Linus emails)

Please write the git repo address and branch name alone on the same line
so that I can't even by mistake pull from the wrong branch, and so
@@ -612,6 +606,53 @@ new/deleted or renamed files.
With rename detection, the statistics are rather different [...]
because git will notice that a fair number of the changes are renames.

+
+18) Not using git? Another solution to send patches.
+
+A commit to the Linux kernel can also be prepared via the diff tool.
+Replace step 1 (commit into git) and step 5 ("git format-patch")
+by this one. The advice as given in 2 (Describe your changes.) and
+3 (Separate your changes.) also apply when making patches without git.
+
+When creating your patch, make sure to create it
+in "unified diff" format, as supplied by the '-u' argument to diff(1).
+Also, please use the '-p' argument which shows which C function each
+change is in - that makes the resultant diff a lot easier to read.
+Patches should be based in the root kernel source directory,
+not in any lower subdirectory.
+
+To create a patch for a single file, it is often sufficient to do:
+
+ SRCTREE= linux-2.6
+ MYFILE= drivers/net/mydriver.c
+
+ cd $SRCTREE
+ cp $MYFILE $MYFILE.orig
+ vi $MYFILE # make your change
+ cd ..
+ diff -up $SRCTREE/$MYFILE{.orig,} > /tmp/patch
+
+To create a patch for multiple files, you should unpack a "vanilla",
+or unmodified kernel source tree, and generate a diff against your
+own source tree. For example:
+
+ MYSRC= /devel/linux-2.6
+
+ tar xvfz linux-2.6.12.tar.gz
+ mv linux-2.6.12 linux-2.6.12-vanilla
+ diff -uprN -X linux-2.6.12-vanilla/Documentation/dontdiff \
+ linux-2.6.12-vanilla $MYSRC > /tmp/patch
+
+"dontdiff" is a list of files which are generated by the kernel during
+the build process, and should be ignored in any diff(1)-generated
+patch. The "dontdiff" file is included in the kernel tree in
+2.6.12 and later. For earlier kernel versions, you can get it
+from <http://www.xenotime.net/linux/doc/dontdiff>.
+
+Make sure your patch does not include any extra files which do not
+belong in a patch submission. Make sure to review your patch -after-
+generated it with diff(1), to ensure accuracy.
+
-----------------------------------
SECTION 2 - HINTS, TIPS, AND TRICKS
-----------------------------------
--
1.7.11.1.116.g8228a23

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