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SubjectRe: [PATCH RFC] Simplify the Linux kernel by reducing its state space
On Sat, Mar 31, 2012 at 02:57:46PM -0500, Linas Vepstas wrote:
> Hi,
>
> I didn't actually try to compile the patch below; it didn't look like C
> code so I wasn't sure what compiler to run it through. I guess maybe its
> python? However, I'm very sure that the patches are completely correct,
> because I read them, and I also know that Paul is a trustworthy programmer.
> Thus, please add my ack
>
> Ack'ed by: Linas Vepstas <linasvepstas@gmail.com>

It is Linux-kernel Kconfig language, which processed during kernel
builds. I have added your Acked-by. ;-)

Thanx, Paul

> On 31 March 2012 11:33, Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> wrote:
>
> > Although there have been numerous complaints about the complexity of
> > parallel programming (especially over the past 5-10 years), the plain
> > truth is that the incremental complexity of parallel programming over
> > that of sequential programming is not as large as is commonly believed.
> > Despite that you might have heard, the mind-numbing complexity of modern
> > computer systems is not due so much to there being multiple CPUs, but
> > rather to there being any CPUs at all. In short, for the ultimate in
> > computer-system simplicity, the optimal choice is NR_CPUS=0.
> >
> > This commit therefore limits kernel builds to zero CPUs. This change
> > has the beneficial side effect of rendering all kernel bugs harmless.
> > Furthermore, this commit enables additional beneficial changes, for
> > example, the removal of those parts of the kernel that are not needed
> > when there are zero CPUs.
> >
> > Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
> > Reviewed-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
> > ---
> >
> > alpha/Kconfig | 11 ++++++-----
> > arm/Kconfig | 6 +++---
> > blackfin/Kconfig | 3 ++-
> > hexagon/Kconfig | 9 +++++----
> > ia64/Kconfig | 9 +++++----
> > m32r/Kconfig | 10 ++++++----
> > mips/Kconfig | 21 +++++++++++----------
> > mn10300/Kconfig | 3 ++-
> > parisc/Kconfig | 6 +++---
> > powerpc/platforms/Kconfig.cputype | 8 ++++----
> > s390/Kconfig | 12 +++++++-----
> > sh/Kconfig | 11 ++++++-----
> > sparc/Kconfig | 8 ++++----
> > tile/Kconfig | 9 +++++----
> > x86/Kconfig | 16 +++++++++-------
> > 15 files changed, 78 insertions(+), 64 deletions(-)
> >
> > diff --git a/arch/alpha/Kconfig b/arch/alpha/Kconfig
> > index 56a4df9..1766b4a 100644
> > --- a/arch/alpha/Kconfig
> > +++ b/arch/alpha/Kconfig
> > @@ -541,14 +541,15 @@ config HAVE_DEC_LOCK
> > default y
> >
> > config NR_CPUS
> > - int "Maximum number of CPUs (2-32)"
> > - range 2 32
> > + int "Maximum number of CPUs (0-0)"
> > + range 0 0
> > depends on SMP
> > - default "32" if ALPHA_GENERIC || ALPHA_MARVEL
> > - default "4" if !ALPHA_GENERIC && !ALPHA_MARVEL
> > + default "0" if ALPHA_GENERIC || ALPHA_MARVEL
> > + default "0" if !ALPHA_GENERIC && !ALPHA_MARVEL
> > help
> > MARVEL support can handle a maximum of 32 CPUs, all the others
> > - with working support have a maximum of 4 CPUs.
> > + with working support have a maximum of 4 CPUs. But why take
> > + chances? Just stick with zero CPUs.
> >
> > config ARCH_DISCONTIGMEM_ENABLE
> > bool "Discontiguous Memory Support (EXPERIMENTAL)"
> > diff --git a/arch/arm/Kconfig b/arch/arm/Kconfig
> > index a48aecc..1f07a3a 100644
> > --- a/arch/arm/Kconfig
> > +++ b/arch/arm/Kconfig
> > @@ -1551,10 +1551,10 @@ config PAGE_OFFSET
> > default 0xC0000000
> >
> > config NR_CPUS
> > - int "Maximum number of CPUs (2-32)"
> > - range 2 32
> > + int "Maximum number of CPUs (0-0)"
> > + range 0 0
> > depends on SMP
> > - default "4"
> > + default "0"
> >
> > config HOTPLUG_CPU
> > bool "Support for hot-pluggable CPUs (EXPERIMENTAL)"
> > diff --git a/arch/blackfin/Kconfig b/arch/blackfin/Kconfig
> > index abe5a9e..6a78549 100644
> > --- a/arch/blackfin/Kconfig
> > +++ b/arch/blackfin/Kconfig
> > @@ -241,7 +241,8 @@ config SMP
> > config NR_CPUS
> > int
> > depends on SMP
> > - default 2 if BF561
> > + range 0 0
> > + default 0 if BF561
> >
> > config HOTPLUG_CPU
> > bool "Support for hot-pluggable CPUs"
> > diff --git a/arch/hexagon/Kconfig b/arch/hexagon/Kconfig
> > index 9059e39..daab009 100644
> > --- a/arch/hexagon/Kconfig
> > +++ b/arch/hexagon/Kconfig
> > @@ -158,13 +158,14 @@ config SMP
> >
> > config NR_CPUS
> > int "Maximum number of CPUs" if SMP
> > - range 2 6 if SMP
> > - default "1" if !SMP
> > - default "6" if SMP
> > + range 0 0 if SMP
> > + default "0" if !SMP
> > + default "0" if SMP
> > ---help---
> > This allows you to specify the maximum number of CPUs which this
> > kernel will support. The maximum supported value is 6 and the
> > - minimum value which makes sense is 2.
> > + minimum value which makes sense is 2. But a limit of zero is
> > + so much safer!
> >
> > This is purely to save memory - each supported CPU adds
> > approximately eight kilobytes to the kernel image.
> > diff --git a/arch/ia64/Kconfig b/arch/ia64/Kconfig
> > index bd72669..fea0e6d 100644
> > --- a/arch/ia64/Kconfig
> > +++ b/arch/ia64/Kconfig
> > @@ -373,16 +373,17 @@ config SMP
> > If you don't know what to do here, say N.
> >
> > config NR_CPUS
> > - int "Maximum number of CPUs (2-4096)"
> > - range 2 4096
> > + int "Maximum number of CPUs (0-0)"
> > + range 0 0
> > depends on SMP
> > - default "4096"
> > + default "0"
> > help
> > You should set this to the number of CPUs in your system, but
> > keep in mind that a kernel compiled for, e.g., 2 CPUs will boot
> > but
> > only use 2 CPUs on a >2 CPU system. Setting this to a value
> > larger
> > than 64 will cause the use of a CPU mask array, causing a small
> > - performance hit.
> > + performance hit. And setting it larger than zero risks all
> > + manner of software bugs, so we just play it safe.
> >
> > config HOTPLUG_CPU
> > bool "Support for hot-pluggable CPUs (EXPERIMENTAL)"
> > diff --git a/arch/m32r/Kconfig b/arch/m32r/Kconfig
> > index ef80a65..68b9e88 100644
> > --- a/arch/m32r/Kconfig
> > +++ b/arch/m32r/Kconfig
> > @@ -300,14 +300,16 @@ config CHIP_M32700_TS1
> > default n
> >
> > config NR_CPUS
> > - int "Maximum number of CPUs (2-32)"
> > - range 2 32
> > + int "Maximum number of CPUs (0-0)"
> > + range 0 0
> > depends on SMP
> > - default "2"
> > + default "0"
> > help
> > This allows you to specify the maximum number of CPUs which this
> > kernel will support. The maximum supported value is 32 and the
> > - minimum value which makes sense is 2.
> > + minimum value which makes sense is 2. Zero may not make sense,
> > + but given that there is much in this world that does not make
> > + sense, zero it is!
> >
> > This is purely to save memory - each supported CPU adds
> > approximately eight kilobytes to the kernel image.
> > diff --git a/arch/mips/Kconfig b/arch/mips/Kconfig
> > index 5ab6e89..3d7d06c 100644
> > --- a/arch/mips/Kconfig
> > +++ b/arch/mips/Kconfig
> > @@ -2192,16 +2192,16 @@ config NR_CPUS_DEFAULT_64
> > bool
> >
> > config NR_CPUS
> > - int "Maximum number of CPUs (2-64)"
> > - range 1 64 if NR_CPUS_DEFAULT_1
> > + int "Maximum number of CPUs (0-0)"
> > + range 0 0 if NR_CPUS_DEFAULT_1
> > depends on SMP
> > - default "1" if NR_CPUS_DEFAULT_1
> > - default "2" if NR_CPUS_DEFAULT_2
> > - default "4" if NR_CPUS_DEFAULT_4
> > - default "8" if NR_CPUS_DEFAULT_8
> > - default "16" if NR_CPUS_DEFAULT_16
> > - default "32" if NR_CPUS_DEFAULT_32
> > - default "64" if NR_CPUS_DEFAULT_64
> > + default "0" if NR_CPUS_DEFAULT_1
> > + default "0" if NR_CPUS_DEFAULT_2
> > + default "0" if NR_CPUS_DEFAULT_4
> > + default "0" if NR_CPUS_DEFAULT_8
> > + default "0" if NR_CPUS_DEFAULT_16
> > + default "0" if NR_CPUS_DEFAULT_32
> > + default "0" if NR_CPUS_DEFAULT_64
> > help
> > This allows you to specify the maximum number of CPUs which this
> > kernel will support. The maximum supported value is 32 for 32-bit
> > @@ -2212,7 +2212,8 @@ config NR_CPUS
> > This is purely to save memory - each supported CPU adds
> > approximately eight kilobytes to the kernel image. For best
> > performance should round up your number of processors to the next
> > - power of two.
> > + power of two. And just think how much more memory we will
> > + save by setting the limit to zero!
> >
> > source "kernel/time/Kconfig"
> >
> > diff --git a/arch/mn10300/Kconfig b/arch/mn10300/Kconfig
> > index 8f1c40d..85fc112 100644
> > --- a/arch/mn10300/Kconfig
> > +++ b/arch/mn10300/Kconfig
> > @@ -201,7 +201,8 @@ config SMP
> > config NR_CPUS
> > int
> > depends on SMP
> > - default "2"
> > + range 0 0
> > + default "0"
> >
> > source "kernel/Kconfig.preempt"
> >
> > diff --git a/arch/parisc/Kconfig b/arch/parisc/Kconfig
> > index 242a1b7..358eaf8 100644
> > --- a/arch/parisc/Kconfig
> > +++ b/arch/parisc/Kconfig
> > @@ -254,10 +254,10 @@ config HPUX
> > depends on !64BIT
> >
> > config NR_CPUS
> > - int "Maximum number of CPUs (2-32)"
> > - range 2 32
> > + int "Maximum number of CPUs (0-0)"
> > + range 0 0
> > depends on SMP
> > - default "32"
> > + default "0"
> >
> > endmenu
> >
> > diff --git a/arch/powerpc/platforms/Kconfig.cputype
> > b/arch/powerpc/platforms/Kconfig.cputype
> > index 425db18..5e607e0 100644
> > --- a/arch/powerpc/platforms/Kconfig.cputype
> > +++ b/arch/powerpc/platforms/Kconfig.cputype
> > @@ -356,11 +356,11 @@ config SMP
> > If you don't know what to do here, say N.
> >
> > config NR_CPUS
> > - int "Maximum number of CPUs (2-8192)"
> > - range 2 8192
> > + int "Maximum number of CPUs (0-0)"
> > + range 0 0
> > depends on SMP
> > - default "32" if PPC64
> > - default "4"
> > + default "0" if PPC64
> > + default "0"
> >
> > config NOT_COHERENT_CACHE
> > bool
> > diff --git a/arch/s390/Kconfig b/arch/s390/Kconfig
> > index d172758..f9bc067 100644
> > --- a/arch/s390/Kconfig
> > +++ b/arch/s390/Kconfig
> > @@ -169,15 +169,17 @@ config SMP
> > Even if you don't know what to do here, say Y.
> >
> > config NR_CPUS
> > - int "Maximum number of CPUs (2-64)"
> > - range 2 64
> > + int "Maximum number of CPUs (0-0)"
> > + range 0 0
> > depends on SMP
> > - default "32" if !64BIT
> > - default "64" if 64BIT
> > + default "0" if !64BIT
> > + default "0" if 64BIT
> > help
> > This allows you to specify the maximum number of CPUs which this
> > kernel will support. The maximum supported value is 64 and the
> > - minimum value which makes sense is 2.
> > + minimum value which makes sense is 2. The minimal value that
> > + makes sense might well be 2, but we all know that the only
> > + -sane- value is zero!
> >
> > This is purely to save memory - each supported CPU adds
> > approximately sixteen kilobytes to the kernel image.
> > diff --git a/arch/sh/Kconfig b/arch/sh/Kconfig
> > index 713fb58..5ddc7c0 100644
> > --- a/arch/sh/Kconfig
> > +++ b/arch/sh/Kconfig
> > @@ -705,18 +705,19 @@ config SMP
> > If you don't know what to do here, say N.
> >
> > config NR_CPUS
> > - int "Maximum number of CPUs (2-32)"
> > - range 2 32
> > + int "Maximum number of CPUs (0-0)"
> > + range 0 0
> > depends on SMP
> > - default "4" if CPU_SUBTYPE_SHX3
> > - default "2"
> > + default "0" if CPU_SUBTYPE_SHX3
> > + default "0"
> > help
> > This allows you to specify the maximum number of CPUs which this
> > kernel will support. The maximum supported value is 32 and the
> > minimum value which makes sense is 2.
> >
> > This is purely to save memory - each supported CPU adds
> > - approximately eight kilobytes to the kernel image.
> > + approximately eight kilobytes to the kernel image. Debloating
> > + is the way, NR_CPUS to zero today!!!
> >
> > config HOTPLUG_CPU
> > bool "Support for hot-pluggable CPUs (EXPERIMENTAL)"
> > diff --git a/arch/sparc/Kconfig b/arch/sparc/Kconfig
> > index ca5580e..0de9f0f 100644
> > --- a/arch/sparc/Kconfig
> > +++ b/arch/sparc/Kconfig
> > @@ -177,10 +177,10 @@ config SMP
> > config NR_CPUS
> > int "Maximum number of CPUs"
> > depends on SMP
> > - range 2 32 if SPARC32
> > - range 2 1024 if SPARC64
> > - default 32 if SPARC32
> > - default 64 if SPARC64
> > + range 0 0 if SPARC32
> > + range 0 0 if SPARC64
> > + default 0 if SPARC32
> > + default 0 if SPARC64
> >
> > source kernel/Kconfig.hz
> >
> > diff --git a/arch/tile/Kconfig b/arch/tile/Kconfig
> > index 11270ca..a05112c 100644
> > --- a/arch/tile/Kconfig
> > +++ b/arch/tile/Kconfig
> > @@ -126,14 +126,15 @@ source "init/Kconfig"
> > menu "Tilera-specific configuration"
> >
> > config NR_CPUS
> > - int "Maximum number of tiles (2-255)"
> > - range 2 255
> > + int "Maximum number of tiles (0-0)"
> > + range 0 0
> > depends on SMP
> > - default "64"
> > + default "0"
> > ---help---
> > Building with 64 is the recommended value, but a slightly
> > smaller kernel memory footprint results from using a smaller
> > - value on chips with fewer tiles.
> > + value on chips with fewer tiles. To minimize both memory
> > + footprint and bugs, use zero and only zero.
> >
> > source "kernel/time/Kconfig"
> >
> > diff --git a/arch/x86/Kconfig b/arch/x86/Kconfig
> > index 5bed94e..a6977f2 100644
> > --- a/arch/x86/Kconfig
> > +++ b/arch/x86/Kconfig
> > @@ -773,19 +773,21 @@ config MAXSMP
> >
> > config NR_CPUS
> > int "Maximum number of CPUs" if SMP && !MAXSMP
> > - range 2 8 if SMP && X86_32 && !X86_BIGSMP
> > - range 2 512 if SMP && !MAXSMP
> > - default "1" if !SMP
> > - default "4096" if MAXSMP
> > - default "32" if SMP && (X86_NUMAQ || X86_SUMMIT || X86_BIGSMP ||
> > X86_ES7000)
> > - default "8" if SMP
> > + range 0 0 if SMP && X86_32 && !X86_BIGSMP
> > + range 0 0 if SMP && !MAXSMP
> > + default "0" if !SMP
> > + default "0" if MAXSMP
> > + default "0" if SMP && (X86_NUMAQ || X86_SUMMIT || X86_BIGSMP ||
> > X86_ES7000)
> > + default "0" if SMP
> > ---help---
> > This allows you to specify the maximum number of CPUs which this
> > kernel will support. The maximum supported value is 512 and the
> > minimum value which makes sense is 2.
> >
> > This is purely to save memory - each supported CPU adds
> > - approximately eight kilobytes to the kernel image.
> > + approximately eight kilobytes to the kernel image. But
> > + the first supported CPU brings a lot of bugs with it, so
> > + for ultimate reliability, set the number of CPUs to zero.
> >
> > config SCHED_SMT
> > bool "SMT (Hyperthreading) scheduler support"
> >
> > --
> > To unsubscribe from this list: send the line "unsubscribe linux-hexagon" in
> > the body of a message to majordomo@vger.kernel.org
> > More majordomo info at http://vger.kernel.org/majordomo-info.html
> >



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