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SubjectRe: [PATCH v3 00/31] Hardware Events Report Mecanism (HERM)
Em 12-02-2012 10:08, Borislav Petkov escreveu:
> On Fri, Feb 10, 2012 at 02:39:42PM -0200, Mauro Carvalho Chehab wrote:
>> IMO, we should provide a Kconfig to allow disabling the legacy sysfs, but
>> keep it enabled by default. With time, we may remove it together with
>> the backport code.
> Yeah, why you want to remove them at all, actually? There wasn't any reason
> specified.

There are two reasons:

1) API sake. After having the tools ported to use traces and the newer
nodes, the old stuff will be there for no good reason;

2) keeping there requires the core to track and increment errors on both
csrow/channel counters and the (up to 3) layers counters.

So, it is a cleanup. Yet, there's no reason for deprecating it soon. The
removal of the old stuff may happen a few years after its merge upstream.

> [..]
>>>> kworker/u:5-198 [006] 1341.771535: mc_error_mce: mce#0: Corrected
>>>> error memory read error on label "CPU_SrcID#0_Channel#3_DIMM#0 "
>>>> (channel 0 slot 0 page 0x3a2db9 offset 0x7ac grain 32 syndrome
>>>> 0x0 CPU: 0, MCGc/s: 1000c14/0, MC5: 8c00004000010090, ADDR/MISC:
>>>> 00000003a2db97ac/00000020404c4c86, RIP: 00:<0000000000000000>, TSC: 0,
>>>> PROCESSOR: 0:206d6, TIME: 1328829250, SOCKET: 0, APIC: 0 1 error(s):
>>>> Unknown: Err=0001:0090 socket=0 channel=2/mask=4 rank=1)
>>> This is too much, you probably only want to say:
>>> Corrected DRAM read error on DIMM "CPU..."
>>> The channel, slot, page etc should be only Kconfigurable for people who
>>> really need it.
>> Not sure if it is a good idea to remove those info via Kconfig, as this
>> would mean that the userspace parsers will need to be prepared to work
>> with both ways. It is probably better/easier to pass everything to
>> userspace, and add a filter there.
> As I said countless times already, the normal case is not interested
> in so much information - they want to know only which DIMM caused the
> error. Unless someone has compelling reasons to keep that info, I don't
> want to burden the reporting path with unnecessary info.

Either way work for me, but, as I said, I doubt that someone would disable
it. It would be great to hear more opinions about removing the additional
info at the ML's.

>>>> kworker/u:5-198 [006] 1341.792536: mc_error_mce: mce#0: Corrected
>>>> error Can't discover the memory rank for ch addr 0x60f2a6d76 on
>>>> label "any memory" ( page 0x0 offset 0x0 grain 32 syndrome 0x0
>>>> CPU: 0, MCGc/s: 1000c14/0, MC5: 8c00004000010090, ADDR/MISC:
>>>> 0000000c1e54dab6/00000020404c4c86, RIP: 00:<0000000000000000>, TSC: 0,
>>>> PROCESSOR: 0:206d6, TIME: 1328829250, SOCKET: 0, APIC: 0 )
>>> I guess we can report EDAC failures to map the DIMM properly like this.
>> Hmm... Yes, that may work, but changing all the drivers to provide the
>> information on that way is not simple.
>> There are two different situations here:
>> 1) the driver knows that it was not able to detect the memory rank.
>> all it needs to do is to fill the message like above. No issue at all.
>> 2) the driver thinks that the information were decoded, but there's
>> a bug there. This is what the "out-of-range" error message tracks.
> That's not hard to fix at the driver level - see my other mail about the single
> trace_hw_error thing.

Well, such checks may be moved to happen inside the drivers. If the driver
is doing that, the core will never produce such error. In the case of
the drivers I'm maintaining, I prefer to let the core check if the provided
values are sane and, if not, produce a different error message.

>> Changing all drivers to provide a message like above for (2) requires
>> lots of changes and tests, on each driver, and will provide a very
>> little benefit: if such error ever happens, the EDAC driver needs a
>> fix, and the parsed information is not reliable (the mce one can still
>> be used). In such case, a bug against the driver should be filled.
>> There's no way for doing properly at core level, as the way to decode
>> such out-of-range bugs is memory-architecture dependent. So, something
>> like:
>> "Can't discover the memory rank for ch addr 0x60f2a6d76"
>> Doesn't make much sense for FB-DIMM memory driver.
> This is exactly why the drivers themselves should create the error
> message

Agreed. This is there already.

> and stick it into the trace_* call.

Let the drivers handle the trace_* call directly is not a good approach, as
it would require to move several parts of the edac core into the drivers.
The core is responsible for doing several tasks when an error is produced:
- get the associated DIMM(s);
- increment the error counters;
- generate the traces;
- generate the printk (part of the old API backward compatibility
that could be removed together with the old sysfs nodes).

Such handling is generic enough to be in core. Moving it to drivers would
just cause duplicated code to be added on all drivers.

> [snip more]
> I don't see a problem with the driver creating a proper/fitting error
> message string and sticking it into the trace_* call.

See above.

>>>> New sysfs nodes are now provided, to match the real memory architecture.
>>> ... and we need those because...?
>> Because manufacturers wanting to map their motherboards into EDAC is finding
>> a very bad time, as there's no easy way to map what they have with a random
>> driver-specific fake csrows/channel information.
> Not fake, they're actually chip select rows and channels == DRAM
> controllers.

It is fake. The chip select rows/channels are controlled by the Advanced Memory Buffer
(AMB), on FB-DIMMs. The AMB is inside the DIMM, and provides physical isolation
of the DRAM chips (see JEDEC JESD No. 206).

The FB-DIMM Memory controllers aren't capable (and don't care) of seeing the
DRAM's csrows/channels/ranks used by the AMB. All they see is their own buses
(typically, 4 buses, sub-divided into branches and channels), and the DIMM number
inside each channel. So, it selects an entire DIMM, instead of a single DRAM chip.

The branches are used to provide 128-wide data access, in a similar way of what the
"channel" provides with a traditional "csrows/channel" approach.

Each of such bus is like this one:

Also, as I said, the new Intel memory controllers found on Nehalem and Sandy
Bridge also don't allow seeing the DRAM chips individually. So, the chip select
is not visible there.

>> Anywone wanting to do such
>> mapping right now would need to read and understand the edac driver. The
>> only driver where such mapping is easy seems to be amd64_edac, as it doesn't
>> support FB-DIMMs, nor the memory controller abstracts csrows information or
>> provides more than 2 channels.
>> For example, on the above driver, there's no "channel-b". The error were
>> on branch 1, channel 1 of branch 1 (the third channel of the memory controller).
>> The only way to discover it is after carefully analyzing the driver. So, anyone
>> trying to map what the motherboard's label DIMM 1D would quickly discover that
>> it means branch 1, channel 1, slot 1, but some drivers would map it as:
>> csrow 3, channel 1 (branch, channel -> csrow; slot ->channel)
>> others as:
>> csrow 7, channel 0 (branch, channel, slot -> csrow; channel always 0)
>> and others as:
>> csrow 1, channel 3. (slot -> csrow; branch, channel -> channel)
>> (yes, all 3 types of mapping exists at the drivers)
> So what are you saying? I don't see how your a little bit changed
> mapping helps. As I told you already, motherboard designers don't always
> comply with the placing of the DIMM connectors to the hw vendor spec and
> place the channel and slots routing in an conveniently increasing order.
> Again, you need the silk screen labels the way the BIOS sees them.

It is not a "little bit changed" mapping. It is the removal of the fake
information introduced by the driver that helps hw vendors to provide
us maps between the sink screen labels and how they associate with the
memory controller's branch/channel/slot, channel/slots or chip select/channel.

> [..]
>>> What happens with the inject_* sysfs nodes which are in EDAC already?
>> Will keep there, as-is. This is just yet-another testing feature, and won't
>> interfere or superseed the existing ones.
> Then it should be made to use the existing ones or you should have a
> compelling reason why you can't reuse the existing ones.

The reason is simple: only two or three drivers have error injection, and I
need to test my patchset on several boards that don't provide it.

> If you really
> need it, you should stick it in debugfs and behind a debugging Kconfig
> option.

It is behind the debug Kconfig option. While I agree that moving it to
debugfs makes sense, as it makes sense to move all the other error injection
code to debugfs, I won't invest more time on it, as I still have a lot of
work to do testing those changes.

This feature is on a separate patch. If it is not acceptable as is, I'll
just drop it from the final submission, and keep it just for my tests.

>>>> The memory error handling function has now the capability of reporting
>>>> more than one dimm, when it is not possible to put the fingers into
>>>> a single place.
>>>> For example:
>>>> # echo 1 >/sys/devices/system/edac/mc/mc0/fake_inject && dmesg |tail -1
>>>> [ 2878.130704] EDAC MC0: CE FAKE ERROR on mc#0channel#1slot#0 mc#0channel#1slot#1 mc#0channel#1slot#2 (channel 1 page 0x0 offset 0x0 grain 0 syndrome 0x0 for EDAC testing only)
>>>> All dimm memories present on channel 1 are pointed as one of them were
>>>> responsible for the error.
>>> I don't see how this can be of any help? I like the EDAC failure message
>>> better: if we cannot map it properly for some reason, we tell so the
>>> user instead of generating some misleading data.
>> This is not a misleading data. Depending on how the ECC code is generated,
>> there's no way to point to a single dimm, because two or more memories are
>> used to produce the ECC data.
>> FB-DIMM memories can be in lockstep mode. If so, UE errors happen on a
>> memory pair.
>> If the system admin wants to quickly recover the machine, he needs to know
>> that replacing the 2 affected memories, the machine will work. He can later
>> put the affected memories on a separate hardware, using a single-channel
>> mode, in order to discover what's broken, but pointing to the two affected
>> memories helps him to recover quickly, while still allowing him to further
>> track where the problem is.
>> Btw, on Sandy Bridge, a memory can be on both lockstep and mirror mode. So,
>> if an UE error occurs, 4 DIMM's maybe affected.
> This sounds very strange, a single UE from multiple DIMMs? Reading
> through "4.2 Southbound Commands" of the JEDEC FBDIMM spec, on several
> occasions it states that only single DIMMs are being addressed (DS[2:0]
> field) when sending commands to them southwards.
> @Tony: hey Tony, is it true that FBDIMM can actually do DIMM
> interleaving when doing DIMM reads/writes and the ECC calculation is
> done on words from different DIMMs? The statement that the ECC word
> would effectively protect multiple DIMMs and when an error is reported,
> it would mean "multiple DIMMs affected" sounds pretty strange for my
> taste...

If is there a way, I wasn't able to discover, nor the other developers
that worked with FB-DIMM's.

Look at the original EDAC error report errors for FB-DIMM's:

void edac_mc_handle_fbd_ue(struct mem_ctl_info *mci,
unsigned int csrow,
unsigned int channela,
unsigned int channelb, char *msg);

void edac_mc_handle_fbd_ce(struct mem_ctl_info *mci,
unsigned int csrow, unsigned int channel, char *msg);

For CE, it is able to detect what dimm has problem, but, when lockstep is
enabled, an Uncorrected Error would point to the two channels at the affected
branch. Also, when memory mirror is enabled, there are 4 DIMMs associated to the
same 128-bit memory address. Any one of those memories could be affected by
the error. Only the Sandy Bridge driver handles memory mirror, and I'll need
to add some extra logic to the location detect algorithm, in order to work
with it (it is currently on my TODO list).

> [..]
>>> "labels"? See above, if we cannot report it properly, we better say so
>>> instead of misleading with multiple labels.
>> What the poor user is expected to do on such case, if it is not pointed to
>> some memories for him to test? Ok, we can improve the message to make it
>> clearer that likely just one of the pointed memories were affected, but
>> letting him with no glue would be a nightmare for the users.
> Why are you sticking so much to those error messages?! If your driver
> is programmed properly, it should detect the DIMM in error just fine,
> without any "out-of-range" issues or multiple labels. The error case
> should be very very seldom and in such case, stating that we're in error
> is fine!

You're the one that it is concerned about it, wanting to integrate it to
something else ;)

Such error message has a different nature from the normal one: it is a driver
bug. It should be reported as such, and not as an 'ordinary' hardware error
message. That's why it has a different event: it is a kernel bug.

>>>> Other technical details are provided, inside parenthesis, in order to
>>>> allow hardware manufacturers, OEM, etc to have more details on it, and
>>>> discover what DRAM has problems, if they want/need to.
>>> Exactly, "if they want/need to" sounds like a Kconfig option to me which
>>> can be turned on when needed.
>> I'm yet to know a real usecase where the user doesn't want that. He may not be
>> the final consumer of such data, but what we've seen, in practice, is that,
>> when people need to replace bad memory sticks, they go after the machine vendors,
>> asking for warranty replacement. The vendors usually request a more detailed
>> info than just "dimm xxx is broken". The rest of the log helps them to show
>> what actually happened with the memories, and the vendor to verify that the
>> complain is pertinent.
>> Anyway, as I said before, the better would be that the userspace tool that
>> retrieves such data to have an option to show the details or not.
> Right, let's see which of that bulk of additional info the machine
> vendor could use:
> kworker/u:5-198 [006] 1341.771535: mc_error_mce: mce#0: Corrected error memory read error on label "CPU_SrcID#0_Channel#3_DIMM#0 " (channel 0
> slot 0 page 0x3a2db9 offset 0x7ac grain 32 syndrome 0x0 CPU: 0, MCGc/s: 1000c14/0, MC5: 8c00004000010090, ADDR/MISC:
> 00000003a2db97ac/00000020404c4c86, RIP: 00:<0000000000000000>, TSC: 0, PROCESSOR: 0:206d6, TIME: 1328829250, SOCKET: 0, APIC: 0 1 error(s): Unknown:
> Err=0001:0090 socket=0 channel=2/mask=4 rank=1)
> - process name: hmm, no
> - pid: nope,

Trace core changes are required for those. I won't be addressing this
on the proposed patchset.

> - which logical processor saw the error: hmm, no
> - label: oh yeah, this one it wants to know
> - memory page: I don't think so

This could be used to detect what processes got affected by a
memory error.

> - offset, grain, syndrome: dunno, maybe or maybe not
> - MCG, MC5 (it should be 4, btw), ADDR/MISC etc MCE bank MSRs: nah, not really
> - TSC... not even worth mentioning

The logical processor, MCG, MC5...TSC were added here per your request ;)
Or maybe I just miss-understood your request...

You asked me to create a merge the mce_record trace event with the memory
error. They're there due to that.

I'm more than happy to discard this new event and use the "mc_error" also
for mce-originated errors. The mce drivers can add some of the above information
at the driver-specific detail message (time, error quantity, error code?).

> So, it looks to me, this info is only tangentially, if at all, important
> to the machine vendor. So, add only the fields which are really
> important instead of blindly dumping all we have into the trace and thus
> bloating the trace unnecessarily and making it less usable.

There is an alternate option, not sure if that would work for trace: we can keep
there all the info at the trace call, but removing those useless information from
the printk, like:

TP_printk("mce#%d: %s error %s on label \"%s\" (%s %s CPU: %d, MCGc/s: % llx/%llx, MC%d: %016Lx, ADDR/MISC: %016Lx/%016Lx, RIP: %02x:<%016Lx>, TSC: %llx, PROCESSOR: %u:%x, TIME: %llu, SOCKET: %u, APIC: %x %s)",
TP_printk("mce#%d: %s error %s on label \"%s\"",

This way, a trace report file will contain everything there, but the displayed
message would be simpler.

Even better, maybe the trace core could be changed to accept two types of
TP_printk parameters: one consuming the full data, and a simplified "user-friendly"
one for those that don't want to know the error details.

With this, if the user ever needs the extra details (for example, because of a
HW vendor request), the information can be later retrieved from the trace report
binary format.

I've no idea how easy would be to implement it at trace.

>>>> Ah, now that the memory architecture is properly represented, the DIMM
>>>> labels are automatically filled by the mc_alloc function call, in order
>>>> to properly represent the memory architecture.
>>>> For example, in the case of Sandy Bridge, a memory can be described as:
>>>> mc#0channel#1slot#0
>>>> This matches the way the memory is known inside the technical information,
>>>> and, hopefully, at the OEM manuals for the motherboard.
>>> This is not always the case. You need the silkscreen labels from the
>>> board manufacturers as they do not always match with the DIMM topology
>>> from the hw vendor. OEM vendor BIOS should do this with a table of
>>> silkscreen labels or something.
>> Yes. However, as I've already explained, OEM vendors don't know what
>> "csrow 3, channel 2" means, as there are several different ways of mapping
>> channel#, slot# into csrow/channel, and there are at least 4 or 5 different
>> mapping logic inside the drivers.
>> If you take a look at the existing drivers that don't use csrow/channel,
>> as a general rule, each driver will to its own proprietary fake mapping,
>> with causes lots of problem for OEM's, as they need a hardware engineer
>> (and/or the hardware diagram) to get the real data, and a software engineer
>> to analyze the driver and map it into the EDAC's internal fake representation.
> Let me put it clearer this time: I hardly doubt that having a bit
> different nomenclature than CS and channel, i.e. MC, channel and slot
> would help identify the DIMMs since board manufacturers don't always
> lay out them as the hw vendors wish for a multitude of reasons. And I'd
> guess the SB case is not different. But then again, adding those as a
> generated string message which only the relevant drivers issue and it
> doesn't affect the rest of the drivers is fine with me.
> Not when there are new sysfs nodes which are valid only on those systems
> and useless on others.

Let me put it clearer: fake data is causing troubles. I have some BZ's opened
due to that. Drivers should not need to lie to the EDAC core by manufacturing
some random fake info for the EDAC core to accept them.

This is a major bug and requires a fix.

Of course, such fix should not break the existing drivers, or require existing
applications to change to keep working.

Putting it on numbers:

There are 9 non-x86 drivers (PPC and tilera). I suspect that at least some of
them are also lying to the EDAC core: on several such drivers, there's just one
channel, and, even just one chip select on a few. As most of them are for
embedded hardware, I doubt that they even have DIMMs on some of such hardware.

There are currently 18 x86 drivers using EDAC:

6 drivers for 32 bits hardware (most are for DDR first-gen memories):
amd76x_edac - X86_32
e7xxx_edac - X86_32
i82860_edac - X86_32, RAMBUS
i82875p_edac - X86_32
r82600_edac - X86_32
i82443bxgx_edac - X86_32, BROKEN

6 drivers for 64 bits hardware that uses csrows/channel:
amd64_edac - DDR2, DDR3
e752x_edac - Intel Core 2Duo, DDR2 memories
i3000_edac - DDR2
i3200_edac - DDR2
i82975x_edac - DDR2
x38_edac - DDR2

6 drivers for 64 bits hardware where there's no csrows/channel visible by
the memory controller:

i5000_edac - FB-DIMM, fakes csrows/channel with a static map
i5100_edac - FB-DIMM, fakes csrows/channel with a static map
i5400_edac - FB-DIMM, fakes csrows/channel with a static map
i7300_edac - FB-DIMM, fakes csrows/channel with a static map
i7core_edac - DDR3, fakes csrows/channel by dynamically getting a
random free csrows/channel pair
sb_edac - DDR3, fakes csrows/channel by dynamically getting a
random free csrows/channel pair

So, from the 12 drivers for CPU's with 64 bits support, _half_ of them are lying
to EDAC, providing fake information to the kernel and to the userspace, each with
their own way to produce the fake csrows/channel info.

This is fixed by this patchset.


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