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Subject[PATCH 1/6 v12] gpio: Add a block GPIO API to gpiolib
Date
The recurring task of providing simultaneous access to GPIO lines (especially
for bit banging protocols) needs an appropriate API.

This patch adds a kernel internal "Block GPIO" API that enables simultaneous
access to several GPIOs. This is done by abstracting GPIOs to an n-bit word:
Once requested, it provides access to a group of GPIOs which can range over
multiple GPIO chips.

Signed-off-by: Roland Stigge <stigge@antcom.de>
---

Documentation/gpio.txt | 58 +++++++++++
drivers/gpio/gpiolib.c | 227 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
include/asm-generic/gpio.h | 17 +++
include/linux/gpio.h | 97 +++++++++++++++++++
4 files changed, 399 insertions(+)

--- linux-2.6.orig/Documentation/gpio.txt
+++ linux-2.6/Documentation/gpio.txt
@@ -481,6 +481,64 @@ exact name string of pinctrl device has
argument to this routine.


+Block GPIO
+----------
+
+The above described interface concentrates on handling single GPIOs. However,
+in applications where it is critical to set several GPIOs at once, this
+interface doesn't work well, e.g. bit-banging protocols via grouped GPIO lines.
+Consider a GPIO controller that is connected via a slow I2C line. When
+switching two or more GPIOs one after another, there can be considerable time
+between those events. This is solved by an interface called Block GPIO:
+
+struct gpio_block *gpio_block_create(unsigned int *gpios, size_t size,
+ const char *name);
+
+This creates a new block of GPIOs as a list of GPIO numbers with the specified
+size which are accessible via the returned struct gpio_block and the accessor
+functions described below. Please note that you need to request the GPIOs
+separately via gpio_request(). Similarly, the direction of the used GPIOs need
+to be set by the user before using the block. An arbitrary list of globally
+valid GPIOs can be specified, even ranging over several gpio_chips. Actual
+handling of I/O operations will be done on a best effort base, i.e.
+simultaneous I/O only where possible by hardware and implemented in the
+respective GPIO driver. The number of GPIOs in one block is limited to the
+number of bits in an unsigned long, or BITS_PER_LONG, of the respective
+platform, i.e. typically at least 32 on a 32 bit system, and at least 64 on a
+64 bit system. However, several blocks can be defined at once.
+
+unsigned long gpio_block_get(struct gpio_block *block, unsigned long mask);
+void gpio_block_set(struct gpio_block *block, unsigned long mask,
+ unsigned long values);
+
+With those accessor functions, setting and getting the GPIO values is possible,
+analogous to gpio_get_value() and gpio_set_value(). Each bit in the return
+value of gpio_block_get() and in the value argument of gpio_block_set()
+corresponds to a bit specified on gpio_block_create(). The mask parameters
+specify which bits in the block are acted upon. This is useful to let some bits
+untouched when doing a set operation on the block.
+
+Block operations in hardware are only possible where the respective GPIO driver
+implements it, falling back to using single GPIO operations where the driver
+only implements single GPIO access.
+
+If a GPIO block includes GPIOs from several chips, the chips are handled one
+after another in the order of first specification in the list of GPIOs defined
+in the GPIO block, starting with bit 0. Note that in this case, you typically
+can't assume simultaneous access.
+
+void gpio_block_free(struct gpio_block *block);
+
+After the GPIO block isn't used anymore, it should be free'd via
+gpio_block_free().
+
+int gpio_block_register(struct gpio_block *block);
+void gpio_block_unregister(struct gpio_block *block);
+
+These functions can be used to register a GPIO block. Blocks registered this
+way will be available via userspace API.
+
+
What do these conventions omit?
===============================
One of the biggest things these conventions omit is pin multiplexing, since
--- linux-2.6.orig/drivers/gpio/gpiolib.c
+++ linux-2.6/drivers/gpio/gpiolib.c
@@ -83,6 +83,8 @@ static inline void desc_set_label(struct
#endif
}

+static LIST_HEAD(gpio_block_list);
+
/* Warn when drivers omit gpio_request() calls -- legal but ill-advised
* when setting direction, and otherwise illegal. Until board setup code
* and drivers use explicit requests everywhere (which won't happen when
@@ -217,6 +219,16 @@ static int gpio_get_direction(unsigned g
return status;
}

+static bool gpio_block_is_output(struct gpio_block *block)
+{
+ int i;
+
+ for (i = 0; i < block->ngpio; i++)
+ if (!test_bit(FLAG_IS_OUT, &gpio_desc[block->gpio[i]].flags))
+ return false;
+ return true;
+}
+
#ifdef CONFIG_GPIO_SYSFS

/* lock protects against unexport_gpio() being called while
@@ -1799,6 +1811,221 @@ void __gpio_set_value(unsigned gpio, int
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(__gpio_set_value);

+static struct gpio_block_chip *gpio_block_chip_get(struct gpio_block *block,
+ struct gpio_chip *gc)
+{
+ struct gpio_block_chip *i;
+
+ list_for_each_entry(i, &block->gbc_list, list)
+ if (i->gc == gc)
+ return i;
+ return NULL;
+}
+
+struct gpio_block *gpio_block_create(unsigned *gpios, size_t size,
+ const char *name)
+{
+ struct gpio_block *block;
+ struct gpio_block_chip *gbc;
+ struct gpio_remap *remap;
+ int i;
+
+ if (size < 1 || size > BITS_PER_LONG)
+ return ERR_PTR(-EINVAL);
+
+ for (i = 0; i < size; i++)
+ if (!gpio_is_valid(gpios[i]))
+ return ERR_PTR(-EINVAL);
+
+ block = kzalloc(sizeof(struct gpio_block), GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!block)
+ return ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);
+
+ block->name = name;
+ block->ngpio = size;
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&block->gbc_list);
+ block->gpio = kzalloc(sizeof(*block->gpio) * size, GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!block->gpio)
+ goto err;
+
+ memcpy(block->gpio, gpios, sizeof(*block->gpio) * size);
+
+ for (i = 0; i < size; i++) {
+ struct gpio_chip *gc = gpio_to_chip(gpios[i]);
+ int bit = gpios[i] - gc->base;
+ gbc = gpio_block_chip_get(block, gc);
+
+ if (!gbc) {
+ gbc = kzalloc(sizeof(struct gpio_block_chip),
+ GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!gbc)
+ goto err;
+ list_add_tail(&gbc->list, &block->gbc_list);
+ gbc->gc = gc;
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&gbc->remap_list);
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * represents the mask necessary on calls to the driver's
+ * .get_block() and .set_block()
+ */
+ gbc->mask |= BIT(bit);
+
+ /*
+ * collect gpios that are specified together, represented by
+ * neighboring bits
+ *
+ * get last element and create new element if list empty or
+ * new element necessary
+ */
+ remap = list_entry(gbc->remap_list.prev, struct gpio_remap,
+ list);
+ if (list_empty(&gbc->remap_list) ||
+ (bit - i != remap->offset)) {
+ remap = kzalloc(sizeof(struct gpio_remap), GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!remap)
+ goto err;
+ list_add_tail(&remap->list, &gbc->remap_list);
+ remap->offset = bit - i;
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * represents the mask necessary for bit reordering between
+ * gpio_block (i.e. as specified on gpio_block_get() and
+ * gpio_block_set()) and gpio_chip domain (i.e. as specified on
+ * the driver's .set_block() and .get_block())
+ */
+ remap->mask |= BIT(i);
+ }
+
+ return block;
+err:
+ gpio_block_free(block);
+ return ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(gpio_block_create);
+
+void gpio_block_free(struct gpio_block *block)
+{
+ struct list_head *i, *itmp, *j, *jtmp;
+ struct gpio_block_chip *gbc;
+ struct gpio_remap *remap;
+
+ list_for_each_safe(i, itmp, &block->gbc_list) {
+ gbc = list_entry(i, struct gpio_block_chip, list);
+ list_del(i);
+ list_for_each_safe(j, jtmp, &gbc->remap_list) {
+ remap = list_entry(j, struct gpio_remap, list);
+ list_del(j);
+ kfree(remap);
+ }
+ kfree(gbc);
+ }
+
+ kfree(block->gpio);
+ kfree(block);
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(gpio_block_free);
+
+unsigned long gpio_block_get(const struct gpio_block *block, unsigned long mask)
+{
+ struct gpio_block_chip *gbc;
+ unsigned long values = 0;
+
+ list_for_each_entry(gbc, &block->gbc_list, list) {
+ struct gpio_remap *remap;
+ int i;
+ unsigned long remapped = 0;
+ unsigned long remapped_mask = 0;
+
+ list_for_each_entry(remap, &gbc->remap_list, list)
+ remapped_mask |= (mask & remap->mask) << remap->offset;
+ remapped_mask &= gbc->mask;
+
+ if (!remapped_mask)
+ continue;
+
+ if (gbc->gc->get_block)
+ remapped = gbc->gc->get_block(gbc->gc, remapped_mask);
+ else
+ /* emulate */
+ for_each_set_bit(i, &remapped_mask, BITS_PER_LONG)
+ remapped |= gbc->gc->get(gbc->gc,
+ gbc->gc->base + i) << i;
+
+ list_for_each_entry(remap, &gbc->remap_list, list)
+ values |= (remapped >> remap->offset) & remap->mask;
+ }
+
+ return values;
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(gpio_block_get);
+
+void gpio_block_set(struct gpio_block *block, unsigned long mask,
+ unsigned long values)
+{
+ struct gpio_block_chip *gbc;
+
+ list_for_each_entry(gbc, &block->gbc_list, list) {
+ struct gpio_remap *remap;
+ int i;
+ unsigned long remapped = 0;
+ unsigned long remapped_mask = 0;
+
+ list_for_each_entry(remap, &gbc->remap_list, list) {
+ remapped |= (values & remap->mask) << remap->offset;
+ remapped_mask |= (mask & remap->mask) << remap->offset;
+ }
+ remapped_mask &= gbc->mask;
+
+ if (!remapped_mask)
+ continue;
+
+ if (gbc->gc->set_block)
+ gbc->gc->set_block(gbc->gc, remapped_mask, remapped);
+ else
+ /* emulate */
+ for_each_set_bit(i, &remapped_mask, BITS_PER_LONG)
+ gbc->gc->set(gbc->gc, gbc->gc->base + i,
+ (remapped >> i) & 1);
+ }
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(gpio_block_set);
+
+struct gpio_block *gpio_block_find_by_name(const char *name)
+{
+ struct gpio_block *i;
+
+ list_for_each_entry(i, &gpio_block_list, list)
+ if (!strcmp(i->name, name))
+ return i;
+ return NULL;
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(gpio_block_find_by_name);
+
+int gpio_block_register(struct gpio_block *block)
+{
+ if (gpio_block_find_by_name(block->name))
+ return -EBUSY;
+
+ list_add(&block->list, &gpio_block_list);
+
+ return 0;
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(gpio_block_register);
+
+void gpio_block_unregister(struct gpio_block *block)
+{
+ struct gpio_block *i;
+
+ list_for_each_entry(i, &gpio_block_list, list)
+ if (i == block) {
+ list_del(&i->list);
+ break;
+ }
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(gpio_block_unregister);
+
/**
* __gpio_cansleep() - report whether gpio value access will sleep
* @gpio: gpio in question
--- linux-2.6.orig/include/asm-generic/gpio.h
+++ linux-2.6/include/asm-generic/gpio.h
@@ -44,6 +44,7 @@ static inline bool gpio_is_valid(int num

struct device;
struct gpio;
+struct gpio_block;
struct seq_file;
struct module;
struct device_node;
@@ -109,6 +110,8 @@ struct gpio_chip {
unsigned offset);
int (*get)(struct gpio_chip *chip,
unsigned offset);
+ unsigned long (*get_block)(struct gpio_chip *chip,
+ unsigned long mask);
int (*direction_output)(struct gpio_chip *chip,
unsigned offset, int value);
int (*set_debounce)(struct gpio_chip *chip,
@@ -116,6 +119,9 @@ struct gpio_chip {

void (*set)(struct gpio_chip *chip,
unsigned offset, int value);
+ void (*set_block)(struct gpio_chip *chip,
+ unsigned long mask,
+ unsigned long values);

int (*to_irq)(struct gpio_chip *chip,
unsigned offset);
@@ -184,6 +190,17 @@ extern void gpio_set_value_cansleep(unsi
extern int __gpio_get_value(unsigned gpio);
extern void __gpio_set_value(unsigned gpio, int value);

+extern struct gpio_block *gpio_block_create(unsigned *gpio, size_t size,
+ const char *name);
+extern void gpio_block_free(struct gpio_block *block);
+extern unsigned long gpio_block_get(const struct gpio_block *block,
+ unsigned long mask);
+extern void gpio_block_set(struct gpio_block *block, unsigned long mask,
+ unsigned long values);
+extern struct gpio_block *gpio_block_find_by_name(const char *name);
+extern int gpio_block_register(struct gpio_block *block);
+extern void gpio_block_unregister(struct gpio_block *block);
+
extern int __gpio_cansleep(unsigned gpio);

extern int __gpio_to_irq(unsigned gpio);
--- linux-2.6.orig/include/linux/gpio.h
+++ linux-2.6/include/linux/gpio.h
@@ -2,6 +2,8 @@
#define __LINUX_GPIO_H

#include <linux/errno.h>
+#include <linux/types.h>
+#include <linux/list.h>

/* see Documentation/gpio.txt */

@@ -39,6 +41,64 @@ struct gpio {
const char *label;
};

+/**
+ * struct gpio_remap - a structure for describing a bit mapping
+ * @mask: a bit mask, relevant for a (partial) mapping
+ * @offset: how many bits to shift to the left (negative: to the right)
+ * @list: several remappings are internally collected in a list
+ *
+ * When we are mapping bit values from one word to another (here: from GPIO
+ * block domain to GPIO driver domain) we first mask them out with mask and
+ * shift them as specified with offset. More complicated mappings are done by
+ * grouping several of those structs and adding the results together.
+ */
+struct gpio_remap {
+ unsigned long mask;
+ int offset;
+
+ struct list_head list;
+};
+
+/**
+ * struct gpio_block_chip - a structure representing chip specific data in a
+ * gpio block
+ * @gc: the chip
+ * @remap_list: list of remappings, there are several necessary if the bits
+ * are not consecutive
+ * @mask: chip specific mask, used for propagating to the driver's
+ * get_block() and set_block() functions
+ * @list: list collecting potentially multiple chips in one block
+ *
+ * This structure holds information about remapping and masking of gpios within
+ * one chip. There can be several of those in one block.
+ */
+struct gpio_block_chip {
+ struct gpio_chip *gc;
+ struct list_head remap_list;
+ unsigned long mask;
+
+ struct list_head list;
+};
+
+/**
+ * struct gpio_block - a structure describing a list of GPIOs for simultaneous
+ * operations
+ * @gbc_list: list of chips in this block, typically just one
+ * @name: the name of this block
+ * @ngpio: number of gpios in this block
+ * @gpio: list of gpios in this block
+ * @list: global list of blocks, maintained by gpiolib
+ */
+struct gpio_block {
+ struct list_head gbc_list;
+ const char *name;
+
+ int ngpio;
+ unsigned *gpio;
+
+ struct list_head list;
+};
+
#ifdef CONFIG_GENERIC_GPIO

#ifdef CONFIG_ARCH_HAVE_CUSTOM_GPIO_H
@@ -169,6 +229,43 @@ static inline void gpio_set_value(unsign
WARN_ON(1);
}

+static inline
+struct gpio_block *gpio_block_create(unsigned *gpios, size_t size,
+ const char *name)
+{
+ WARN_ON(1);
+ return NULL;
+}
+
+static inline void gpio_block_free(struct gpio_block *block)
+{
+ WARN_ON(1);
+}
+
+static inline unsigned long gpio_block_get(const struct gpio_block *block,
+ unsigned long mask)
+{
+ WARN_ON(1);
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static inline void gpio_block_set(struct gpio_block *block, unsigned long mask,
+ unsigned long values)
+{
+ WARN_ON(1);
+}
+
+static inline int gpio_block_register(struct gpio_block *block)
+{
+ WARN_ON(1);
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static inline void gpio_block_unregister(struct gpio_block *block)
+{
+ WARN_ON(1);
+}
+
static inline int gpio_cansleep(unsigned gpio)
{
/* GPIO can never have been requested or set as {in,out}put */

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