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Subject[patch V3] percpu_counter: scalability works
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Shaohua Li reported a scalability problem with many threads doing
mmap()/munmap() calls. vm_committed_as percpu_counter is hitting its
spinlock very hard, if size of mmaped zones are bigger than
percpu_counter batch. We could tune this batch value but better have a
more scalable percpu_counter infrastructure.

Shaohua provided some patches to speedup __percpu_counter_add(), by
removing the need to use a spinlock and use an atomic64_t fbc->count
instead.

Problem of these patches were a possible big deviation seen by
__percpu_counter_sum()

Idea of this patch is to extend Shaohua idea :

We consider _sum() being slow path. We dont try to make it fast [ but
this implementation should be better since we remove the spinlock that
used to serialize _sum() / _add() invocations ]

Add a fbc->sum_cnt, so that _add() can detect a _sum() is in flight, and
directly add to a new atomic64_t field named "fbc->slowcount" (and not
touch its percpu s32 variable so that _sum() can get more accurate
percpu_counter 'Value')

Use an out of line structure to make "struct percpu_count" mostly read
This structure uses its own cache line to reduce false sharing.

Each time one _add() thread overflows its percpu s32 variable, do an
increment of a sequence, so that _sum() can detect at least one cpu
messed the fbc->count and reset its s32 variable.
_sum() can restart its loop, but since sum_cnt is non null, we have
guarantee that the _sum() loop wont be restarted ad infinitum.

_sum() is accurate and not blocking anymore _add() [ It's slowing it a
bit of course since all _add() will touch shared fbc->slowcount ]

On my 2x4x2 cpu (Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5540 @ 2.53GHz) machine, and
64bit kernel, the following bench :

loop (10000000 times) {
p = mmap(128M, ANONYMOUS);
munmap(p, 128M);
}
16 processes started

Before patch:
real 2m14.509s
user 0m13.780s
sys 35m24.170s

After patch:
real 0m34.055s
user 0m17.910s
sys 8m1.680s

Signed-off-by: Eric Dumazet <eric.dumazet@gmail.com>
CC: Shaohua Li <shaohua.li@intel.com>
CC: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
CC: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com>
CC: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
CC: Nick Piggin <npiggin@kernel.dk>
---
V3: remove irq masking in __percpu_counter_add()
initialize fbc->sum_cnt in __percpu_counter_init
include/linux/percpu_counter.h | 26 +++++++---
lib/percpu_counter.c | 79 ++++++++++++++++++++-----------
2 files changed, 72 insertions(+), 33 deletions(-)
diff --git a/include/linux/percpu_counter.h b/include/linux/percpu_counter.h
index 46f6ba5..4aac7f5 100644
--- a/include/linux/percpu_counter.h
+++ b/include/linux/percpu_counter.h
@@ -15,13 +15,25 @@

#ifdef CONFIG_SMP

-struct percpu_counter {
- spinlock_t lock;
- s64 count;
+/*
+ * For performance reasons, we keep this part in a separate cache line
+ */
+struct percpu_counter_rw {
+ atomic64_t count;
+ unsigned int sequence;
+ atomic64_t slowcount;
+
+ /* since we have plenty room, store list here, even if never used */
#ifdef CONFIG_HOTPLUG_CPU
struct list_head list; /* All percpu_counters are on a list */
+ struct percpu_counter *fbc;
#endif
- s32 __percpu *counters;
+} ____cacheline_aligned_in_smp;
+
+struct percpu_counter {
+ atomic_t sum_cnt; /* count of in flight sum() */
+ struct percpu_counter_rw *pcrw;
+ s32 __percpu *counters;
};

extern int percpu_counter_batch;
@@ -60,7 +72,9 @@ static inline s64 percpu_counter_sum(struct percpu_counter *fbc)

static inline s64 percpu_counter_read(struct percpu_counter *fbc)
{
- return fbc->count;
+ struct percpu_counter_rw *pcrw = fbc->pcrw;
+
+ return atomic64_read(&pcrw->count) + atomic64_read(&pcrw->slowcount);
}

/*
@@ -70,7 +84,7 @@ static inline s64 percpu_counter_read(struct percpu_counter *fbc)
*/
static inline s64 percpu_counter_read_positive(struct percpu_counter *fbc)
{
- s64 ret = fbc->count;
+ s64 ret = percpu_counter_read(fbc);

barrier(); /* Prevent reloads of fbc->count */
if (ret >= 0)
diff --git a/lib/percpu_counter.c b/lib/percpu_counter.c
index 28f2c33..ff486b2 100644
--- a/lib/percpu_counter.c
+++ b/lib/percpu_counter.c
@@ -9,6 +9,7 @@
#include <linux/cpu.h>
#include <linux/module.h>
#include <linux/debugobjects.h>
+#include <linux/slab.h>

static LIST_HEAD(percpu_counters);
static DEFINE_MUTEX(percpu_counters_lock);
@@ -58,28 +59,33 @@ static inline void debug_percpu_counter_deactivate(struct percpu_counter *fbc)
void percpu_counter_set(struct percpu_counter *fbc, s64 amount)
{
int cpu;
+ struct percpu_counter_rw *pcrw = fbc->pcrw;

- spin_lock(&fbc->lock);
for_each_possible_cpu(cpu) {
s32 *pcount = per_cpu_ptr(fbc->counters, cpu);
*pcount = 0;
}
- fbc->count = amount;
- spin_unlock(&fbc->lock);
+ atomic64_set(&pcrw->count, amount);
+ atomic64_set(&pcrw->slowcount, 0);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(percpu_counter_set);

void __percpu_counter_add(struct percpu_counter *fbc, s64 amount, s32 batch)
{
s64 count;
+ struct percpu_counter_rw *pcrw = fbc->pcrw;
+
+ if (atomic_read(&fbc->sum_cnt)) {
+ atomic64_add(amount, &pcrw->slowcount);
+ return;
+ }

preempt_disable();
count = __this_cpu_read(*fbc->counters) + amount;
if (count >= batch || count <= -batch) {
- spin_lock(&fbc->lock);
- fbc->count += count;
+ atomic64_add(count, &pcrw->count);
+ pcrw->sequence++;
__this_cpu_write(*fbc->counters, 0);
- spin_unlock(&fbc->lock);
} else {
__this_cpu_write(*fbc->counters, count);
}
@@ -95,14 +101,25 @@ s64 __percpu_counter_sum(struct percpu_counter *fbc)
{
s64 ret;
int cpu;
+ unsigned int seq;
+ struct percpu_counter_rw *pcrw = fbc->pcrw;

- spin_lock(&fbc->lock);
- ret = fbc->count;
- for_each_online_cpu(cpu) {
- s32 *pcount = per_cpu_ptr(fbc->counters, cpu);
- ret += *pcount;
- }
- spin_unlock(&fbc->lock);
+ atomic_inc(&fbc->sum_cnt);
+ do {
+ seq = pcrw->sequence;
+ smp_rmb();
+
+ ret = atomic64_read(&pcrw->count);
+ for_each_online_cpu(cpu) {
+ s32 *pcount = per_cpu_ptr(fbc->counters, cpu);
+ ret += *pcount;
+ }
+
+ smp_rmb();
+ } while (pcrw->sequence != seq);
+
+ atomic_dec(&fbc->sum_cnt);
+ ret += atomic64_read(&pcrw->slowcount);
return ret;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(__percpu_counter_sum);
@@ -110,19 +127,28 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL(__percpu_counter_sum);
int __percpu_counter_init(struct percpu_counter *fbc, s64 amount,
struct lock_class_key *key)
{
- spin_lock_init(&fbc->lock);
- lockdep_set_class(&fbc->lock, key);
- fbc->count = amount;
+ struct percpu_counter_rw *pcrw;
+
+ pcrw = kzalloc(sizeof(*pcrw), GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!pcrw)
+ return -ENOMEM;
+ atomic64_set(&pcrw->count, amount);
+
fbc->counters = alloc_percpu(s32);
- if (!fbc->counters)
+ if (!fbc->counters) {
+ kfree(pcrw);
return -ENOMEM;
+ }
+ fbc->pcrw = pcrw;
+ atomic_set(&fbc->sum_cnt, 0);

debug_percpu_counter_activate(fbc);

#ifdef CONFIG_HOTPLUG_CPU
- INIT_LIST_HEAD(&fbc->list);
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&pcrw->list);
+ pcrw->fbc = fbc;
mutex_lock(&percpu_counters_lock);
- list_add(&fbc->list, &percpu_counters);
+ list_add(&pcrw->list, &percpu_counters);
mutex_unlock(&percpu_counters_lock);
#endif
return 0;
@@ -138,11 +164,13 @@ void percpu_counter_destroy(struct percpu_counter *fbc)

#ifdef CONFIG_HOTPLUG_CPU
mutex_lock(&percpu_counters_lock);
- list_del(&fbc->list);
+ list_del(&fbc->pcrw->list);
mutex_unlock(&percpu_counters_lock);
#endif
free_percpu(fbc->counters);
fbc->counters = NULL;
+ kfree(fbc->pcrw);
+ fbc->pcrw = NULL;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(percpu_counter_destroy);

@@ -161,7 +189,7 @@ static int __cpuinit percpu_counter_hotcpu_callback(struct notifier_block *nb,
{
#ifdef CONFIG_HOTPLUG_CPU
unsigned int cpu;
- struct percpu_counter *fbc;
+ struct percpu_counter_rw *pcrw;

compute_batch_value();
if (action != CPU_DEAD)
@@ -169,15 +197,12 @@ static int __cpuinit percpu_counter_hotcpu_callback(struct notifier_block *nb,

cpu = (unsigned long)hcpu;
mutex_lock(&percpu_counters_lock);
- list_for_each_entry(fbc, &percpu_counters, list) {
+ list_for_each_entry(pcrw, &percpu_counters, list) {
s32 *pcount;
- unsigned long flags;

- spin_lock_irqsave(&fbc->lock, flags);
- pcount = per_cpu_ptr(fbc->counters, cpu);
- fbc->count += *pcount;
+ pcount = per_cpu_ptr(pcrw->fbc->counters, cpu);
+ atomic64_add(*pcount, &pcrw->count);
*pcount = 0;
- spin_unlock_irqrestore(&fbc->lock, flags);
}
mutex_unlock(&percpu_counters_lock);
#endif



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