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    Subject[PATCH] [68/275] kernel/smp.c: fix smp_call_function_many() SMP race
    2.6.35-longterm review patch.  If anyone has any objections, please let me know.

    From: Anton Blanchard <>

    commit 6dc19899958e420a931274b94019e267e2396d3e upstream.

    I noticed a failure where we hit the following WARN_ON in

    if (!cpumask_test_and_clear_cpu(cpu, data->cpumask))


    refs = atomic_dec_return(&data->refs);
    WARN_ON(refs < 0); <-------------------------

    We atomically tested and cleared our bit in the cpumask, and yet the
    number of cpus left (ie refs) was 0. How can this be?

    It turns out commit 54fdade1c3332391948ec43530c02c4794a38172
    ("generic-ipi: make struct call_function_data lockless") is at fault. It
    removes locking from smp_call_function_many and in doing so creates a
    rather complicated race.

    The problem comes about because:

    - The smp_call_function_many interrupt handler walks call_function.queue
    without any locking.
    - We reuse a percpu data structure in smp_call_function_many.
    - We do not wait for any RCU grace period before starting the next

    Imagine a scenario where CPU A does two smp_call_functions back to back,
    and CPU B does an smp_call_function in between. We concentrate on how CPU
    C handles the calls:


    call_function.queue sees
    data from CPU A on list



    call_function.queue sees
    (stale) CPU A on list
    smp_call_function int
    clears last ref on A
    list_del_rcu, unlock
    smp_call_function reuses
    percpu *data A
    data->cpumask sees and
    clears bit in cpumask
    might be using old or new fn!
    decrements refs below 0

    set data->refs (too late!)

    The important thing to note is since the interrupt handler walks a
    potentially stale call_function.queue without any locking, then another
    cpu can view the percpu *data structure at any time, even when the owner
    is in the process of initialising it.

    The following test case hits the WARN_ON 100% of the time on my PowerPC
    box (having 128 threads does help :)

    #include <linux/module.h>
    #include <linux/init.h>

    #define ITERATIONS 100

    static void do_nothing_ipi(void *dummy)

    static void do_ipis(struct work_struct *dummy)
    int i;

    for (i = 0; i < ITERATIONS; i++)
    smp_call_function(do_nothing_ipi, NULL, 1);

    printk(KERN_DEBUG "cpu %d finished\n", smp_processor_id());

    static struct work_struct work[NR_CPUS];

    static int __init testcase_init(void)
    int cpu;

    for_each_online_cpu(cpu) {
    INIT_WORK(&work[cpu], do_ipis);
    schedule_work_on(cpu, &work[cpu]);

    return 0;

    static void __exit testcase_exit(void)

    MODULE_AUTHOR("Anton Blanchard");

    I tried to fix it by ordering the read and the write of ->cpumask and
    ->refs. In doing so I missed a critical case but Paul McKenney was able
    to spot my bug thankfully :) To ensure we arent viewing previous
    iterations the interrupt handler needs to read ->refs then ->cpumask then
    ->refs _again_.

    Thanks to Milton Miller and Paul McKenney for helping to debug this issue.

    [ add WARN_ON and BUG_ON, remove extra read of refs before initial read of mask that doesn't help (also noted by Peter Zijlstra), adjust comments, hopefully clarify scenario ]
    [ remove excess tests]
    Signed-off-by: Anton Blanchard <>
    Signed-off-by: Milton Miller <>
    Signed-off-by: Andi Kleen <>
    Cc: Ingo Molnar <>
    Cc: "Paul E. McKenney" <>
    Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <>
    Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
    Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <>

    kernel/smp.c | 28 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
    1 file changed, 28 insertions(+)

    Index: linux-2.6.35.y/kernel/smp.c
    --- linux-2.6.35.y.orig/kernel/smp.c 2011-03-29 22:51:42.804627906 -0700
    +++ linux-2.6.35.y/kernel/smp.c 2011-03-29 23:54:08.137794201 -0700
    @@ -194,6 +194,24 @@
    list_for_each_entry_rcu(data, &call_function.queue, csd.list) {
    int refs;

    + /*
    + * Since we walk the list without any locks, we might
    + * see an entry that was completed, removed from the
    + * list and is in the process of being reused.
    + *
    + * We must check that the cpu is in the cpumask before
    + * checking the refs, and both must be set before
    + * executing the callback on this cpu.
    + */
    + if (!cpumask_test_cpu(cpu, data->cpumask))
    + continue;
    + smp_rmb();
    + if (atomic_read(&data->refs) == 0)
    + continue;
    if (!cpumask_test_and_clear_cpu(cpu, data->cpumask))

    @@ -442,11 +460,21 @@

    data = &__get_cpu_var(cfd_data);
    + BUG_ON(atomic_read(&data->refs) || !cpumask_empty(data->cpumask));

    data->csd.func = func;
    data-> = info;
    cpumask_and(data->cpumask, mask, cpu_online_mask);
    cpumask_clear_cpu(this_cpu, data->cpumask);
    + /*
    + * To ensure the interrupt handler gets an complete view
    + * we order the cpumask and refs writes and order the read
    + * of them in the interrupt handler. In addition we may
    + * only clear our own cpu bit from the mask.
    + */
    + smp_wmb();
    atomic_set(&data->refs, cpumask_weight(data->cpumask));

    raw_spin_lock_irqsave(&call_function.lock, flags);

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      Last update: 2011-03-30 23:57    [W:3.020 / U:0.392 seconds]
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