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Subject[PATCH 10/20] ptrace: Clean transitions between TASK_STOPPED and TRACED
Date
Currently, if the task is STOPPED on ptrace attach, it's left alone
and the state is silently changed to TRACED on the next ptrace call.
The behavior breaks the assumption that arch_ptrace_stop() is called
before any task is poked by ptrace and is ugly in that a task
manipulates the state of another task directly.

With GROUP_STOP_PENDING, the transitions between TASK_STOPPED and
TRACED can be made clean. The tracer can use the flag to tell the
tracee to retry stop on attach and detach. On retry, the tracee will
enter the desired state in the correct way. The lower 16bits of
task->group_stop is used to remember the signal number which caused
the last group stop. This is used while retrying for ptrace attach as
the original group_exit_code could have been consumed with wait(2) by
then.

As the real parent may wait(2) and consume the group_exit_code
anytime, the group_exit_code needs to be saved separately so that it
can be used when switching from regular sleep to ptrace_stop(). This
is recorded in the lower 16bits of task->group_stop.

If a task is already stopped and there's no intervening SIGCONT, a
ptrace request immediately following a successful PTRACE_ATTACH should
always succeed even if the tracer doesn't wait(2) for attach
completion; however, with this change, the tracee might still be
TASK_RUNNING trying to enter TASK_TRACED which would cause the
following request to fail with -ESRCH.

This intermediate state is hidden from the ptracer by setting
GROUP_STOP_TRAPPING on attach and making ptrace_check_attach() wait
for it to clear on its signal->wait_chldexit. Completing the
transition or getting killed clears TRAPPING and wakes up the tracer.

Note that the STOPPED -> RUNNING -> TRACED transition is still visible
to other threads which are in the same group as the ptracer and the
reverse transition is visible to all. Please read the comments for
details.

Oleg:

* Spotted a race condition where a task may retry group stop without
proper bookkeeping. Fixed by redoing bookkeeping on retry.

* Spotted that the transition is visible to userland in several
different ways. Most are fixed with GROUP_STOP_TRAPPING. Unhandled
corner case is documented.

* Pointed out not setting GROUP_STOP_SIGMASK on an already stopped
task would result in more consistent behavior.

* Pointed out that calling ptrace_stop() from do_signal_stop() in
TASK_STOPPED can race with group stop start logic and then confuse
the TRAPPING wait in ptrace_check_attach(). ptrace_stop() is now
called with TASK_RUNNING.

* Suggested using signal->wait_chldexit instead of bit wait.

* Spotted a race condition between TRACED transition and clearing of
TRAPPING.

Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
Acked-by: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com>
Cc: Roland McGrath <roland@redhat.com>
Cc: Jan Kratochvil <jan.kratochvil@redhat.com>
---
include/linux/sched.h | 2 +
kernel/ptrace.c | 49 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++---
kernel/signal.c | 79 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++--------
3 files changed, 112 insertions(+), 18 deletions(-)
diff --git a/include/linux/sched.h b/include/linux/sched.h
index b2a17df..456d80e 100644
--- a/include/linux/sched.h
+++ b/include/linux/sched.h
@@ -1775,8 +1775,10 @@ extern void thread_group_times(struct task_struct *p, cputime_t *ut, cputime_t *
/*
* task->group_stop flags
*/
+#define GROUP_STOP_SIGMASK 0xffff /* signr of the last group stop */
#define GROUP_STOP_PENDING (1 << 16) /* task should stop for group stop */
#define GROUP_STOP_CONSUME (1 << 17) /* consume group stop count */
+#define GROUP_STOP_TRAPPING (1 << 18) /* switching from STOPPED to TRACED */

extern void task_clear_group_stop_pending(struct task_struct *task);

diff --git a/kernel/ptrace.c b/kernel/ptrace.c
index 6acf895..745fc2d 100644
--- a/kernel/ptrace.c
+++ b/kernel/ptrace.c
@@ -49,14 +49,22 @@ static void ptrace_untrace(struct task_struct *child)
spin_lock(&child->sighand->siglock);
if (task_is_traced(child)) {
/*
- * If the group stop is completed or in progress,
- * this thread was already counted as stopped.
+ * If group stop is completed or in progress, it should
+ * participate in the group stop. Set GROUP_STOP_PENDING
+ * before kicking it.
+ *
+ * This involves TRACED -> RUNNING -> STOPPED transition
+ * which is similar to but in the opposite direction of
+ * what happens while attaching to a stopped task.
+ * However, in this direction, the intermediate RUNNING
+ * state is not hidden even from the current ptracer and if
+ * it immediately re-attaches and performs a WNOHANG
+ * wait(2), it may fail.
*/
if (child->signal->flags & SIGNAL_STOP_STOPPED ||
child->signal->group_stop_count)
- __set_task_state(child, TASK_STOPPED);
- else
- signal_wake_up(child, 1);
+ child->group_stop |= GROUP_STOP_PENDING;
+ signal_wake_up(child, 1);
}
spin_unlock(&child->sighand->siglock);
}
@@ -165,6 +173,7 @@ bool ptrace_may_access(struct task_struct *task, unsigned int mode)

static int ptrace_attach(struct task_struct *task)
{
+ bool wait_trap = false;
int retval;

audit_ptrace(task);
@@ -204,12 +213,42 @@ static int ptrace_attach(struct task_struct *task)
__ptrace_link(task, current);
send_sig_info(SIGSTOP, SEND_SIG_FORCED, task);

+ spin_lock(&task->sighand->siglock);
+
+ /*
+ * If the task is already STOPPED, set GROUP_STOP_PENDING and
+ * TRAPPING, and kick it so that it transits to TRACED. TRAPPING
+ * will be cleared if the child completes the transition or any
+ * event which clears the group stop states happens. We'll wait
+ * for the transition to complete before returning from this
+ * function.
+ *
+ * This hides STOPPED -> RUNNING -> TRACED transition from the
+ * attaching thread but a different thread in the same group can
+ * still observe the transient RUNNING state. IOW, if another
+ * thread's WNOHANG wait(2) on the stopped tracee races against
+ * ATTACH, the wait(2) may fail due to the transient RUNNING.
+ *
+ * The following task_is_stopped() test is safe as both transitions
+ * in and out of STOPPED are protected by siglock.
+ */
+ if (task_is_stopped(task)) {
+ task->group_stop |= GROUP_STOP_PENDING | GROUP_STOP_TRAPPING;
+ signal_wake_up(task, 1);
+ wait_trap = true;
+ }
+
+ spin_unlock(&task->sighand->siglock);
+
retval = 0;
unlock_tasklist:
write_unlock_irq(&tasklist_lock);
unlock_creds:
mutex_unlock(&task->signal->cred_guard_mutex);
out:
+ if (wait_trap)
+ wait_event(current->signal->wait_chldexit,
+ !(task->group_stop & GROUP_STOP_TRAPPING));
return retval;
}

diff --git a/kernel/signal.c b/kernel/signal.c
index 418776c..1e19991 100644
--- a/kernel/signal.c
+++ b/kernel/signal.c
@@ -224,6 +224,26 @@ static inline void print_dropped_signal(int sig)
}

/**
+ * task_clear_group_stop_trapping - clear group stop trapping bit
+ * @task: target task
+ *
+ * If GROUP_STOP_TRAPPING is set, a ptracer is waiting for us. Clear it
+ * and wake up the ptracer. Note that we don't need any further locking.
+ * @task->siglock guarantees that @task->parent points to the ptracer.
+ *
+ * CONTEXT:
+ * Must be called with @task->sighand->siglock held.
+ */
+static void task_clear_group_stop_trapping(struct task_struct *task)
+{
+ if (unlikely(task->group_stop & GROUP_STOP_TRAPPING)) {
+ task->group_stop &= ~GROUP_STOP_TRAPPING;
+ __wake_up_sync(&task->parent->signal->wait_chldexit,
+ TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE, 1);
+ }
+}
+
+/**
* task_clear_group_stop_pending - clear pending group stop
* @task: target task
*
@@ -1706,8 +1726,20 @@ static void ptrace_stop(int exit_code, int why, int clear_code, siginfo_t *info)
current->last_siginfo = info;
current->exit_code = exit_code;

- /* Let the debugger run. */
- __set_current_state(TASK_TRACED);
+ /*
+ * TRACED should be visible before TRAPPING is cleared; otherwise,
+ * the tracer might fail do_wait().
+ */
+ set_current_state(TASK_TRACED);
+
+ /*
+ * We're committing to trapping. Clearing GROUP_STOP_TRAPPING and
+ * transition to TASK_TRACED should be atomic with respect to
+ * siglock. This hsould be done after the arch hook as siglock is
+ * released and regrabbed across it.
+ */
+ task_clear_group_stop_trapping(current);
+
spin_unlock_irq(&current->sighand->siglock);
read_lock(&tasklist_lock);
if (may_ptrace_stop()) {
@@ -1788,6 +1820,9 @@ static int do_signal_stop(int signr)
unsigned int gstop = GROUP_STOP_PENDING | GROUP_STOP_CONSUME;
struct task_struct *t;

+ /* signr will be recorded in task->group_stop for retries */
+ WARN_ON_ONCE(signr & ~GROUP_STOP_SIGMASK);
+
if (!likely(sig->flags & SIGNAL_STOP_DEQUEUED) ||
unlikely(signal_group_exit(sig)))
return 0;
@@ -1797,25 +1832,27 @@ static int do_signal_stop(int signr)
*/
sig->group_exit_code = signr;

- current->group_stop = gstop;
+ current->group_stop &= ~GROUP_STOP_SIGMASK;
+ current->group_stop |= signr | gstop;
sig->group_stop_count = 1;
- for (t = next_thread(current); t != current; t = next_thread(t))
+ for (t = next_thread(current); t != current;
+ t = next_thread(t)) {
+ t->group_stop &= ~GROUP_STOP_SIGMASK;
/*
* Setting state to TASK_STOPPED for a group
* stop is always done with the siglock held,
* so this check has no races.
*/
if (!(t->flags & PF_EXITING) && !task_is_stopped(t)) {
- t->group_stop = gstop;
+ t->group_stop |= signr | gstop;
sig->group_stop_count++;
signal_wake_up(t, 0);
- } else
+ } else {
task_clear_group_stop_pending(t);
+ }
+ }
}
-
- current->exit_code = sig->group_exit_code;
- __set_current_state(TASK_STOPPED);
-
+retry:
if (likely(!task_ptrace(current))) {
int notify = 0;

@@ -1827,6 +1864,7 @@ static int do_signal_stop(int signr)
if (task_participate_group_stop(current))
notify = CLD_STOPPED;

+ __set_current_state(TASK_STOPPED);
spin_unlock_irq(&current->sighand->siglock);

if (notify) {
@@ -1839,13 +1877,28 @@ static int do_signal_stop(int signr)
schedule();

spin_lock_irq(&current->sighand->siglock);
- } else
- ptrace_stop(current->exit_code, CLD_STOPPED, 0, NULL);
+ } else {
+ ptrace_stop(current->group_stop & GROUP_STOP_SIGMASK,
+ CLD_STOPPED, 0, NULL);
+ current->exit_code = 0;
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * GROUP_STOP_PENDING could be set if another group stop has
+ * started since being woken up or ptrace wants us to transit
+ * between TASK_STOPPED and TRACED. Retry group stop.
+ */
+ if (current->group_stop & GROUP_STOP_PENDING) {
+ WARN_ON_ONCE(!(current->group_stop & GROUP_STOP_SIGMASK));
+ goto retry;
+ }
+
+ /* PTRACE_ATTACH might have raced with task killing, clear trapping */
+ task_clear_group_stop_trapping(current);

spin_unlock_irq(&current->sighand->siglock);

tracehook_finish_jctl();
- current->exit_code = 0;

return 1;
}
--
1.7.1


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