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Subject[PATCH v5 1/9] memcg: document cgroup dirty memory interfaces
Date
Document cgroup dirty memory interfaces and statistics.

Signed-off-by: Andrea Righi <arighi@develer.com>
Signed-off-by: Greg Thelen <gthelen@google.com>
---
Changelog since v4:
- Minor rewording of '5.5 dirty memory' section.
- Added '5.5.1 Inode writeback issue' section.
Changelog since v3:
- Described interactions with memory.use_hierarchy.
- Added description of total_dirty, total_writeback, and total_nfs_unstable.

Changelog since v1:
- Renamed "nfs"/"total_nfs" to "nfs_unstable"/"total_nfs_unstable" in per cgroup
memory.stat to match /proc/meminfo.
- Allow [kKmMgG] suffixes for newly created dirty limit value cgroupfs files.
- Describe a situation where a cgroup can exceed its dirty limit.

Documentation/cgroups/memory.txt | 80 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
1 files changed, 80 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
diff --git a/Documentation/cgroups/memory.txt b/Documentation/cgroups/memory.txt
index b6ed61c..4db695e 100644
--- a/Documentation/cgroups/memory.txt
+++ b/Documentation/cgroups/memory.txt
@@ -385,6 +385,10 @@ mapped_file - # of bytes of mapped file (includes tmpfs/shmem)
pgpgin - # of pages paged in (equivalent to # of charging events).
pgpgout - # of pages paged out (equivalent to # of uncharging events).
swap - # of bytes of swap usage
+dirty - # of bytes that are waiting to get written back to the disk.
+writeback - # of bytes that are actively being written back to the disk.
+nfs_unstable - # of bytes sent to the NFS server, but not yet committed to
+ the actual storage.
inactive_anon - # of bytes of anonymous memory and swap cache memory on
LRU list.
active_anon - # of bytes of anonymous and swap cache memory on active
@@ -406,6 +410,9 @@ total_mapped_file - sum of all children's "cache"
total_pgpgin - sum of all children's "pgpgin"
total_pgpgout - sum of all children's "pgpgout"
total_swap - sum of all children's "swap"
+total_dirty - sum of all children's "dirty"
+total_writeback - sum of all children's "writeback"
+total_nfs_unstable - sum of all children's "nfs_unstable"
total_inactive_anon - sum of all children's "inactive_anon"
total_active_anon - sum of all children's "active_anon"
total_inactive_file - sum of all children's "inactive_file"
@@ -453,6 +460,79 @@ memory under it will be reclaimed.
You can reset failcnt by writing 0 to failcnt file.
# echo 0 > .../memory.failcnt

+5.5 dirty memory
+
+Control the maximum amount of dirty pages a cgroup can have at any given time.
+
+Limiting dirty memory is like fixing the max amount of dirty (hard to reclaim)
+page cache used by a cgroup. So, in case of multiple cgroup writers, they will
+not be able to consume more than their designated share of dirty pages and will
+be throttled if they cross that limit. System-wide dirty limits are also
+consulted. Dirty memory consumption is checked against both system-wide and
+per-cgroup dirty limits.
+
+The interface is similar to the procfs interface: /proc/sys/vm/dirty_*. It is
+possible to configure a limit to trigger throttling of a dirtier or queue
+background writeback. The root cgroup memory.dirty_* control files are
+read-only and match the contents of the /proc/sys/vm/dirty_* files.
+
+Per-cgroup dirty limits can be set using the following files in the cgroupfs:
+
+- memory.dirty_ratio: the amount of dirty memory (expressed as a percentage of
+ cgroup memory) at which a process generating dirty pages will be throttled.
+ The default value is the system-wide dirty ratio, /proc/sys/vm/dirty_ratio.
+
+- memory.dirty_limit_in_bytes: the amount of dirty memory (expressed in bytes)
+ in the cgroup at which a process generating dirty pages will be throttled.
+ Suffix (k, K, m, M, g, or G) can be used to indicate that value is kilo, mega
+ or gigabytes. The default value is the system-wide dirty limit,
+ /proc/sys/vm/dirty_bytes.
+
+ Note: memory.dirty_limit_in_bytes is the counterpart of memory.dirty_ratio.
+ Only one may be specified at a time. When one is written it is immediately
+ taken into account to evaluate the dirty memory limits and the other appears
+ as 0 when read.
+
+- memory.dirty_background_ratio: the amount of dirty memory of the cgroup
+ (expressed as a percentage of cgroup memory) at which background writeback
+ kernel threads will start writing out dirty data. The default value is the
+ system-wide background dirty ratio, /proc/sys/vm/dirty_background_ratio.
+
+- memory.dirty_background_limit_in_bytes: the amount of dirty memory (expressed
+ in bytes) in the cgroup at which background writeback kernel threads will
+ start writing out dirty data. Suffix (k, K, m, M, g, or G) can be used to
+ indicate that value is kilo, mega or gigabytes. The default value is the
+ system-wide dirty background limit, /proc/sys/vm/dirty_background_bytes.
+
+ Note: memory.dirty_background_limit_in_bytes is the counterpart of
+ memory.dirty_background_ratio. Only one may be specified at a time. When one
+ is written it is immediately taken into account to evaluate the dirty memory
+ limits and the other appears as 0 when read.
+
+A cgroup may contain more dirty memory than its dirty limit. This is possible
+because of the principle that the first cgroup to touch a page is charged for
+it. Subsequent page counting events (dirty, writeback, nfs_unstable) are also
+counted to the originally charged cgroup. Example: If page is allocated by a
+cgroup A task, then the page is charged to cgroup A. If the page is later
+dirtied by a task in cgroup B, then the cgroup A dirty count will be
+incremented. If cgroup A is over its dirty limit but cgroup B is not, then
+dirtying a cgroup A page from a cgroup B task may push cgroup A over its dirty
+limit without throttling the dirtying cgroup B task.
+
+When use_hierarchy=0, each cgroup has independent dirty memory usage and limits.
+When use_hierarchy=1 the dirty limits of parents cgroups are also checked to
+ensure that no dirty limit is exceeded.
+
+5.5.1 Inode writeback issue
+
+When a memcg dirty limit is exceeded, then bdi writeback is employed to
+writeback dirty inodes. Bdi writeback considers inodes from any memcg, not just
+inodes contributing dirty pages to the memcg exceeding its limit. Ideally when
+a memcg dirty limit is exceeded only inodes contributing dirty pages to that
+memcg would be considered for writeback. However, the current implementation
+does not behave this way because there is no way to quickly check the memcgs
+that an inode contributes dirty pages to.
+
6. Hierarchy support

The memory controller supports a deep hierarchy and hierarchical accounting.
--
1.7.3.1


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