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    SubjectRe: [RFC 4/5] x86, perf: implements lwp-perf-integration (rc1)
    * Avi Kivity <> wrote:

    > On 12/19/2011 01:40 PM, Ingo Molnar wrote:
    > >
    > > 2) the proper solution: creating a 'user-space vmalloc()' that
    > > is per mm and that gets inherited transparently, across
    > > fork() and exec(), and which lies outside the regular vma
    > > spaces. On 64-bit this should be straightforward.
    > That probably has uses outside perf too, but I can see mm nacks piling up.

    This can be done in arch/x86/ code if it's too x86 specific -
    the platform controls the VM layout and can (and does) use
    special per CPU VM areas.

    > > These vmas are not actually 'known' to user-space
    > > normally - the kernel PMU code knows about it and does
    > > what we do with PEBS: flushes it when necessary and puts
    > > it into the regular perf event channels.
    > >
    > > This solves the inherited perf record workflow
    > > immediately: the parent task just creates the buffer,
    > > which gets inherited across exec() and fork(), into every
    > > portion of the workload.
    > The buffer still needs to be managed. [...]

    Of course, like we manage the DS buffer for PEBS.

    > [...] While you may be able to juggle different threads on
    > the same cpu using different events, threads on other cpus
    > need to use separate LWP contexts and buffers.

    Yes, like different threads on different CPUs have different DS
    buffers, *here and today*.

    Try this on (most) modern Intel CPUs:

    perf top -e cycles:pp

    That will activate that exact mechanism.

    The LWPCB and the LWP ring-buffer are really just an extension
    of that concept: per task buffers which are ring 3 visible.

    Note that user-space does not actually have to know about any of
    these LWP addresses (but can access them if it wants to - no
    strong feelings about that) - in the correctly implemented model
    it's fully kernel managed.

    In fact the PEBS case had one more complication: there's the BTS
    branch-tracing feature which we support as well, and which
    overlaps PEBS use of the DS.

    All these PMU hardware limitations can be supported, as long as
    the instrumentation *capability* adds value to the system in one
    way or another.

    > > System-wide profiling is a small additional variant of
    > > this: creating such a user-vmalloc() area for all tasks
    > > in the system so that the PMU code has them ready in the
    > > context-switch code.
    > What about security? Do we want to allow any userspace
    > process to mess up the buffers? It can even reprogram the LWP
    > block, so you're counting different things, or at higher
    > frequencies, or into other processes ordinary vmas?

    In most usecases it's the application messing up its own
    profiling - don't do that if it hurts.

    I'd argue that future LWP versions should allow kernel-protected
    LWP pages, as long as the LWPCB is privileged as well as well.
    That would be useful for another purpose as well: LWP could be
    allowed to sample kernel-space execution as well, an obviously
    useful feature that was left out from LWP for barely explicable

    Granted, LWP was mis-designed to quite a degree, those AMD chip
    engineers should have talked to people who understand how modern
    PMU abstractions are added to the OS kernel properly. But this
    mis-design does not keep us from utilizing this piece of
    hardware intelligently. PEBS/DS/BTS wasnt a beauty either.

    > You could rebuild the LWP block on every context switch I
    > guess, but you need to prevent access to other cpus' LWP
    > blocks (since they may be running other processes). I think
    > this calls for per-cpu cr3, even for threads in the same
    > process.

    Why would we want to rebuild the LWPCB? Just keep one per task
    and do a lightweight switch to it during switch_to() - like we
    do it with the PEBS hardware-ring-buffer. It can be in the same
    single block of memory with the ring-buffer itself. (PEBS has
    similar characteristics)



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