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Subject[C/R v20][PATCH 00/96] Linux Checkpoint-Restart - v20
Hi Andrew,

Following up on the thread on the checkpoint-restart patch set
(, the following series is the
latest checkpoint/restart, based on 2.6.33.

The first 20 patches are cleanups and prepartion for c/r; they
are followed by the actual c/r code.

Please apply to -mm, and let us know if there is any way we can




Linux Checkpoint-Restart:
web, wiki:
bug track:

The repositories for the project are in:
user tools:;a=summary
tests suite:;a=summary



v20 [2010-Mar-16]
BUG FIXES (only)
- [Serge Hallyn] Fix unlabeled restore case
- [Serge Hallyn] Always restore msg_msg label
- [Serge Hallyn] Selinux prevents msgrcv on restore message queues?
- [Serge Hallyn] save_access_regs for self-checkpoint
- [Serge Hallyn] send uses_interp=1 to arch_setup_additional_pages
- Fix "scheduling in atomic" while restoring ipc (sem, shm, msg)
- Cleanup: no need to restore perm->{id,key,seq}
- Fix sysvipc=n compile
- Make uts_ns=n compile
- Only use arch_setup_additional_pages() if supported by arch
- Export key symbols to enable c/r from kernel modules
- Avoid crash if incoming object doesn't have .restore
- Replace error_sem with an event completion
- [Serge Hallyn] Change sysctl and default for unprivileged use
- [Nathan Lynch] Use syscall_get_error
- Add entry for checkpoint/restart in MAINTAINERS

[2010-Feb-19] v19
- Support for x86-64 architecture
- Support for c/r of LSM (smack, selinux)
- Support for c/r of task fs_root and pwd
- Support for c/r of epoll
- Support for c/r of eventfd
- Enable C/R while executing over NFS
- Preliminary c/r of mounts namespace
- Add @logfd argument to sys_{checkpoint,restart} prototypes
- Define new api for error and debug logging
- Restart to handle checkpoint images lacking {uts,ipc}-ns
- Refuse to checkpoint if monitoring directories with dnotify
- Refuse to checkpoint if file locks and leases are held
- Refuse to checkpoint files with f_owner
- Rebase to kernel 2.6.33-rc8
- Settled version of new sys_eclone()
- [Serge Hallyn] Fix potential use-before-set return (vdso)
- Update documentation and examples for new syscalls API (doc)
- [Liu Alexander] Fix typos (doc)
- [Serge Hallyn] Update checkpoint image format (doc)
- [Serge Hallyn] Use ckpt_err() to for bad header values
- sys_{checkpoint,restart} to use ptregs prototype
- Set ctx->errno in do_ckpt_msg() if needed
- Fix up headers so we can munge them for use by userspace
- Multiple fixes to _ckpt_write_err() and friends
- [Matt Helsley] Add cpp definitions for enums
- [Serge Hallyn] Add global section container to image format
- [Matt Helsley] Fix total byte read/write count for large images
- ckpt_read_buf_type() to accept max payload (excludes ckpt_hdr)
- [Serge Hallyn] Use ckpt_err() for arch incompatbilities
- Introduce walk_task_subtree() to iterate through descendants
- Call restore_notify_error for restart (not checkpoint !)
- Make kread/kwrite() abort if CKPT_CTX_ERROR is set
- [Serge Hallyn] Move init_completion(&ctx->complete) to ctx_alloc
- Simplify logic of tracking restarting tasks (->ctx)
- Coordinator kills descendants on failure for proper cleanup
- Prepare descendants needs PTRACE_MODE_ATTACH permissions
- Threads wait for entire thread group before restoring
- Add debug process-tree status during restart
- Fix handling of bogus pid arg to sys_restart
- In reparent_thread() test for PF_RESTARTING on parent
- Keep __u32s in even groups for 32-64 bit compatibility
- Define ckpt_obj_try_fetch
- Disallow zero or negative objref during restart
- Check for valid destructor before calling it (deferqueue)
- Fix false negative of test for unlinked files at checkpoint
- [Serge Hallyn] Rename fs_mnt to root_fs_path
- Restore thread/cpu state early
- Ensure null-termination of file names read from image
- Fix compile warning in restore_open_fname()
- Introduce FOLL_DIRTY to follow_page() for "dirty" pages
- [Serge Hallyn] Checkpoint saved_auxv as u64s
- Export filemap_checkpoint()
- [Serge Hallyn] Disallow checkpoint of tasks with aio requests
- Fix compilation failure when !CONFIG_CHEKCPOINT (regression)
- Expose page write functions
- Do not hold mmap_sem while checkpointing vma's
- Do not hold mmap_sem when reading memory pages on restart
- Move consider_private_page() to mm/memory.c:__get_dirty_page()
- [Serge Hallyn] move destroy_mm into mmap.c and remove size check
- [Serge Hallyn] fill vdso (syscall32_setup_pages) for TIF_IA32/x86_64
- [Serge Hallyn] Fix return value of read_pages_contents()
- [Serge Hallyn] Change m_type to long, not int (ipc)
- Don't free sma if it's an error on restore
- Use task->saves_sigmask and drop task->checkpoint_data
- [Serge Hallyn] Handle saved_sigmask at checkpoint
- Defer restore of blocked signals mask during restart
- Self-restart to tolerate missing PGIDs
- [Serge Hallyn] skb->tail can be offset
- Export and leverage sock_alloc_file()
- [Nathan Lynch] Fix net/checkpoint.c for 64-bit
- [Dan Smith] Unify skb read/write functions and handle fragmented buffers
- [Dan Smith] Update buffer restore code to match the new format
- [Dan Smith] Fix compile issue with CONFIG_CHECKPOINT=n
- [Dan Smith] Remove an unnecessary check on socket restart
- [Dan Smith] Pass the stored sock->protocol into sock_create() on restore
- Relax tcp.window_clamp value in INET restore
- Restore gso_type fields on sockets and buffers for proper operation
- Fix broken compilation for no-c/r architectures
- Return -EBUSY (not BUG_ON) if fd is gone on restart
- Fix the chunk size instead of auto-tune (epoll)
ARCH: x86 (32,64)
- Use PTREGSCALL4 for sys_{checkpoint,restart}
- Remove debug-reg support (need to redo with perf_events)
- [Serge Hallyn] Support for ia32 (checkpoint, restart)
- Split arch/x86/checkpoint.c to generic and 32bit specific parts
- sys_{checkpoint,restore} to use ptregs
- Allow X86_EFLAGS_RF on restart
- [Serge Hallyn] Only allow 'restart' with same bit-ness as image.
- Move checkpoint.c from arch/x86/mm->arch/x86/kernel
ARCH: s390 [Serge Hallyn]
- Define s390x sys_restart wrapper
- Fixes to restart-blocks logic and signal path
- Fix checkpoint and restart compat wrappers
- sys_{checkpoint,restore} to use ptregs
- Use simpler test_task_thread to test current ti flags
- Fix 31-bit s390 checkpoint/restart wrappers
- Update sys_checkpoint (do_sys_checkpoint on all archs)
- [Oren Laadan] Move checkpoint.c from arch/s390/mm->arch/s390/kernel
ARCH: powerpc [Nathan Lynch]
- [Serge Hallyn] Add hook task_has_saved_sigmask()
- Warn if full register state unavailable
- Fix up checkpoint syscall, tidy restart
- [Oren Laadan] Move checkpoint.c from arch/powerpc/{mm->kernel}

[2009-Sep-22] v18
- [Nathan Lynch] Re-introduce powerpc support
- Save/restore pseudo-terminals
- Save/restore (pty) controlling terminals
- Save/restore restore PGIDs
- [Dan Smith] Save/restore unix domain sockets
- Save/restore FIFOs
- Save/restore pending signals
- Save/restore rlimits
- Save/restore itimers
- [Matt Helsley] Handle many non-pseudo file-systems
- Rename headerless struct ckpt_hdr_* to struct ckpt_*
- [Nathan Lynch] discard const from struct cred * where appropriate
- [Serge Hallyn][s390] Set return value for self-checkpoint
- Handle kmalloc failure in restore_sem_array()
- [IPC] Collect files used by shm objects
- [IPC] Use file (not inode) as shared object on checkpoint of shm
- More ckpt_write_err()s to give information on checkpoint failure
- Adjust format of pipe buffer to include the mandatory pre-header
- [LEAKS] Mark the backing file as visited at chekcpoint
- Tighten checks on supported vma to checkpoint or restart
- [Serge Hallyn] Export filemap_checkpoint() (used for ext4)
- Introduce ckpt_collect_file() that also uses file->collect method
- Use ckpt_collect_file() instead of ckpt_obj_collect() for files
- Fix leak-detection issue in collect_mm() (test for first-time obj)
- Invoke set_close_on_exec() unconditionally on restart
- [Dan Smith] Export fill_fname() as ckpt_fill_fname()
- Interface to pass simple pointers as data with deferqueue
- [Dan Smith] Fix ckpt_obj_lookup_add() leak detection logic
- Replace EAGAIN with EBUSY where necessary
- Introduce CKPT_OBJ_VISITED in leak detection
- ckpt_obj_collect() returns objref for new objects, 0 otherwise
- Rename ckpt_obj_checkpointed() to ckpt_obj_visited()
- Introduce ckpt_obj_visit() to mark objects as visited
- Set the CHECKPOINTED flag on objects before calling checkpoint
- Introduce ckpt_obj_reserve()
- Change ref_drop() to accept a @lastref argument (for cleanup)
- Disallow multiple objects with same objref in restart
- Allow _ckpt_read_obj_type() to read header only (w/o payload)
- Fix leak of ckpt_ctx when restoring zombie tasks
- Fix race of prepare_descendant() with an ongoing fork()
- Track and report the first error if restart fails
- Tighten logic to protect against bogus pids in input
- [Matt Helsley] Improve debug output from ckpt_notify_error()
- [Nathan Lynch] fix compilation errors with CONFIG_COMPAT=y
- Detect error-headers in input data on restart, and abort.
- Standard format for checkpoint error strings (and documentation)
- [Dan Smith] Add an errno validation function
- Add ckpt_read_payload(): read a variable-length object (no header)
- Add ckpt_read_string(): same for strings (ensures null-terminated)
- Add ckpt_read_consume(): consumes next object without processing
- [John Dykstra] Fix no-dot-config-targets pattern in linux/Makefile

[2009-Jul-21] v17
- Introduce syscall clone_with_pids() to restore original pids
- Support threads and zombies
- Save/restore task->files
- Save/restore task->sighand
- Save/restore futex
- Save/restore credentials
- Introduce PF_RESTARTING to skip notifications on task exit
- restart(2) allow caller to ask to freeze tasks after restart
- restart(2) isn't idempotent: return -EINTR if interrupted
- Improve debugging output handling
- Make multi-process restart logic more robust and complete
- Correctly select return value for restarting tasks on success
- Tighten ptrace test for checkpoint to PTRACE_MODE_ATTACH
- Use CHECKPOINTING state for frozen checkpointed tasks
- Fix compilation without CONFIG_CHECKPOINT
- Fix compilation with CONFIG_COMPAT
- Fix headers includes and exports
- Leak detection performed in two steps
- Detect "inverse" leaks of objects (dis)appearing unexpectedly
- Memory: save/restore mm->{flags,def_flags,saved_auxv}
- Memory: only collect sub-objects of mm once (leak detection)
- Files: validate f_mode after restore
- Namespaces: leak detection for nsproxy sub-components
- Namespaces: proper restart from namespace(s) without namespace(s)
- Save global constants in header instead of per-object
- IPC: replace sys_unshare() with create_ipc_ns()
- IPC: restore objects in suitable namespace
- IPC: correct behavior under !CONFIG_IPC_NS
- UTS: save/restore all fields
- UTS: replace sys_unshare() with create_uts_ns()
- X86_32: sanitize cpu, debug, and segment registers on restart
- cgroup_freezer: add CHECKPOINTING state to safeguard checkpoint
- cgroup_freezer: add interface to freeze a cgroup (given a task)

[2009-May-27] v16
- Privilege checks for IPC checkpoint
- Fix error string generation during checkpoint
- Use kzalloc for header allocation
- Restart blocks are arch-independent
- Redo pipe c/r using splice
- Fixes to s390 arch
- Remove powerpc arch (temporary)
- Explicitly restore ->nsproxy
- All objects in image are precedeed by 'struct ckpt_hdr'
- Fix leaks detection (and leaks)
- Reorder of patchset
- Misc bugs and compilation fixes

[2009-Apr-12] v15
- Minor fixes

[2009-Apr-28] v14
- Tested against kernel v2.6.30-rc3 on x86_32.
- Refactor files chekpoint to use f_ops (file operations)
- Refactor mm/vma to use vma_ops
- Explicitly handle VDSO vma (and require compat mode)
- Added code to c/r restat-blocks (restart timeout related syscalls)
- Added code to c/r namespaces: uts, ipc (with Dan Smith)
- Added code to c/r sysvipc (shm, msg, sem)
- Support for VM_CLONE shared memory
- Added resource leak detection for whole-container checkpoint
- Added sysctl gauge to allow unprivileged restart/checkpoint
- Improve and simplify the code and logic of shared objects
- Rework image format: shared objects appear prior to their use
- Merge checkpoint and restart functionality into same files
- Massive renaming of functions: prefix "ckpt_" for generics,
"checkpoint_" for checkpoint, and "restore_" for restart.
- Report checkpoint errors as a valid (string record) in the output
- Merged PPC architecture (by Nathan Lunch),
- Requires updates to userspace tools too.
- Misc nits and bug fixes

[2009-Mar-31] v14-rc2
- Change along Dave's suggestion to use f_ops->checkpoint() for files
- Merge patch simplifying Kconfig, with CONFIG_CHECKPOINT_SUPPORT
- Merge support for PPC arch (Nathan Lynch)
- Misc cleanups and fixes in response to comments

[2009-Mar-20] v14-rc1:
- The 'h.parent' field of 'struct cr_hdr' isn't used - discard
- Check whether calls to cr_hbuf_get() succeed or fail.
- Fixed of pipe c/r code
- Prevent deadlock by refusing c/r when a pipe inode == ctx->file inode
- Refuse non-self checkpoint if a task isn't frozen
- Use unsigned fields in checkpoint headers unless otherwise required
- Rename functions in files c/r to better reflect their role
- Add support for anonymous shared memory
- Merge support for s390 arch (Dan Smith, Serge Hallyn)

[2008-Dec-03] v13:
- Cleanups of 'struct cr_ctx' - remove unused fields
- Misc fixes for comments

[2008-Dec-17] v12:
- Fix re-alloc/reset of pgarr chain to correctly reuse buffers
(empty pgarr are saves in a separate pool chain)
- Add a couple of missed calls to cr_hbuf_put()
- cr_kwrite/cr_kread() again use vfs_read(), vfs_write() (safer)
- Split cr_write/cr_read() to two parts: _cr_write/read() helper
- Befriend with sparse: explicit conversion to 'void __user *'
- Redrefine 'pr_fmt' ind replace cr_debug() with pr_debug()

[2008-Dec-05] v11:
- Use contents of 'init->fs->root' instead of pointing to it
- Ignore symlinks (there is no such thing as an open symlink)
- cr_scan_fds() retries from scratch if it hits size limits
- Add missing test for VM_MAYSHARE when dumping memory
- Improve documentation about: behavior when tasks aren't fronen,
life span of the object hash, references to objects in the hash

[2008-Nov-26] v10:
- Grab vfs root of container init, rather than current process
- Acquire dcache_lock around call to __d_path() in cr_fill_name()
- Force end-of-string in cr_read_string() (fix possible DoS)
- Introduce cr_write_buffer(), cr_read_buffer() and cr_read_buf_type()

[2008-Nov-10] v9:
- Support multiple processes c/r
- Extend checkpoint header with archtiecture dependent header
- Misc bug fixes (see individual changelogs)
- Rebase to v2.6.28-rc3.

[2008-Oct-29] v8:
- Support "external" checkpoint
- Include Dave Hansen's 'deny-checkpoint' patch
- Split docs in Documentation/checkpoint/..., and improve contents

[2008-Oct-17] v7:
- Fix save/restore state of FPU
- Fix argument given to kunmap_atomic() in memory dump/restore

[2008-Oct-07] v6:
- Balance all calls to cr_hbuf_get() with matching cr_hbuf_put()
(even though it's not really needed)
- Add assumptions and what's-missing to documentation
- Misc fixes and cleanups

[2008-Sep-11] v5:
- Config is now 'def_bool n' by default
- Improve memory dump/restore code (following Dave Hansen's comments)
- Change dump format (and code) to allow chunks of <vaddrs, pages>
instead of one long list of each
- Fix use of follow_page() to avoid faulting in non-present pages
- Memory restore now maps user pages explicitly to copy data into them,
instead of reading directly to user space; got rid of mprotect_fixup()
- Remove preempt_disable() when restoring debug registers
- Rename headers files s/ckpt/checkpoint/
- Fix misc bugs in files dump/restore
- Fixes and cleanups on some error paths
- Fix misc coding style

[2008-Sep-09] v4:
- Various fixes and clean-ups
- Fix calculation of hash table size
- Fix header structure alignment
- Use stand list_... for cr_pgarr

[2008-Aug-29] v3:
- Various fixes and clean-ups
- Use standard hlist_... for hash table
- Better use of standard kmalloc/kfree

[2008-Aug-20] v2:
- Added Dump and restore of open files (regular and directories)
- Added basic handling of shared objects, and improve handling of
'parent tag' concept
- Added documentation
- Improved ABI, 64bit padding for image data
- Improved locking when saving/restoring memory
- Added UTS information to header (release, version, machine)
- Cleanup extraction of filename from a file pointer
- Refactor to allow easier reviewing
- Remove requirement for CAPS_SYS_ADMIN until we come up with a
security policy (this means that file restore may fail)
- Other cleanup and response to comments for v1

[2008-Jul-29] v1:
- Initial version: support a single task with address space of only
private anonymous or file-mapped VMAs; syscalls ignore pid/crid
argument and act on current process.

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