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SubjectRe: [PATCH 00/11] [RFC] 512K readahead size with thrashing safe readahead
On Thu, Feb 04, 2010 at 09:21:54PM +0800, Wu Fengguang wrote:
> Vivek,
>
> > > I have got two paths to the HP EVA and got multipath device setup(dm-3). I
> > > noticed with vanilla kernel read_ahead_kb=128 after boot but with your patches
> > > applied it is set to 4. So looks like something went wrong with device
> > > size/capacity detection hence wrong defaults. Manually setting
> > > read_ahead_kb=512, got me better performance as compare to vanilla kernel.
> > >
> >
> > I put a printk in add_disk and noticed that for multipath device
> > get_capacity() is returning 0 and that's why ra_pages is being set
> > to 1.
>
> Good catch, Thanks!
>
> It makes no sense to limit readahead size for multipath or other
> compound devices. So we may just ignore the get_capacity() == 0 case,
> as in the following updated patch.
>

Thanks. This patch fixes the issue of read_ahead_kb being set to 4kb on device
mapper targets.

Thanks
Vivek

> Thanks,
> Fengguang
> ---
> readahead: limit readahead size for small devices
>
> Linus reports a _really_ small & slow (505kB, 15kB/s) USB device,
> on which blkid runs unpleasantly slow. He manages to optimize the blkid
> reads down to 1kB+16kB, but still kernel read-ahead turns it into 48kB.
>
> lseek 0, read 1024 => readahead 4 pages (start of file)
> lseek 1536, read 16384 => readahead 8 pages (page contiguous)
>
> The readahead heuristics involved here are reasonable ones in general.
> So it's good to fix blkid with fadvise(RANDOM), as Linus already did.
>
> For the kernel part, Linus suggests:
> So maybe we could be less aggressive about read-ahead when the size of
> the device is small? Turning a 16kB read into a 64kB one is a big deal,
> when it's about 15% of the whole device!
>
> This looks reasonable: smaller device tend to be slower (USB sticks as
> well as micro/mobile/old hard disks).
>
> Given that the non-rotational attribute is not always reported, we can
> take disk size as a max readahead size hint. This patch uses a formula
> that generates the following concrete limits:
>
> disk size readahead size
> (scale by 4) (scale by 2)
> 1M 8k
> 4M 16k
> 16M 32k
> 64M 64k
> 256M 128k
> 1G 256k
> --------------------------- (*)
> 4G 512k
> 16G 1024k
> 64G 2048k
> 256G 4096k
>
> (*) Since the default readahead size is 512k, this limit only takes
> effect for devices whose size is less than 4G.
>
> The formula is determined on the following data, collected by script:
>
> #!/bin/sh
>
> # please make sure BDEV is not mounted or opened by others
> BDEV=sdb
>
> for rasize in 4 16 32 64 128 256 512 1024 2048 4096 8192
> do
> echo $rasize > /sys/block/$BDEV/queue/read_ahead_kb
> time dd if=/dev/$BDEV of=/dev/null bs=4k count=102400
> done
>
> The principle is, the formula shall not limit readahead size to such a
> degree that will impact some device's sequential read performance.
>
> The Intel SSD is special in that its throughput increases steadily with
> larger readahead size. However it may take years for Linux to increase
> its default readahead size to 2MB, so we don't take it seriously in the
> formula.
>
> SSD 80G Intel x25-M SSDSA2M080 (reported by Li Shaohua)
>
> rasize 1st run 2nd run
> ----------------------------------
> 4k 123 MB/s 122 MB/s
> 16k 153 MB/s 153 MB/s
> 32k 161 MB/s 162 MB/s
> 64k 167 MB/s 168 MB/s
> 128k 197 MB/s 197 MB/s
> 256k 217 MB/s 217 MB/s
> 512k 238 MB/s 234 MB/s
> 1M 251 MB/s 248 MB/s
> 2M 259 MB/s 257 MB/s
> ==> 4M 269 MB/s 264 MB/s
> 8M 266 MB/s 266 MB/s
>
> Note that ==> points to the readahead size that yields plateau throughput.
>
> SSD 22G MARVELL SD88SA02 MP1F (reported by Jens Axboe)
>
> rasize 1st 2nd
> --------------------------------
> 4k 41 MB/s 41 MB/s
> 16k 85 MB/s 81 MB/s
> 32k 102 MB/s 109 MB/s
> 64k 125 MB/s 144 MB/s
> 128k 183 MB/s 185 MB/s
> 256k 216 MB/s 216 MB/s
> 512k 216 MB/s 236 MB/s
> 1024k 251 MB/s 252 MB/s
> 2M 258 MB/s 258 MB/s
> ==> 4M 266 MB/s 266 MB/s
> 8M 266 MB/s 266 MB/s
>
> SSD 30G SanDisk SATA 5000
>
> 4k 29.6 MB/s 29.6 MB/s 29.6 MB/s
> 16k 52.1 MB/s 52.1 MB/s 52.1 MB/s
> 32k 61.5 MB/s 61.5 MB/s 61.5 MB/s
> 64k 67.2 MB/s 67.2 MB/s 67.1 MB/s
> 128k 71.4 MB/s 71.3 MB/s 71.4 MB/s
> 256k 73.4 MB/s 73.4 MB/s 73.3 MB/s
> ==> 512k 74.6 MB/s 74.6 MB/s 74.6 MB/s
> 1M 74.7 MB/s 74.6 MB/s 74.7 MB/s
> 2M 76.1 MB/s 74.6 MB/s 74.6 MB/s
>
> USB stick 32G Teclast CoolFlash idVendor=1307, idProduct=0165
>
> 4k 7.9 MB/s 7.9 MB/s 7.9 MB/s
> 16k 17.9 MB/s 17.9 MB/s 17.9 MB/s
> 32k 24.5 MB/s 24.5 MB/s 24.5 MB/s
> 64k 28.7 MB/s 28.7 MB/s 28.7 MB/s
> 128k 28.8 MB/s 28.9 MB/s 28.9 MB/s
> ==> 256k 30.5 MB/s 30.5 MB/s 30.5 MB/s
> 512k 30.9 MB/s 31.0 MB/s 30.9 MB/s
> 1M 31.0 MB/s 30.9 MB/s 30.9 MB/s
> 2M 30.9 MB/s 30.9 MB/s 30.9 MB/s
>
> USB stick 4G SanDisk Cruzer idVendor=0781, idProduct=5151
>
> 4k 6.4 MB/s 6.4 MB/s 6.4 MB/s
> 16k 13.4 MB/s 13.4 MB/s 13.2 MB/s
> 32k 17.8 MB/s 17.9 MB/s 17.8 MB/s
> 64k 21.3 MB/s 21.3 MB/s 21.2 MB/s
> 128k 21.4 MB/s 21.4 MB/s 21.4 MB/s
> ==> 256k 23.3 MB/s 23.2 MB/s 23.2 MB/s
> 512k 23.3 MB/s 23.8 MB/s 23.4 MB/s
> 1M 23.8 MB/s 23.4 MB/s 23.3 MB/s
> 2M 23.4 MB/s 23.2 MB/s 23.4 MB/s
>
> USB stick 2G idVendor=0204, idProduct=6025 SerialNumber: 08082005000113
>
> 4k 6.7 MB/s 6.9 MB/s 6.7 MB/s
> 16k 11.7 MB/s 11.7 MB/s 11.7 MB/s
> 32k 12.4 MB/s 12.4 MB/s 12.4 MB/s
> 64k 13.4 MB/s 13.4 MB/s 13.4 MB/s
> 128k 13.4 MB/s 13.4 MB/s 13.4 MB/s
> ==> 256k 13.6 MB/s 13.6 MB/s 13.6 MB/s
> 512k 13.7 MB/s 13.7 MB/s 13.7 MB/s
> 1M 13.7 MB/s 13.7 MB/s 13.7 MB/s
> 2M 13.7 MB/s 13.7 MB/s 13.7 MB/s
>
> 64 MB, USB full speed (collected by Clemens Ladisch)
> Bus 003 Device 003: ID 08ec:0011 M-Systems Flash Disk Pioneers DiskOnKey
>
> 4KB: 139.339 s, 376 kB/s
> 16KB: 81.0427 s, 647 kB/s
> 32KB: 71.8513 s, 730 kB/s
> ==> 64KB: 67.3872 s, 778 kB/s
> 128KB: 67.5434 s, 776 kB/s
> 256KB: 65.9019 s, 796 kB/s
> 512KB: 66.2282 s, 792 kB/s
> 1024KB: 67.4632 s, 777 kB/s
> 2048KB: 69.9759 s, 749 kB/s
>
> CC: Li Shaohua <shaohua.li@intel.com>
> CC: Clemens Ladisch <clemens@ladisch.de>
> Acked-by: Jens Axboe <jens.axboe@oracle.com>
> Tested-by: Vivek Goyal <vgoyal@redhat.com>
> Tested-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
> Signed-off-by: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
> ---
> block/genhd.c | 24 ++++++++++++++++++++++++
> 1 file changed, 24 insertions(+)
>
> --- linux.orig/block/genhd.c 2010-02-03 20:40:37.000000000 +0800
> +++ linux/block/genhd.c 2010-02-04 21:19:07.000000000 +0800
> @@ -518,6 +518,7 @@ void add_disk(struct gendisk *disk)
> struct backing_dev_info *bdi;
> dev_t devt;
> int retval;
> + unsigned long size;
>
> /* minors == 0 indicates to use ext devt from part0 and should
> * be accompanied with EXT_DEVT flag. Make sure all
> @@ -551,6 +552,29 @@ void add_disk(struct gendisk *disk)
> retval = sysfs_create_link(&disk_to_dev(disk)->kobj, &bdi->dev->kobj,
> "bdi");
> WARN_ON(retval);
> +
> + /*
> + * Limit default readahead size for small devices.
> + * disk size readahead size
> + * 1M 8k
> + * 4M 16k
> + * 16M 32k
> + * 64M 64k
> + * 256M 128k
> + * 1G 256k
> + * ---------------------------
> + * 4G 512k
> + * 16G 1024k
> + * 64G 2048k
> + * 256G 4096k
> + * Since the default readahead size is 512k, this limit
> + * only takes effect for devices whose size is less than 4G.
> + */
> + if (get_capacity(disk)) {
> + size = get_capacity(disk) >> 9;
> + size = 1UL << (ilog2(size) / 2);
> + bdi->ra_pages = min(bdi->ra_pages, size);
> + }
> }
>
> EXPORT_SYMBOL(add_disk);


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