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Subject[PATCH -tip v10 8/9] kprobes/x86: Support kprobes jump optimization on x86
Date
Introduce x86 arch-specific optimization code, which supports both of
x86-32 and x86-64.

This code also supports safety checking, which decodes whole of a function
in which probe is inserted, and checks following conditions before
optimization:
- The optimized instructions which will be replaced by a jump instruction
don't straddle the function boundary.
- There is no indirect jump instruction, because it will jumps into
the address range which is replaced by jump operand.
- There is no jump/loop instruction which jumps into the address range
which is replaced by jump operand.
- Don't optimize kprobes if it is in functions into which fixup code will
jumps.

This uses text_poke_multibyte() which doesn't support modifying code on
NMI/MCE handler. However, since kprobes itself doesn't support NMI/MCE
code probing, it's not a problem.

Changes in v9:
- Use *_text_reserved() for checking the probe can be optimized.
- Verify jump address range is in 2G range when preparing slot.
- Backup original code when switching optimized buffer, instead of
preparing buffer, because there can be int3 of other probes in
preparing phase.
- Check kprobe is disabled in arch_check_optimized_kprobe().
- Strictly check indirect jump opcodes (ff /4, ff /5).

Changes in v6:
- Split stop_machine-based jump patching code.
- Update comments and coding style.

Changes in v5:
- Introduce stop_machine-based jump replacing.

Signed-off-by: Masami Hiramatsu <mhiramat@redhat.com>
Cc: Ananth N Mavinakayanahalli <ananth@in.ibm.com>
Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
Cc: Jim Keniston <jkenisto@us.ibm.com>
Cc: Srikar Dronamraju <srikar@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@infradead.org>
Cc: Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org>
Cc: Frederic Weisbecker <fweisbec@gmail.com>
Cc: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com>
Cc: Anders Kaseorg <andersk@ksplice.com>
Cc: Tim Abbott <tabbott@ksplice.com>
Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org>
Cc: Jason Baron <jbaron@redhat.com>
Cc: Mathieu Desnoyers <compudj@krystal.dyndns.org>
---
arch/x86/Kconfig | 1
arch/x86/include/asm/kprobes.h | 29 +++
arch/x86/kernel/kprobes.c | 433 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++--
3 files changed, 441 insertions(+), 22 deletions(-)
diff --git a/arch/x86/Kconfig b/arch/x86/Kconfig
index d708497..6de8f35 100644
--- a/arch/x86/Kconfig
+++ b/arch/x86/Kconfig
@@ -31,6 +31,7 @@ config X86
select ARCH_WANT_FRAME_POINTERS
select HAVE_DMA_ATTRS
select HAVE_KRETPROBES
+ select HAVE_OPTPROBES
select HAVE_FTRACE_MCOUNT_RECORD
select HAVE_DYNAMIC_FTRACE
select HAVE_FUNCTION_TRACER
diff --git a/arch/x86/include/asm/kprobes.h b/arch/x86/include/asm/kprobes.h
index eaec8ea..4ffa345 100644
--- a/arch/x86/include/asm/kprobes.h
+++ b/arch/x86/include/asm/kprobes.h
@@ -33,6 +33,9 @@ struct kprobe;
typedef u8 kprobe_opcode_t;
#define BREAKPOINT_INSTRUCTION 0xcc
#define RELATIVEJUMP_OPCODE 0xe9
+#define RELATIVEJUMP_SIZE 5
+#define RELATIVECALL_OPCODE 0xe8
+#define RELATIVE_ADDR_SIZE 4
#define MAX_INSN_SIZE 16
#define MAX_STACK_SIZE 64
#define MIN_STACK_SIZE(ADDR) \
@@ -44,6 +47,17 @@ typedef u8 kprobe_opcode_t;

#define flush_insn_slot(p) do { } while (0)

+/* optinsn template addresses */
+extern kprobe_opcode_t optprobe_template_entry;
+extern kprobe_opcode_t optprobe_template_val;
+extern kprobe_opcode_t optprobe_template_call;
+extern kprobe_opcode_t optprobe_template_end;
+#define MAX_OPTIMIZED_LENGTH (MAX_INSN_SIZE + RELATIVE_ADDR_SIZE)
+#define MAX_OPTINSN_SIZE \
+ (((unsigned long)&optprobe_template_end - \
+ (unsigned long)&optprobe_template_entry) + \
+ MAX_OPTIMIZED_LENGTH + RELATIVEJUMP_SIZE)
+
extern const int kretprobe_blacklist_size;

void arch_remove_kprobe(struct kprobe *p);
@@ -64,6 +78,21 @@ struct arch_specific_insn {
int boostable;
};

+struct arch_optimized_insn {
+ /* copy of the original instructions */
+ kprobe_opcode_t copied_insn[RELATIVE_ADDR_SIZE];
+ /* detour code buffer */
+ kprobe_opcode_t *insn;
+ /* the size of instructions copied to detour code buffer */
+ size_t size;
+};
+
+/* Return true (!0) if optinsn is prepared for optimization. */
+static inline int arch_prepared_optinsn(struct arch_optimized_insn *optinsn)
+{
+ return optinsn->size;
+}
+
struct prev_kprobe {
struct kprobe *kp;
unsigned long status;
diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/kprobes.c b/arch/x86/kernel/kprobes.c
index 4ae95be..b43bbae 100644
--- a/arch/x86/kernel/kprobes.c
+++ b/arch/x86/kernel/kprobes.c
@@ -49,6 +49,7 @@
#include <linux/module.h>
#include <linux/kdebug.h>
#include <linux/kallsyms.h>
+#include <linux/ftrace.h>

#include <asm/cacheflush.h>
#include <asm/desc.h>
@@ -106,16 +107,22 @@ struct kretprobe_blackpoint kretprobe_blacklist[] = {
};
const int kretprobe_blacklist_size = ARRAY_SIZE(kretprobe_blacklist);

-/* Insert a jump instruction at address 'from', which jumps to address 'to'.*/
-static void __kprobes set_jmp_op(void *from, void *to)
+static void __kprobes __synthesize_relative_insn(void *from, void *to, u8 op)
{
- struct __arch_jmp_op {
- char op;
+ struct __arch_relative_insn {
+ u8 op;
s32 raddr;
- } __attribute__((packed)) * jop;
- jop = (struct __arch_jmp_op *)from;
- jop->raddr = (s32)((long)(to) - ((long)(from) + 5));
- jop->op = RELATIVEJUMP_OPCODE;
+ } __attribute__((packed)) *insn;
+
+ insn = (struct __arch_relative_insn *)from;
+ insn->raddr = (s32)((long)(to) - ((long)(from) + 5));
+ insn->op = op;
+}
+
+/* Insert a jump instruction at address 'from', which jumps to address 'to'.*/
+static void __kprobes synthesize_reljump(void *from, void *to)
+{
+ __synthesize_relative_insn(from, to, RELATIVEJUMP_OPCODE);
}

/*
@@ -202,7 +209,7 @@ static int recover_probed_instruction(kprobe_opcode_t *buf, unsigned long addr)
/*
* Basically, kp->ainsn.insn has an original instruction.
* However, RIP-relative instruction can not do single-stepping
- * at different place, fix_riprel() tweaks the displacement of
+ * at different place, __copy_instruction() tweaks the displacement of
* that instruction. In that case, we can't recover the instruction
* from the kp->ainsn.insn.
*
@@ -284,21 +291,37 @@ static int __kprobes is_IF_modifier(kprobe_opcode_t *insn)
}

/*
- * Adjust the displacement if the instruction uses the %rip-relative
- * addressing mode.
+ * Copy an instruction and adjust the displacement if the instruction
+ * uses the %rip-relative addressing mode.
* If it does, Return the address of the 32-bit displacement word.
* If not, return null.
* Only applicable to 64-bit x86.
*/
-static void __kprobes fix_riprel(struct kprobe *p)
+static int __kprobes __copy_instruction(u8 *dest, u8 *src, int recover)
{
-#ifdef CONFIG_X86_64
struct insn insn;
- kernel_insn_init(&insn, p->ainsn.insn);
+ int ret;
+ kprobe_opcode_t buf[MAX_INSN_SIZE];

+ kernel_insn_init(&insn, src);
+ if (recover) {
+ insn_get_opcode(&insn);
+ if (insn.opcode.bytes[0] == BREAKPOINT_INSTRUCTION) {
+ ret = recover_probed_instruction(buf,
+ (unsigned long)src);
+ if (ret)
+ return 0;
+ kernel_insn_init(&insn, buf);
+ }
+ }
+ insn_get_length(&insn);
+ memcpy(dest, insn.kaddr, insn.length);
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_X86_64
if (insn_rip_relative(&insn)) {
s64 newdisp;
u8 *disp;
+ kernel_insn_init(&insn, dest);
insn_get_displacement(&insn);
/*
* The copied instruction uses the %rip-relative addressing
@@ -312,20 +335,23 @@ static void __kprobes fix_riprel(struct kprobe *p)
* extension of the original signed 32-bit displacement would
* have given.
*/
- newdisp = (u8 *) p->addr + (s64) insn.displacement.value -
- (u8 *) p->ainsn.insn;
+ newdisp = (u8 *) src + (s64) insn.displacement.value -
+ (u8 *) dest;
BUG_ON((s64) (s32) newdisp != newdisp); /* Sanity check. */
- disp = (u8 *) p->ainsn.insn + insn_offset_displacement(&insn);
+ disp = (u8 *) dest + insn_offset_displacement(&insn);
*(s32 *) disp = (s32) newdisp;
}
#endif
+ return insn.length;
}

static void __kprobes arch_copy_kprobe(struct kprobe *p)
{
- memcpy(p->ainsn.insn, p->addr, MAX_INSN_SIZE * sizeof(kprobe_opcode_t));
-
- fix_riprel(p);
+ /*
+ * Copy an instruction without recovering int3, because it will be
+ * put by another subsystem.
+ */
+ __copy_instruction(p->ainsn.insn, p->addr, 0);

if (can_boost(p->addr))
p->ainsn.boostable = 0;
@@ -417,9 +443,20 @@ void __kprobes arch_prepare_kretprobe(struct kretprobe_instance *ri,
*sara = (unsigned long) &kretprobe_trampoline;
}

+#ifdef CONFIG_OPTPROBES
+static int __kprobes setup_detour_execution(struct kprobe *p,
+ struct pt_regs *regs,
+ int reenter);
+#else
+#define setup_detour_execution(p, regs, reenter) (0)
+#endif
+
static void __kprobes setup_singlestep(struct kprobe *p, struct pt_regs *regs,
struct kprobe_ctlblk *kcb, int reenter)
{
+ if (setup_detour_execution(p, regs, reenter))
+ return;
+
#if !defined(CONFIG_PREEMPT)
if (p->ainsn.boostable == 1 && !p->post_handler) {
/* Boost up -- we can execute copied instructions directly */
@@ -815,8 +852,8 @@ static void __kprobes resume_execution(struct kprobe *p,
* These instructions can be executed directly if it
* jumps back to correct address.
*/
- set_jmp_op((void *)regs->ip,
- (void *)orig_ip + (regs->ip - copy_ip));
+ synthesize_reljump((void *)regs->ip,
+ (void *)orig_ip + (regs->ip - copy_ip));
p->ainsn.boostable = 1;
} else {
p->ainsn.boostable = -1;
@@ -1043,6 +1080,358 @@ int __kprobes longjmp_break_handler(struct kprobe *p, struct pt_regs *regs)
return 0;
}

+
+#ifdef CONFIG_OPTPROBES
+
+/* Insert a call instruction at address 'from', which calls address 'to'.*/
+static void __kprobes synthesize_relcall(void *from, void *to)
+{
+ __synthesize_relative_insn(from, to, RELATIVECALL_OPCODE);
+}
+
+/* Insert a move instruction which sets a pointer to eax/rdi (1st arg). */
+static void __kprobes synthesize_set_arg1(kprobe_opcode_t *addr,
+ unsigned long val)
+{
+#ifdef CONFIG_X86_64
+ *addr++ = 0x48;
+ *addr++ = 0xbf;
+#else
+ *addr++ = 0xb8;
+#endif
+ *(unsigned long *)addr = val;
+}
+
+void __kprobes kprobes_optinsn_template_holder(void)
+{
+ asm volatile (
+ ".global optprobe_template_entry\n"
+ "optprobe_template_entry: \n"
+#ifdef CONFIG_X86_64
+ /* We don't bother saving the ss register */
+ " pushq %rsp\n"
+ " pushfq\n"
+ SAVE_REGS_STRING
+ " movq %rsp, %rsi\n"
+ ".global optprobe_template_val\n"
+ "optprobe_template_val: \n"
+ ASM_NOP5
+ ASM_NOP5
+ ".global optprobe_template_call\n"
+ "optprobe_template_call: \n"
+ ASM_NOP5
+ /* Move flags to rsp */
+ " movq 144(%rsp), %rdx\n"
+ " movq %rdx, 152(%rsp)\n"
+ RESTORE_REGS_STRING
+ /* Skip flags entry */
+ " addq $8, %rsp\n"
+ " popfq\n"
+#else /* CONFIG_X86_32 */
+ " pushf\n"
+ SAVE_REGS_STRING
+ " movl %esp, %edx\n"
+ ".global optprobe_template_val\n"
+ "optprobe_template_val: \n"
+ ASM_NOP5
+ ".global optprobe_template_call\n"
+ "optprobe_template_call: \n"
+ ASM_NOP5
+ RESTORE_REGS_STRING
+ " addl $4, %esp\n" /* skip cs */
+ " popf\n"
+#endif
+ ".global optprobe_template_end\n"
+ "optprobe_template_end: \n");
+}
+
+#define TMPL_MOVE_IDX \
+ ((long)&optprobe_template_val - (long)&optprobe_template_entry)
+#define TMPL_CALL_IDX \
+ ((long)&optprobe_template_call - (long)&optprobe_template_entry)
+#define TMPL_END_IDX \
+ ((long)&optprobe_template_end - (long)&optprobe_template_entry)
+
+#define INT3_SIZE sizeof(kprobe_opcode_t)
+
+/* Optimized kprobe call back function: called from optinsn */
+static void __kprobes optimized_callback(struct optimized_kprobe *op,
+ struct pt_regs *regs)
+{
+ struct kprobe_ctlblk *kcb = get_kprobe_ctlblk();
+
+ preempt_disable();
+ if (kprobe_running()) {
+ kprobes_inc_nmissed_count(&op->kp);
+ } else {
+ /* Save skipped registers */
+#ifdef CONFIG_X86_64
+ regs->cs = __KERNEL_CS;
+#else
+ regs->cs = __KERNEL_CS | get_kernel_rpl();
+ regs->gs = 0;
+#endif
+ regs->ip = (unsigned long)op->kp.addr + INT3_SIZE;
+ regs->orig_ax = ~0UL;
+
+ __get_cpu_var(current_kprobe) = &op->kp;
+ kcb->kprobe_status = KPROBE_HIT_ACTIVE;
+ opt_pre_handler(&op->kp, regs);
+ __get_cpu_var(current_kprobe) = NULL;
+ }
+ preempt_enable_no_resched();
+}
+
+static int __kprobes copy_optimized_instructions(u8 *dest, u8 *src)
+{
+ int len = 0, ret;
+
+ while (len < RELATIVEJUMP_SIZE) {
+ ret = __copy_instruction(dest + len, src + len, 1);
+ if (!ret || !can_boost(dest + len))
+ return -EINVAL;
+ len += ret;
+ }
+ /* Check whether the address range is reserved */
+ if (ftrace_text_reserved(src, src + len - 1) ||
+ alternatives_text_reserved(src, src + len - 1))
+ return -EBUSY;
+
+ return len;
+}
+
+/* Check whether insn is indirect jump */
+static int __kprobes insn_is_indirect_jump(struct insn *insn)
+{
+ return ((insn->opcode.bytes[0] == 0xff &&
+ (X86_MODRM_REG(insn->modrm.value) & 6) == 4) || /* Jump */
+ insn->opcode.bytes[0] == 0xea); /* Segment based jump */
+}
+
+/* Check whether insn jumps into specified address range */
+static int insn_jump_into_range(struct insn *insn, unsigned long start, int len)
+{
+ unsigned long target = 0;
+
+ switch (insn->opcode.bytes[0]) {
+ case 0xe0: /* loopne */
+ case 0xe1: /* loope */
+ case 0xe2: /* loop */
+ case 0xe3: /* jcxz */
+ case 0xe9: /* near relative jump */
+ case 0xeb: /* short relative jump */
+ break;
+ case 0x0f:
+ if ((insn->opcode.bytes[1] & 0xf0) == 0x80) /* jcc near */
+ break;
+ return 0;
+ default:
+ if ((insn->opcode.bytes[0] & 0xf0) == 0x70) /* jcc short */
+ break;
+ return 0;
+ }
+ target = (unsigned long)insn->next_byte + insn->immediate.value;
+
+ return (start <= target && target <= start + len);
+}
+
+/* Decode whole function to ensure any instructions don't jump into target */
+static int __kprobes can_optimize(unsigned long paddr)
+{
+ int ret;
+ unsigned long addr, size = 0, offset = 0;
+ struct insn insn;
+ kprobe_opcode_t buf[MAX_INSN_SIZE];
+ /* Dummy buffers for lookup_symbol_attrs */
+ static char __dummy_buf[KSYM_NAME_LEN];
+
+ /* Lookup symbol including addr */
+ if (!kallsyms_lookup(paddr, &size, &offset, NULL, __dummy_buf))
+ return 0;
+
+ /* Check there is enough space for a relative jump. */
+ if (size - offset < RELATIVEJUMP_SIZE)
+ return 0;
+
+ /* Decode instructions */
+ addr = paddr - offset;
+ while (addr < paddr - offset + size) { /* Decode until function end */
+ if (search_exception_tables(addr))
+ /*
+ * Since some fixup code will jumps into this function,
+ * we can't optimize kprobe in this function.
+ */
+ return 0;
+ kernel_insn_init(&insn, (void *)addr);
+ insn_get_opcode(&insn);
+ if (insn.opcode.bytes[0] == BREAKPOINT_INSTRUCTION) {
+ ret = recover_probed_instruction(buf, addr);
+ if (ret)
+ return 0;
+ kernel_insn_init(&insn, buf);
+ }
+ insn_get_length(&insn);
+ /* Recover address */
+ insn.kaddr = (void *)addr;
+ insn.next_byte = (void *)(addr + insn.length);
+ /* Check any instructions don't jump into target */
+ if (insn_is_indirect_jump(&insn) ||
+ insn_jump_into_range(&insn, paddr + INT3_SIZE,
+ RELATIVE_ADDR_SIZE))
+ return 0;
+ addr += insn.length;
+ }
+
+ return 1;
+}
+
+/* Check optimized_kprobe can actually be optimized. */
+int __kprobes arch_check_optimized_kprobe(struct optimized_kprobe *op)
+{
+ int i;
+ struct kprobe *p;
+
+ for (i = 1; i < op->optinsn.size; i++) {
+ p = get_kprobe(op->kp.addr + i);
+ if (p && !kprobe_disabled(p))
+ return -EEXIST;
+ }
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+/* Check the addr is within the optimized instructions. */
+int __kprobes arch_within_optimized_kprobe(struct optimized_kprobe *op,
+ unsigned long addr)
+{
+ return ((unsigned long)op->kp.addr <= addr &&
+ (unsigned long)op->kp.addr + op->optinsn.size > addr);
+}
+
+/* Free optimized instruction slot */
+static __kprobes
+void __arch_remove_optimized_kprobe(struct optimized_kprobe *op, int dirty)
+{
+ if (op->optinsn.insn) {
+ free_optinsn_slot(op->optinsn.insn, dirty);
+ op->optinsn.insn = NULL;
+ op->optinsn.size = 0;
+ }
+}
+
+void __kprobes arch_remove_optimized_kprobe(struct optimized_kprobe *op)
+{
+ __arch_remove_optimized_kprobe(op, 1);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Copy replacing target instructions
+ * Target instructions MUST be relocatable (checked inside)
+ */
+int __kprobes arch_prepare_optimized_kprobe(struct optimized_kprobe *op)
+{
+ u8 *buf;
+ int ret;
+ long rel;
+
+ if (!can_optimize((unsigned long)op->kp.addr))
+ return -EILSEQ;
+
+ op->optinsn.insn = get_optinsn_slot();
+ if (!op->optinsn.insn)
+ return -ENOMEM;
+
+ /*
+ * Verify if the address gap is in 2GB range, because this uses
+ * a relative jump.
+ */
+ rel = (long)op->optinsn.insn - (long)op->kp.addr + RELATIVEJUMP_SIZE;
+ if (abs(rel) > 0x7fffffff)
+ return -ERANGE;
+
+ buf = (u8 *)op->optinsn.insn;
+
+ /* Copy instructions into the out-of-line buffer */
+ ret = copy_optimized_instructions(buf + TMPL_END_IDX, op->kp.addr);
+ if (ret < 0) {
+ __arch_remove_optimized_kprobe(op, 0);
+ return ret;
+ }
+ op->optinsn.size = ret;
+
+ /* Copy arch-dep-instance from template */
+ memcpy(buf, &optprobe_template_entry, TMPL_END_IDX);
+
+ /* Set probe information */
+ synthesize_set_arg1(buf + TMPL_MOVE_IDX, (unsigned long)op);
+
+ /* Set probe function call */
+ synthesize_relcall(buf + TMPL_CALL_IDX, optimized_callback);
+
+ /* Set returning jmp instruction at the tail of out-of-line buffer */
+ synthesize_reljump(buf + TMPL_END_IDX + op->optinsn.size,
+ (u8 *)op->kp.addr + op->optinsn.size);
+
+ flush_icache_range((unsigned long) buf,
+ (unsigned long) buf + TMPL_END_IDX +
+ op->optinsn.size + RELATIVEJUMP_SIZE);
+ return 0;
+}
+
+/* Replace a breakpoint (int3) with a relative jump. */
+int __kprobes arch_optimize_kprobe(struct optimized_kprobe *op)
+{
+ unsigned char jmp_code[RELATIVEJUMP_SIZE];
+ s32 rel = (s32)((long)op->optinsn.insn -
+ ((long)op->kp.addr + RELATIVEJUMP_SIZE));
+
+ /* Backup instructions which will be replaced by jump address */
+ memcpy(op->optinsn.copied_insn, op->kp.addr + INT3_SIZE,
+ RELATIVE_ADDR_SIZE);
+
+ jmp_code[0] = RELATIVEJUMP_OPCODE;
+ *(s32 *)(&jmp_code[1]) = rel;
+
+ /*
+ * text_poke_smp doesn't support NMI/MCE code modifying.
+ * However, since kprobes itself also doesn't support NMI/MCE
+ * code probing, it's not a problem.
+ */
+ text_poke_smp(op->kp.addr, jmp_code, RELATIVEJUMP_SIZE);
+ return 0;
+}
+
+/* Replace a relative jump with a breakpoint (int3). */
+void __kprobes arch_unoptimize_kprobe(struct optimized_kprobe *op)
+{
+ u8 buf[RELATIVEJUMP_SIZE];
+
+ /* Set int3 to first byte for kprobes */
+ buf[0] = BREAKPOINT_INSTRUCTION;
+ memcpy(buf + 1, op->optinsn.copied_insn, RELATIVE_ADDR_SIZE);
+ text_poke_smp(op->kp.addr, buf, RELATIVEJUMP_SIZE);
+}
+
+static int __kprobes setup_detour_execution(struct kprobe *p,
+ struct pt_regs *regs,
+ int reenter)
+{
+ struct optimized_kprobe *op;
+
+ if (p->flags & KPROBE_FLAG_OPTIMIZED) {
+ /* This kprobe is really able to run optimized path. */
+ op = container_of(p, struct optimized_kprobe, kp);
+ /* Detour through copied instructions */
+ regs->ip = (unsigned long)op->optinsn.insn + TMPL_END_IDX;
+ if (!reenter)
+ reset_current_kprobe();
+ preempt_enable_no_resched();
+ return 1;
+ }
+ return 0;
+}
+#endif
+
int __init arch_init_kprobes(void)
{
return 0;

--
Masami Hiramatsu

Software Engineer
Hitachi Computer Products (America), Inc.
Software Solutions Division

e-mail: mhiramat@redhat.com


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