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Subject[PATCH 05/12] Memory compaction core
Date
This patch is the core of a mechanism which compacts memory in a zone by
relocating movable pages towards the end of the zone.

A single compaction run involves a migration scanner and a free scanner.
Both scanners operate on pageblock-sized areas in the zone. The migration
scanner starts at the bottom of the zone and searches for all movable pages
within each area, isolating them onto a private list called migratelist.
The free scanner starts at the top of the zone and searches for suitable
areas and consumes the free pages within making them available for the
migration scanner. The pages isolated for migration are then migrated to
the newly isolated free pages.

Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie>
---
include/linux/compaction.h | 8 +
include/linux/mm.h | 1 +
include/linux/swap.h | 5 +
include/linux/vmstat.h | 1 +
mm/Makefile | 1 +
mm/compaction.c | 341 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
mm/page_alloc.c | 37 +++++
mm/vmscan.c | 5 -
mm/vmstat.c | 5 +
scripts/kconfig/conf.c | 1 -
10 files changed, 399 insertions(+), 6 deletions(-)
create mode 100644 include/linux/compaction.h
create mode 100644 mm/compaction.c
diff --git a/include/linux/compaction.h b/include/linux/compaction.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..6201371
--- /dev/null
+++ b/include/linux/compaction.h
@@ -0,0 +1,8 @@
+#ifndef _LINUX_COMPACTION_H
+#define _LINUX_COMPACTION_H
+
+/* Return values for compact_zone() */
+#define COMPACT_INCOMPLETE 0
+#define COMPACT_COMPLETE 1
+
+#endif /* _LINUX_COMPACTION_H */
diff --git a/include/linux/mm.h b/include/linux/mm.h
index 60c467b..c2a2ede 100644
--- a/include/linux/mm.h
+++ b/include/linux/mm.h
@@ -332,6 +332,7 @@ void put_page(struct page *page);
void put_pages_list(struct list_head *pages);

void split_page(struct page *page, unsigned int order);
+int split_free_page(struct page *page);

/*
* Compound pages have a destructor function. Provide a
diff --git a/include/linux/swap.h b/include/linux/swap.h
index a2602a8..7e7181b 100644
--- a/include/linux/swap.h
+++ b/include/linux/swap.h
@@ -238,6 +238,11 @@ static inline void lru_cache_add_active_file(struct page *page)
__lru_cache_add(page, LRU_ACTIVE_FILE);
}

+/* LRU Isolation modes. */
+#define ISOLATE_INACTIVE 0 /* Isolate inactive pages. */
+#define ISOLATE_ACTIVE 1 /* Isolate active pages. */
+#define ISOLATE_BOTH 2 /* Isolate both active and inactive pages. */
+
/* linux/mm/vmscan.c */
extern unsigned long try_to_free_pages(struct zonelist *zonelist, int order,
gfp_t gfp_mask, nodemask_t *mask);
diff --git a/include/linux/vmstat.h b/include/linux/vmstat.h
index ee03bba..d7f7236 100644
--- a/include/linux/vmstat.h
+++ b/include/linux/vmstat.h
@@ -43,6 +43,7 @@ enum vm_event_item { PGPGIN, PGPGOUT, PSWPIN, PSWPOUT,
KSWAPD_LOW_WMARK_HIT_QUICKLY, KSWAPD_HIGH_WMARK_HIT_QUICKLY,
KSWAPD_SKIP_CONGESTION_WAIT,
PAGEOUTRUN, ALLOCSTALL, PGROTATED,
+ COMPACTBLOCKS, COMPACTPAGES, COMPACTPAGEFAILED,
#ifdef CONFIG_HUGETLB_PAGE
HTLB_BUDDY_PGALLOC, HTLB_BUDDY_PGALLOC_FAIL,
#endif
diff --git a/mm/Makefile b/mm/Makefile
index 7a68d2a..ccb1f72 100644
--- a/mm/Makefile
+++ b/mm/Makefile
@@ -33,6 +33,7 @@ obj-$(CONFIG_FAILSLAB) += failslab.o
obj-$(CONFIG_MEMORY_HOTPLUG) += memory_hotplug.o
obj-$(CONFIG_FS_XIP) += filemap_xip.o
obj-$(CONFIG_MIGRATION) += migrate.o
+obj-$(CONFIG_COMPACTION) += compaction.o
obj-$(CONFIG_SMP) += percpu.o
obj-$(CONFIG_QUICKLIST) += quicklist.o
obj-$(CONFIG_CGROUP_MEM_RES_CTLR) += memcontrol.o page_cgroup.o
diff --git a/mm/compaction.c b/mm/compaction.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..51ec864
--- /dev/null
+++ b/mm/compaction.c
@@ -0,0 +1,341 @@
+/*
+ * linux/mm/compaction.c
+ *
+ * Memory compaction for the reduction of external fragmentation. Note that
+ * this heavily depends upon page migration to do all the real heavy
+ * lifting
+ *
+ * Copyright IBM Corp. 2009 Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie>
+ */
+#include <linux/swap.h>
+#include <linux/migrate.h>
+#include <linux/compaction.h>
+#include <linux/mm_inline.h>
+#include "internal.h"
+
+/*
+ * compact_control is used to track pages being migrated and the free pages
+ * they are being migrated to during memory compaction. The free_pfn starts
+ * at the end of a zone and migrate_pfn begins at the start. Movable pages
+ * are moved to the end of a zone during a compaction run and the run
+ * completes when free_pfn <= migrate_pfn
+ */
+struct compact_control {
+ struct list_head freepages; /* List of free pages to migrate to */
+ struct list_head migratepages; /* List of pages being migrated */
+ unsigned long nr_freepages; /* Number of isolated free pages */
+ unsigned long nr_migratepages; /* Number of pages to migrate */
+ unsigned long free_pfn; /* isolate_freepages search base */
+ unsigned long migrate_pfn; /* isolate_migratepages search base */
+ struct zone *zone;
+};
+
+static int release_freepages(struct zone *zone, struct list_head *freelist)
+{
+ struct page *page, *next;
+ int count = 0;
+
+ list_for_each_entry_safe(page, next, freelist, lru) {
+ list_del(&page->lru);
+ __free_page(page);
+ count++;
+ }
+
+ return count;
+}
+
+/* Isolate free pages onto a private freelist. Must hold zone->lock */
+static int isolate_freepages_block(struct zone *zone,
+ unsigned long blockpfn,
+ struct list_head *freelist)
+{
+ unsigned long zone_end_pfn, end_pfn;
+ int total_isolated = 0;
+
+ /* Get the last PFN we should scan for free pages at */
+ zone_end_pfn = zone->zone_start_pfn + zone->spanned_pages;
+ end_pfn = blockpfn + pageblock_nr_pages;
+ if (end_pfn > zone_end_pfn)
+ end_pfn = zone_end_pfn;
+
+ /* Isolate free pages. This assumes the block is valid */
+ for (; blockpfn < end_pfn; blockpfn++) {
+ struct page *page;
+ int isolated, i;
+
+ if (!pfn_valid_within(blockpfn))
+ continue;
+
+ page = pfn_to_page(blockpfn);
+ if (!PageBuddy(page))
+ continue;
+
+ /* Found a free page, break it into order-0 pages */
+ isolated = split_free_page(page);
+ total_isolated += isolated;
+ for (i = 0; i < isolated; i++) {
+ list_add(&page->lru, freelist);
+ page++;
+ }
+ blockpfn += isolated - 1;
+ }
+
+ return total_isolated;
+}
+
+/* Returns 1 if the page is within a block suitable for migration to */
+static int suitable_migration_target(struct page *page)
+{
+ /* If the page is a large free page, then allow migration */
+ if (PageBuddy(page) && page_order(page) >= pageblock_order)
+ return 1;
+
+ /* If the block is MIGRATE_MOVABLE, allow migration */
+ if (get_pageblock_migratetype(page) == MIGRATE_MOVABLE)
+ return 1;
+
+ /* Otherwise skip the block */
+ return 0;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Based on information in the current compact_control, find blocks
+ * suitable for isolating free pages from
+ */
+static void isolate_freepages(struct zone *zone,
+ struct compact_control *cc)
+{
+ struct page *page;
+ unsigned long high_pfn, low_pfn, pfn;
+ unsigned long flags;
+ int nr_freepages = cc->nr_freepages;
+ struct list_head *freelist = &cc->freepages;
+
+ pfn = cc->free_pfn;
+ low_pfn = cc->migrate_pfn + pageblock_nr_pages;
+ high_pfn = low_pfn;
+
+ /*
+ * Isolate free pages until enough are available to migrate the
+ * pages on cc->migratepages. We stop searching if the migrate
+ * and free page scanners meet or enough free pages are isolated.
+ */
+ spin_lock_irqsave(&zone->lock, flags);
+ for (; pfn > low_pfn && cc->nr_migratepages > nr_freepages;
+ pfn -= pageblock_nr_pages) {
+ int isolated;
+
+ if (!pfn_valid(pfn))
+ continue;
+
+ /* Check for overlapping nodes/zones */
+ page = pfn_to_page(pfn);
+ if (page_zone(page) != zone)
+ continue;
+
+ /* Check the block is suitable for migration */
+ if (!suitable_migration_target(page))
+ continue;
+
+ /* Found a block suitable for isolating free pages from */
+ isolated = isolate_freepages_block(zone, pfn, freelist);
+ nr_freepages += isolated;
+
+ /*
+ * Record the highest PFN we isolated pages from. When next
+ * looking for free pages, the search will restart here as
+ * page migration may have returned some pages to the allocator
+ */
+ if (isolated)
+ high_pfn = max(high_pfn, pfn);
+ }
+ spin_unlock_irqrestore(&zone->lock, flags);
+
+ cc->free_pfn = high_pfn;
+ cc->nr_freepages = nr_freepages;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Isolate all pages that can be migrated from the block pointed to by
+ * the migrate scanner within compact_control.
+ */
+static unsigned long isolate_migratepages(struct zone *zone,
+ struct compact_control *cc)
+{
+ unsigned long low_pfn, end_pfn;
+ struct list_head *migratelist;
+ enum lru_list lru_src;
+
+ low_pfn = ALIGN(cc->migrate_pfn, pageblock_nr_pages);
+ migratelist = &cc->migratepages;
+
+ /* Do not scan outside zone boundaries */
+ if (low_pfn < zone->zone_start_pfn)
+ low_pfn = zone->zone_start_pfn;
+
+ /* Setup to scan one block but not past where we are migrating to */
+ end_pfn = ALIGN(low_pfn + pageblock_nr_pages, pageblock_nr_pages);
+ cc->migrate_pfn = end_pfn;
+ VM_BUG_ON(end_pfn > cc->free_pfn);
+
+ if (!pfn_valid(low_pfn))
+ return 0;
+
+ migrate_prep();
+
+ /* Time to isolate some pages for migration */
+ spin_lock_irq(&zone->lru_lock);
+ for (; low_pfn < end_pfn; low_pfn++) {
+ struct page *page;
+ if (!pfn_valid_within(low_pfn))
+ continue;
+
+ /* Get the page and skip if free */
+ page = pfn_to_page(low_pfn);
+ if (PageBuddy(page)) {
+ low_pfn += (1 << page_order(page)) - 1;
+ continue;
+ }
+
+ if (!PageLRU(page) || PageUnevictable(page))
+ continue;
+
+ /* Try isolate the page */
+ lru_src = page_lru(page);
+ switch (__isolate_lru_page(page, ISOLATE_BOTH, 0)) {
+ case 0:
+ list_move(&page->lru, migratelist);
+ mem_cgroup_del_lru(page);
+ cc->nr_migratepages++;
+ break;
+
+ case -EBUSY:
+ /*
+ * else it is being freed elsewhere. The
+ * problem is that we are not really sure where
+ * it came from in the first place
+ * XXX: Verify the putback logic is ok. This was
+ * all written before LRU lists were split
+ */
+ list_move(&page->lru, &zone->lru[lru_src].list);
+ mem_cgroup_rotate_lru_list(page, page_lru(page));
+ continue;
+
+ default:
+ BUG();
+ }
+ }
+ spin_unlock_irq(&zone->lru_lock);
+
+ return cc->nr_migratepages;
+}
+
+/*
+ * This is a migrate-callback that "allocates" freepages by taking pages
+ * from the isolated freelists in the block we are migrating to.
+ */
+static struct page *compaction_alloc(struct page *migratepage,
+ unsigned long data,
+ int **result)
+{
+ struct compact_control *cc = (struct compact_control *)data;
+ struct page *freepage;
+
+ VM_BUG_ON(cc == NULL);
+
+ /* Isolate free pages if necessary */
+ if (list_empty(&cc->freepages)) {
+ isolate_freepages(cc->zone, cc);
+
+ if (list_empty(&cc->freepages))
+ return NULL;
+ }
+
+ freepage = list_entry(cc->freepages.next, struct page, lru);
+ list_del(&freepage->lru);
+ cc->nr_freepages--;
+
+ return freepage;
+}
+
+/*
+ * We cannot control nr_migratepages and nr_freepages fully when migration is
+ * running as migrate_pages() has no knowledge of compact_control. When
+ * migration is complete, we count the number of pages on the lists by hand.
+ */
+static void update_nr_listpages(struct compact_control *cc)
+{
+ int nr_migratepages = 0;
+ int nr_freepages = 0;
+ struct page *page;
+ list_for_each_entry(page, &cc->migratepages, lru)
+ nr_migratepages++;
+ list_for_each_entry(page, &cc->freepages, lru)
+ nr_freepages++;
+
+ cc->nr_migratepages = nr_migratepages;
+ cc->nr_freepages = nr_freepages;
+}
+
+static inline int compact_finished(struct zone *zone,
+ struct compact_control *cc)
+{
+ /* Compaction run completes if the migrate and free scanner meet */
+ if (cc->free_pfn <= cc->migrate_pfn)
+ return COMPACT_COMPLETE;
+
+ return COMPACT_INCOMPLETE;
+}
+
+static int compact_zone(struct zone *zone, struct compact_control *cc)
+{
+ int ret = COMPACT_INCOMPLETE;
+
+ /*
+ * Setup to move all movable pages to the end of the zone
+ * XXX: This could be improved upon. In the event compaction
+ * is being successful quickly but called often, there
+ * is a likelihood of scanning the same blocks as sources
+ * and targets frequently. Might be worth caching the
+ * last migrate_pfn to reduce scan times.
+ */
+ cc->migrate_pfn = zone->zone_start_pfn;
+ cc->free_pfn = cc->migrate_pfn + zone->spanned_pages;
+ cc->free_pfn &= ~(pageblock_nr_pages-1);
+
+ for (; ret == COMPACT_INCOMPLETE; ret = compact_finished(zone, cc)) {
+ unsigned long nr_migrate, nr_remaining;
+ if (!isolate_migratepages(zone, cc))
+ continue;
+
+ nr_migrate = cc->nr_migratepages;
+ migrate_pages(&cc->migratepages, compaction_alloc,
+ (unsigned long)cc, 0);
+ update_nr_listpages(cc);
+ nr_remaining = cc->nr_migratepages;
+
+ count_vm_event(COMPACTBLOCKS);
+ count_vm_events(COMPACTPAGES, nr_migrate - nr_remaining);
+ if (nr_remaining)
+ count_vm_events(COMPACTPAGEFAILED, nr_remaining);
+ }
+
+ /* Release free pages and check accounting */
+ cc->nr_freepages -= release_freepages(zone, &cc->freepages);
+ VM_BUG_ON(cc->nr_freepages != 0);
+
+ /*
+ * Release LRU pages not migrated
+ * XXX: Page migration at this point tries fairly hard to move
+ * pages as it is but if migration fails, pages are left
+ * on cc->migratepages for more passes. This might cause
+ * multiple useless failures. Watch compact_pagemigrate_failed
+ * in /proc/vmstat. If it grows a lot, then putback should
+ * happen after each failed migration
+ */
+ if (!list_empty(&cc->migratepages))
+ putback_lru_pages(&cc->migratepages);
+
+ return ret;
+}
+
diff --git a/mm/page_alloc.c b/mm/page_alloc.c
index 8deb9d0..6d57154 100644
--- a/mm/page_alloc.c
+++ b/mm/page_alloc.c
@@ -1168,6 +1168,43 @@ void split_page(struct page *page, unsigned int order)
set_page_refcounted(page + i);
}

+/* Similar to split_page except the page is already free */
+int split_free_page(struct page *page)
+{
+ unsigned int order;
+ unsigned long watermark;
+ struct zone *zone;
+
+ BUG_ON(!PageBuddy(page));
+
+ zone = page_zone(page);
+ order = page_order(page);
+
+ /* Obey watermarks or the system could deadlock */
+ watermark = low_wmark_pages(zone) + (1 << order);
+ if (!zone_watermark_ok(zone, 0, watermark, 0, 0))
+ return 0;
+
+ /* Remove page from free list */
+ list_del(&page->lru);
+ zone->free_area[order].nr_free--;
+ rmv_page_order(page);
+ __mod_zone_page_state(zone, NR_FREE_PAGES, -(1UL << order));
+
+ /* Split into individual pages */
+ set_page_refcounted(page);
+ split_page(page, order);
+
+ /* Set the migratetype on the assumption it's for migration */
+ if (order >= pageblock_order - 1) {
+ struct page *endpage = page + (1 << order) - 1;
+ for (; page < endpage; page += pageblock_nr_pages)
+ set_pageblock_migratetype(page, MIGRATE_MOVABLE);
+ }
+
+ return 1 << order;
+}
+
/*
* Really, prep_compound_page() should be called from __rmqueue_bulk(). But
* we cheat by calling it from here, in the order > 0 path. Saves a branch
diff --git a/mm/vmscan.c b/mm/vmscan.c
index c26986c..47de19b 100644
--- a/mm/vmscan.c
+++ b/mm/vmscan.c
@@ -803,11 +803,6 @@ keep:
return nr_reclaimed;
}

-/* LRU Isolation modes. */
-#define ISOLATE_INACTIVE 0 /* Isolate inactive pages. */
-#define ISOLATE_ACTIVE 1 /* Isolate active pages. */
-#define ISOLATE_BOTH 2 /* Isolate both active and inactive pages. */
-
/*
* Attempt to remove the specified page from its LRU. Only take this page
* if it is of the appropriate PageActive status. Pages which are being
diff --git a/mm/vmstat.c b/mm/vmstat.c
index e2d0cc1..f0930ae 100644
--- a/mm/vmstat.c
+++ b/mm/vmstat.c
@@ -852,6 +852,11 @@ static const char * const vmstat_text[] = {
"allocstall",

"pgrotated",
+
+ "compact_blocks_moved",
+ "compact_pages_moved",
+ "compact_pagemigrate_failed",
+
#ifdef CONFIG_HUGETLB_PAGE
"htlb_buddy_alloc_success",
"htlb_buddy_alloc_fail",
--
1.6.5


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