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SubjectRe: High CPU load when machine is idle (related to PROBLEM: Unusually high load average when idle in 2.6.35, 2.6.35.1 and later)
On Tue, Nov 30, 2010 at 03:59:05PM +0100, Peter Zijlstra wrote:
> OK, so here's a less crufty patch that gets the same result on my
> machine, load drops down to 0.00 after a while.
>
> It seems a bit slower to reach 0.00, but that could be because I
> actually changed the load computation for NO_HZ=n as well, I added a
> rounding factor in calc_load(), we no longer truncate the division.
>
> If people want to compare, simply remove the third line from
> calc_load(): load += 1UL << (FSHIFT - 1), to restore the old behaviour.
>

Thanks Peter, I'll build a couple kernels for the bugzilla reporters and
see what they turn up.

--Kyle

> ---
> include/linux/sched.h | 2 +-
> kernel/sched.c | 127 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++----
> kernel/timer.c | 2 +-
> 3 files changed, 118 insertions(+), 13 deletions(-)
>
> diff --git a/include/linux/sched.h b/include/linux/sched.h
> index de4d68f..a6e0c62 100644
> --- a/include/linux/sched.h
> +++ b/include/linux/sched.h
> @@ -143,7 +143,7 @@ extern unsigned long nr_iowait_cpu(int cpu);
> extern unsigned long this_cpu_load(void);
>
>
> -extern void calc_global_load(void);
> +extern void calc_global_load(unsigned long ticks);
>
> extern unsigned long get_parent_ip(unsigned long addr);
>
> diff --git a/kernel/sched.c b/kernel/sched.c
> index 864040c..7868a18 100644
> --- a/kernel/sched.c
> +++ b/kernel/sched.c
> @@ -2978,6 +2978,15 @@ static long calc_load_fold_active(struct rq *this_rq)
> return delta;
> }
>
> +static unsigned long
> +calc_load(unsigned long load, unsigned long exp, unsigned long active)
> +{
> + load *= exp;
> + load += active * (FIXED_1 - exp);
> + load += 1UL << (FSHIFT - 1);
> + return load >> FSHIFT;
> +}
> +
> #ifdef CONFIG_NO_HZ
> /*
> * For NO_HZ we delay the active fold to the next LOAD_FREQ update.
> @@ -3007,6 +3016,105 @@ static long calc_load_fold_idle(void)
>
> return delta;
> }
> +
> +/**
> + * fixed_power_int - compute: x^n, in O(log n) time
> + *
> + * @x: base of the power
> + * @frac_bits: fractional bits of @x
> + * @n: power to raise @x to.
> + *
> + * By exploiting the relation between the definition of the natural power
> + * function: x^n := x*x*...*x (x multiplied by itself for n times), and
> + * the binary encoding of numbers used by computers: n := \Sum n_i * 2^i,
> + * (where: n_i \elem {0, 1}, the binary vector representing n),
> + * we find: x^n := x^(\Sum n_i * 2^i) := \Prod x^(n_i * 2^i), which is
> + * of course trivially computable in O(log_2 n), the length of our binary
> + * vector.
> + */
> +static unsigned long
> +fixed_power_int(unsigned long x, unsigned int frac_bits, unsigned int n)
> +{
> + unsigned long result = 1UL << frac_bits;
> +
> + if (n) for (;;) {
> + if (n & 1) {
> + result *= x;
> + result += 1UL << (frac_bits - 1);
> + result >>= frac_bits;
> + }
> + n >>= 1;
> + if (!n)
> + break;
> + x *= x;
> + x += 1UL << (frac_bits - 1);
> + x >>= frac_bits;
> + }
> +
> + return result;
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * a1 = a0 * e + a * (1 - e)
> + *
> + * a2 = a1 * e + a * (1 - e)
> + * = (a0 * e + a * (1 - e)) * e + a * (1 - e)
> + * = a0 * e^2 + a * (1 - e) * (1 + e)
> + *
> + * a3 = a2 * e + a * (1 - e)
> + * = (a0 * e^2 + a * (1 - e) * (1 + e)) * e + a * (1 - e)
> + * = a0 * e^3 + a * (1 - e) * (1 + e + e^2)
> + *
> + * ...
> + *
> + * an = a0 * e^n + a * (1 - e) * (1 + e + ... + e^n-1) [1]
> + * = a0 * e^n + a * (1 - e) * (1 - e^n)/(1 - e)
> + * = a0 * e^n + a * (1 - e^n)
> + *
> + * [1] application of the geometric series:
> + *
> + * n 1 - x^(n+1)
> + * S_n := \Sum x^i = -------------
> + * i=0 1 - x
> + */
> +static unsigned long
> +calc_load_n(unsigned long load, unsigned long exp,
> + unsigned long active, unsigned int n)
> +{
> +
> + return calc_load(load, fixed_power_int(exp, FSHIFT, n), active);
> +}
> +
> +static void calc_global_nohz(unsigned long ticks)
> +{
> + long delta, active, n;
> +
> + if (time_before(jiffies, calc_load_update))
> + return;
> +
> + /*
> + * If we crossed a calc_load_update boundary, make sure to fold
> + * any pending idle changes, the respective CPUs might have
> + * missed the tick driven calc_load_account_active() update
> + * due to NO_HZ
> + */
> + delta = calc_load_fold_idle();
> + if (delta)
> + atomic_long_add(delta, &calc_load_tasks);
> +
> + if (ticks >= LOAD_FREQ) {
> + n = ticks / LOAD_FREQ;
> +
> + active = atomic_long_read(&calc_load_tasks);
> + active = active > 0 ? active * FIXED_1 : 0;
> +
> + avenrun[0] = calc_load_n(avenrun[0], EXP_1, active, n);
> + avenrun[1] = calc_load_n(avenrun[1], EXP_5, active, n);
> + avenrun[2] = calc_load_n(avenrun[2], EXP_15, active, n);
> +
> + calc_load_update += n * LOAD_FREQ;
> + }
> +}
> #else
> static void calc_load_account_idle(struct rq *this_rq)
> {
> @@ -3016,6 +3124,10 @@ static inline long calc_load_fold_idle(void)
> {
> return 0;
> }
> +
> +static void calc_global_nohz(unsigned long ticks)
> +{
> +}
> #endif
>
> /**
> @@ -3033,24 +3145,17 @@ void get_avenrun(unsigned long *loads, unsigned long offset, int shift)
> loads[2] = (avenrun[2] + offset) << shift;
> }
>
> -static unsigned long
> -calc_load(unsigned long load, unsigned long exp, unsigned long active)
> -{
> - load *= exp;
> - load += active * (FIXED_1 - exp);
> - return load >> FSHIFT;
> -}
> -
> /*
> * calc_load - update the avenrun load estimates 10 ticks after the
> * CPUs have updated calc_load_tasks.
> */
> -void calc_global_load(void)
> +void calc_global_load(unsigned long ticks)
> {
> - unsigned long upd = calc_load_update + 10;
> long active;
>
> - if (time_before(jiffies, upd))
> + calc_global_nohz(ticks);
> +
> + if (time_before(jiffies, calc_load_update + 10))
> return;
>
> active = atomic_long_read(&calc_load_tasks);
> diff --git a/kernel/timer.c b/kernel/timer.c
> index d6ccb90..9f82b2a 100644
> --- a/kernel/timer.c
> +++ b/kernel/timer.c
> @@ -1297,7 +1297,7 @@ void do_timer(unsigned long ticks)
> {
> jiffies_64 += ticks;
> update_wall_time();
> - calc_global_load();
> + calc_global_load(ticks);
> }
>
> #ifdef __ARCH_WANT_SYS_ALARM
>
>


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