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Subject[PATCH 00/80] Kernel based checkpoint/restart [v18]
Date
Hi Andrew,

This is our recent round of checkpoint/restart patches. It can
checkpoint and restart interactive sessions of 'screen' across
kernel reboot. Please consider applying to -mm.

Patches 1-17 are clean-ups and preparations for c/r:
* 1,2,3,4 and 9,10: cleanups, also useful for c/r.
* 5,6: fix freezer control group
* 7,8: extend freezer control group for c/r.
* 11-17: clone_with_pid

Patch 18 reserves the system calls slots - please apply so we
don't need to keep changing them.

Patches 19-80 contain the actual c/r code; we've exhausted the
reviewers for most of them.

Patch 32 implements a deferqueue - mechanism for a process to
defer work for some later time (unlike workqueue, designed for
the work to execute in the context of same/original process).

Thanks,

Oren.

----
Application checkpoint/restart (c/r) is the ability to save the state
of a running application so that it can later resume its execution
from the time at which it was checkpointed, on the same or a different
machine.

This version brings support many new features, including support for
unix domain sockets, fifos, pseudo-terminals, and signals (see the
detailed changelog below).

With these in place, it can now checkpoint and restart not only batch
jobs, but also interactive programs using 'screen'. For example, users
can checkpoint a 'screen' session with multiple shells, upgrade their
kernel, reboot, and restart their interactive 'screen' session from
before !

This patchset was compiled and tested against v2.6.31. For more
information, check out Documentation/checkpoint/*.txt
Q: How useful is this code as it stands in real-world usage?
A: The application can be single- or multi-processes and threads. It
handles open files (regular files/directories on most file systems,
pipes, fifos, af_unix sockets, /dev/{null,zero,random,urandom} and
pseudo-terminals. It supports shared memory. sysv IPC (except undo
of sempahores). It's suitable for many types of batch jobs as well
as some interactive jobs. (Note: it is assumed that the fs view is
available at restart).
Q: What can it checkpoint and restart ?
A: A (single threaded) process can checkpoint itself, aka "self"
checkpoint, if it calls the new system calls. Otherise, for an
"external" checkpoint, the caller must first freeze the target
processes. One can either checkpoint an entire container (and
we make best effort to ensure that the result is self-contained),
or merely a subtree of a process hierarchy.

Q: What about namespaces ?
A: Currrently, UTS and IPC namespaces are restored. They demonstrate
how namespaces are handled. More to come.

Q: What additional work needs to be done to it?
A: Fill in the gory details following the examples so far. Current WIP
includes inet sockets, event-poll, and early work on inotify, mount
namespace and mount-points, pseudo file systems, and x86_64 support.

Q: How can I try it ?
A: Use it for simple batch jobs (pipes, too), or an interactive
'screen' session, in a whole container or just a subtree of
tasks:

create the freezer cgroup:
$ mount -t cgroup -ofreezer freezer /cgroup
$ mkdir /cgroup/0

run the test, freeze it:
$ test/multitask &
[1] 2754
$ for i in `pidof multitask`; do echo $i > /cgroup/0/tasks; done
$ echo FROZEN > /cgruop/0/freezer.state
checkpoint:
$ ./ckpt 2754 > ckpt.out
restart:
$ ./mktree < ckpt.out

voila :)

To do all this, you'll need:

The git tree tracking v18, branch 'ckpt-v18' (and past versions):
git://git.ncl.cs.columbia.edu/pub/git/linux-cr.git

The userspace tools are available through the matching branch [v18]:
git://git.ncl.cs.columbia.edu/pub/git/user-cr.git


Changelog:

[2009-Sep-22] v18

(new features)
- [Nathan Lynch] Re-introduce powerpc support
- Save/restore pseudo-terminals
- Save/restore (pty) controlling terminals
- Save/restore restore PGIDs
- [Dan Smith] Save/restore unix domain sockets
- Save/restore FIFOs
- Save/restore pending signals
- Save/restore rlimits
- Save/restore itimers
- [Matt Helsley] Handle many non-pseudo file-systems

(other changes)
- Rename headerless struct ckpt_hdr_* to struct ckpt_*
- [Nathan Lynch] discard const from struct cred * where appropriate
- [Serge Hallyn][s390] Set return value for self-checkpoint
- Handle kmalloc failure in restore_sem_array()
- [IPC] Collect files used by shm objects
- [IPC] Use file (not inode) as shared object on checkpoint of shm
- More ckpt_write_err()s to give information on checkpoint failure
- Adjust format of pipe buffer to include the mandatory pre-header
- [LEAKS] Mark the backing file as visited at chekcpoint
- Tighten checks on supported vma to checkpoint or restart
- [Serge Hallyn] Export filemap_checkpoint() (used for ext4)
- Introduce ckpt_collect_file() that also uses file->collect method
- Use ckpt_collect_file() instead of ckpt_obj_collect() for files
- Fix leak-detection issue in collect_mm() (test for first-time obj)
- Invoke set_close_on_exec() unconditionally on restart
- [Dan Smith] Export fill_fname() as ckpt_fill_fname()
- Interface to pass simple pointers as data with deferqueue
- [Dan Smith] Fix ckpt_obj_lookup_add() leak detection logic
- Replace EAGAIN with EBUSY where necessary
- Introduce CKPT_OBJ_VISITED in leak detection
- ckpt_obj_collect() returns objref for new objects, 0 otherwise
- Rename ckpt_obj_checkpointed() to ckpt_obj_visited()
- Introduce ckpt_obj_visit() to mark objects as visited
- Set the CHECKPOINTED flag on objects before calling checkpoint
- Introduce ckpt_obj_reserve()
- Change ref_drop() to accept a @lastref argument (for cleanup)
- Disallow multiple objects with same objref in restart
- Allow _ckpt_read_obj_type() to read header only (w/o payload)
- Fix leak of ckpt_ctx when restoring zombie tasks
- Fix race of prepare_descendant() with an ongoing fork()
- Track and report the first error if restart fails
- Tighten logic to protect against bogus pids in input
- [Matt Helsley] Improve debug output from ckpt_notify_error()
- [Nathan Lynch] fix compilation errors with CONFIG_COMPAT=y
- Detect error-headers in input data on restart, and abort.
- Standard format for checkpoint error strings (and documentation)
- [Dan Smith] Add an errno validation function
- Add ckpt_read_payload(): read a variable-length object (no header)
- Add ckpt_read_string(): same for strings (ensures null-terminated)
- Add ckpt_read_consume(): consumes next object without processing
- [John Dykstra] Fix no-dot-config-targets pattern in linux/Makefile

[2009-Jul-21] v17
- Introduce syscall clone_with_pids() to restore original pids
- Support threads and zombies
- Save/restore task->files
- Save/restore task->sighand
- Save/restore futex
- Save/restore credentials
- Introduce PF_RESTARTING to skip notifications on task exit
- restart(2) allow caller to ask to freeze tasks after restart
- restart(2) isn't idempotent: return -EINTR if interrupted
- Improve debugging output handling
- Make multi-process restart logic more robust and complete
- Correctly select return value for restarting tasks on success
- Tighten ptrace test for checkpoint to PTRACE_MODE_ATTACH
- Use CHECKPOINTING state for frozen checkpointed tasks
- Fix compilation without CONFIG_CHECKPOINT
- Fix compilation with CONFIG_COMPAT
- Fix headers includes and exports
- Leak detection performed in two steps
- Detect "inverse" leaks of objects (dis)appearing unexpectedly
- Memory: save/restore mm->{flags,def_flags,saved_auxv}
- Memory: only collect sub-objects of mm once (leak detection)
- Files: validate f_mode after restore
- Namespaces: leak detection for nsproxy sub-components
- Namespaces: proper restart from namespace(s) without namespace(s)
- Save global constants in header instead of per-object
- IPC: replace sys_unshare() with create_ipc_ns()
- IPC: restore objects in suitable namespace
- IPC: correct behavior under !CONFIG_IPC_NS
- UTS: save/restore all fields
- UTS: replace sys_unshare() with create_uts_ns()
- X86_32: sanitize cpu, debug, and segment registers on restart
- cgroup_freezer: add CHECKPOINTING state to safeguard checkpoint
- cgroup_freezer: add interface to freeze a cgroup (given a task)
[2009-May-27] v16
- Privilege checks for IPC checkpoint
- Fix error string generation during checkpoint
- Use kzalloc for header allocation
- Restart blocks are arch-independent
- Redo pipe c/r using splice
- Fixes to s390 arch
- Remove powerpc arch (temporary)
- Explicitly restore ->nsproxy
- All objects in image are precedeed by 'struct ckpt_hdr'
- Fix leaks detection (and leaks)
- Reorder of patchset
- Misc bugs and compilation fixes

[2009-Apr-12] v15
- Minor fixes

[2009-Apr-28] v14
- Tested against kernel v2.6.30-rc3 on x86_32.
- Refactor files chekpoint to use f_ops (file operations)
- Refactor mm/vma to use vma_ops
- Explicitly handle VDSO vma (and require compat mode)
- Added code to c/r restat-blocks (restart timeout related syscalls)
- Added code to c/r namespaces: uts, ipc (with Dan Smith)
- Added code to c/r sysvipc (shm, msg, sem)
- Support for VM_CLONE shared memory
- Added resource leak detection for whole-container checkpoint
- Added sysctl gauge to allow unprivileged restart/checkpoint
- Improve and simplify the code and logic of shared objects
- Rework image format: shared objects appear prior to their use
- Merge checkpoint and restart functionality into same files
- Massive renaming of functions: prefix "ckpt_" for generics,
"checkpoint_" for checkpoint, and "restore_" for restart.
- Report checkpoint errors as a valid (string record) in the output
- Merged PPC architecture (by Nathan Lunch),
- Requires updates to userspace tools too.
- Misc nits and bug fixes

[2009-Mar-31] v14-rc2
- Change along Dave's suggestion to use f_ops->checkpoint() for files
- Merge patch simplifying Kconfig, with CONFIG_CHECKPOINT_SUPPORT
- Merge support for PPC arch (Nathan Lynch)
- Misc cleanups and fixes in response to comments

[2009-Mar-20] v14-rc1:
- The 'h.parent' field of 'struct cr_hdr' isn't used - discard
- Check whether calls to cr_hbuf_get() succeed or fail.
- Fixed of pipe c/r code
- Prevent deadlock by refusing c/r when a pipe inode == ctx->file inode
- Refuse non-self checkpoint if a task isn't frozen
- Use unsigned fields in checkpoint headers unless otherwise required
- Rename functions in files c/r to better reflect their role
- Add support for anonymous shared memory
- Merge support for s390 arch (Dan Smith, Serge Hallyn)

[2008-Dec-03] v13:
- Cleanups of 'struct cr_ctx' - remove unused fields
- Misc fixes for comments

[2008-Dec-17] v12:
- Fix re-alloc/reset of pgarr chain to correctly reuse buffers
(empty pgarr are saves in a separate pool chain)
- Add a couple of missed calls to cr_hbuf_put()
- cr_kwrite/cr_kread() again use vfs_read(), vfs_write() (safer)
- Split cr_write/cr_read() to two parts: _cr_write/read() helper
- Befriend with sparse: explicit conversion to 'void __user *'
- Redrefine 'pr_fmt' ind replace cr_debug() with pr_debug()

[2008-Dec-05] v11:
- Use contents of 'init->fs->root' instead of pointing to it
- Ignore symlinks (there is no such thing as an open symlink)
- cr_scan_fds() retries from scratch if it hits size limits
- Add missing test for VM_MAYSHARE when dumping memory
- Improve documentation about: behavior when tasks aren't fronen,
life span of the object hash, references to objects in the hash

[2008-Nov-26] v10:
- Grab vfs root of container init, rather than current process
- Acquire dcache_lock around call to __d_path() in cr_fill_name()
- Force end-of-string in cr_read_string() (fix possible DoS)
- Introduce cr_write_buffer(), cr_read_buffer() and cr_read_buf_type()

[2008-Nov-10] v9:
- Support multiple processes c/r
- Extend checkpoint header with archtiecture dependent header
- Misc bug fixes (see individual changelogs)
- Rebase to v2.6.28-rc3.

[2008-Oct-29] v8:
- Support "external" checkpoint
- Include Dave Hansen's 'deny-checkpoint' patch
- Split docs in Documentation/checkpoint/..., and improve contents

[2008-Oct-17] v7:
- Fix save/restore state of FPU
- Fix argument given to kunmap_atomic() in memory dump/restore

[2008-Oct-07] v6:
- Balance all calls to cr_hbuf_get() with matching cr_hbuf_put()
(even though it's not really needed)
- Add assumptions and what's-missing to documentation
- Misc fixes and cleanups

[2008-Sep-11] v5:
- Config is now 'def_bool n' by default
- Improve memory dump/restore code (following Dave Hansen's comments)
- Change dump format (and code) to allow chunks of <vaddrs, pages>
instead of one long list of each
- Fix use of follow_page() to avoid faulting in non-present pages
- Memory restore now maps user pages explicitly to copy data into them,
instead of reading directly to user space; got rid of mprotect_fixup()
- Remove preempt_disable() when restoring debug registers
- Rename headers files s/ckpt/checkpoint/
- Fix misc bugs in files dump/restore
- Fixes and cleanups on some error paths
- Fix misc coding style

[2008-Sep-09] v4:
- Various fixes and clean-ups
- Fix calculation of hash table size
- Fix header structure alignment
- Use stand list_... for cr_pgarr

[2008-Aug-29] v3:
- Various fixes and clean-ups
- Use standard hlist_... for hash table
- Better use of standard kmalloc/kfree

[2008-Aug-20] v2:
- Added Dump and restore of open files (regular and directories)
- Added basic handling of shared objects, and improve handling of
'parent tag' concept
- Added documentation
- Improved ABI, 64bit padding for image data
- Improved locking when saving/restoring memory
- Added UTS information to header (release, version, machine)
- Cleanup extraction of filename from a file pointer
- Refactor to allow easier reviewing
- Remove requirement for CAPS_SYS_ADMIN until we come up with a
security policy (this means that file restore may fail)
- Other cleanup and response to comments for v1

[2008-Jul-29] v1:
- Initial version: support a single task with address space of only
private anonymous or file-mapped VMAs; syscalls ignore pid/crid
argument and act on current process.

--
At the containers mini-conference before OLS, the consensus among
all the stakeholders was that doing checkpoint/restart in the kernel
as much as possible was the best approach. With this approach, the
kernel will export a relatively opaque 'blob' of data to userspace
which can then be handed to the new kernel at restore time.

This is different than what had been proposed before, which was
that a userspace application would be responsible for collecting
all of this data. We were also planning on adding lots of new,
little kernel interfaces for all of the things that needed
checkpointing. This unites those into a single, grand interface.

The 'blob' will contain copies of select portions of kernel
structures such as vmas and mm_structs. It will also contain
copies of the actual memory that the process uses. Any changes
in this blob's format between kernel revisions can be handled by
an in-userspace conversion program.

This is a similar approach to virtually all of the commercial
checkpoint/restart products out there, as well as the research
project Zap.

These patches basically serialize internel kernel state and write
it out to a file descriptor. The checkpoint and restore are done
with two new system calls: sys_checkpoint and sys_restart.

In this incarnation, they can only work checkpoint and restore a
single task. The task's address space may consist of only private,
simple vma's - anonymous or file-mapped. The open files may consist
of only simple files and directories.
--


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