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SubjectRe: [KVM PATCH v10 2/2] KVM: add ioeventfd support
Gregory Haskins wrote:
> ioeventfd is a mechanism to register PIO/MMIO regions to trigger an eventfd
> signal when written to by a guest. Host userspace can register any
> arbitrary IO address with a corresponding eventfd and then pass the eventfd
> to a specific end-point of interest for handling.
>
> Normal IO requires a blocking round-trip since the operation may cause
> side-effects in the emulated model or may return data to the caller.
> Therefore, an IO in KVM traps from the guest to the host, causes a VMX/SVM
> "heavy-weight" exit back to userspace, and is ultimately serviced by qemu's
> device model synchronously before returning control back to the vcpu.
>
> However, there is a subclass of IO which acts purely as a trigger for
> other IO (such as to kick off an out-of-band DMA request, etc). For these
> patterns, the synchronous call is particularly expensive since we really
> only want to simply get our notification transmitted asychronously and
> return as quickly as possible. All the sychronous infrastructure to ensure
> proper data-dependencies are met in the normal IO case are just unecessary
> overhead for signalling. This adds additional computational load on the
> system, as well as latency to the signalling path.
>
> Therefore, we provide a mechanism for registration of an in-kernel trigger
> point that allows the VCPU to only require a very brief, lightweight
> exit just long enough to signal an eventfd. This also means that any
> clients compatible with the eventfd interface (which includes userspace
> and kernelspace equally well) can now register to be notified. The end
> result should be a more flexible and higher performance notification API
> for the backend KVM hypervisor and perhipheral components.
>
> To test this theory, we built a test-harness called "doorbell". This
> module has a function called "doorbell_ring()" which simply increments a
> counter for each time the doorbell is signaled. It supports signalling
> from either an eventfd, or an ioctl().
>
> We then wired up two paths to the doorbell: One via QEMU via a registered
> io region and through the doorbell ioctl(). The other is direct via
> ioeventfd.
>
> You can download this test harness here:
>
> ftp://ftp.novell.com/dev/ghaskins/doorbell.tar.bz2
>
> The measured results are as follows:
>
> qemu-mmio: 110000 iops, 9.09us rtt
> ioeventfd-mmio: 200100 iops, 5.00us rtt
> ioeventfd-pio: 367300 iops, 2.72us rtt
>
> I didn't measure qemu-pio, because I have to figure out how to register a
> PIO region with qemu's device model, and I got lazy. However, for now we
> can extrapolate based on the data from the NULLIO runs of +2.56us for MMIO,
> and -350ns for HC, we get:
>
> qemu-pio: 153139 iops, 6.53us rtt
> ioeventfd-hc: 412585 iops, 2.37us rtt
>
> these are just for fun, for now, until I can gather more data.
>
> Here is a graph for your convenience:
>
> http://developer.novell.com/wiki/images/7/76/Iofd-chart.png
>
> The conclusion to draw is that we save about 4us by skipping the userspace
> hop.
>
> --------------------
>
> Signed-off-by: Gregory Haskins <ghaskins@novell.com>
> ---
>
> arch/x86/kvm/x86.c | 1
> include/linux/kvm.h | 24 ++++
> include/linux/kvm_host.h | 10 +-
> virt/kvm/eventfd.c | 252 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> virt/kvm/kvm_main.c | 11 ++
> 5 files changed, 294 insertions(+), 4 deletions(-)
>
> diff --git a/arch/x86/kvm/x86.c b/arch/x86/kvm/x86.c
> index 95fa45c..59c2d93 100644
> --- a/arch/x86/kvm/x86.c
> +++ b/arch/x86/kvm/x86.c
> @@ -1212,6 +1212,7 @@ int kvm_dev_ioctl_check_extension(long ext)
> case KVM_CAP_IRQ_INJECT_STATUS:
> case KVM_CAP_ASSIGN_DEV_IRQ:
> case KVM_CAP_IRQFD:
> + case KVM_CAP_IOEVENTFD:
> case KVM_CAP_PIT2:
> r = 1;
> break;
> diff --git a/include/linux/kvm.h b/include/linux/kvm.h
> index 76c6408..22d0eb7 100644
> --- a/include/linux/kvm.h
> +++ b/include/linux/kvm.h
> @@ -307,6 +307,28 @@ struct kvm_guest_debug {
> struct kvm_guest_debug_arch arch;
> };
>
> +enum {
> + kvm_ioeventfd_flag_nr_datamatch,
> + kvm_ioeventfd_flag_nr_pio,
> + kvm_ioeventfd_flag_nr_deassign,
> + kvm_ioeventfd_flag_nr_max,
> +};
> +
> +#define KVM_IOEVENTFD_FLAG_DATAMATCH (1 << kvm_ioeventfd_flag_nr_datamatch)
> +#define KVM_IOEVENTFD_FLAG_PIO (1 << kvm_ioeventfd_flag_nr_pio)
> +#define KVM_IOEVENTFD_FLAG_DEASSIGN (1 << kvm_ioeventfd_flag_nr_deassign)
> +
> +#define KVM_IOEVENTFD_VALID_FLAG_MASK ((1 << kvm_ioeventfd_flag_nr_max) - 1)
> +
> +struct kvm_ioeventfd {
> + __u64 datamatch;
> + __u64 addr; /* legal pio/mmio address */
> + __u32 len; /* 1, 2, 4, or 8 bytes */
> + __s32 fd;
> + __u32 flags;
> + __u8 pad[36];
> +};
> +
> #define KVM_TRC_SHIFT 16
> /*
> * kvm trace categories
> @@ -409,6 +431,7 @@ struct kvm_guest_debug {
> #define KVM_CAP_PIT2 33
> #endif
> #define KVM_CAP_SET_BOOT_CPU_ID 34
> +#define KVM_CAP_IOEVENTFD 35
>
> #ifdef KVM_CAP_IRQ_ROUTING
>
> @@ -517,6 +540,7 @@ struct kvm_irqfd {
> #define KVM_IRQFD _IOW(KVMIO, 0x76, struct kvm_irqfd)
> #define KVM_CREATE_PIT2 _IOW(KVMIO, 0x77, struct kvm_pit_config)
> #define KVM_SET_BOOT_CPU_ID _IO(KVMIO, 0x78)
> +#define KVM_IOEVENTFD _IOW(KVMIO, 0x79, struct kvm_ioeventfd)
>
> /*
> * ioctls for vcpu fds
> diff --git a/include/linux/kvm_host.h b/include/linux/kvm_host.h
> index 306bc67..0347d59 100644
> --- a/include/linux/kvm_host.h
> +++ b/include/linux/kvm_host.h
> @@ -154,6 +154,7 @@ struct kvm {
> spinlock_t lock;
> struct list_head items;
> } irqfds;
> + struct list_head ioeventfds;
> #endif
> struct kvm_vm_stat stat;
> struct kvm_arch arch;
> @@ -532,19 +533,24 @@ static inline void kvm_free_irq_routing(struct kvm *kvm) {}
>
> #ifdef CONFIG_HAVE_KVM_EVENTFD
>
> -void kvm_irqfd_init(struct kvm *kvm);
> +void kvm_eventfd_init(struct kvm *kvm);
> int kvm_irqfd(struct kvm *kvm, int fd, int gsi, int flags);
> void kvm_irqfd_release(struct kvm *kvm);
> +int kvm_ioeventfd(struct kvm *kvm, struct kvm_ioeventfd *args);
>
> #else
>
> -static inline void kvm_irqfd_init(struct kvm *kvm) {}
> +static inline void kvm_eventfd_init(struct kvm *kvm) {}
> static inline int kvm_irqfd(struct kvm *kvm, int fd, int gsi, int flags)
> {
> return -EINVAL;
> }
>
> static inline void kvm_irqfd_release(struct kvm *kvm) {}
> +static inline int kvm_ioeventfd(struct kvm *kvm, struct kvm_ioeventfd *args)
> +{
> + return -ENOSYS;
> +}
>
> #endif /* CONFIG_HAVE_KVM_EVENTFD */
>
> diff --git a/virt/kvm/eventfd.c b/virt/kvm/eventfd.c
> index 4092b8d..eee8edb 100644
> --- a/virt/kvm/eventfd.c
> +++ b/virt/kvm/eventfd.c
> @@ -21,6 +21,7 @@
> */
>
> #include <linux/kvm_host.h>
> +#include <linux/kvm.h>
> #include <linux/workqueue.h>
> #include <linux/syscalls.h>
> #include <linux/wait.h>
> @@ -28,6 +29,9 @@
> #include <linux/file.h>
> #include <linux/list.h>
> #include <linux/eventfd.h>
> +#include <linux/kernel.h>
> +
> +#include "iodev.h"
>
> /*
> * --------------------------------------------------------------------
> @@ -234,10 +238,11 @@ fail:
> }
>
> void
> -kvm_irqfd_init(struct kvm *kvm)
> +kvm_eventfd_init(struct kvm *kvm)
> {
> spin_lock_init(&kvm->irqfds.lock);
> INIT_LIST_HEAD(&kvm->irqfds.items);
> + INIT_LIST_HEAD(&kvm->ioeventfds);
> }
>
> /*
> @@ -327,3 +332,248 @@ static void __exit irqfd_module_exit(void)
>
> module_init(irqfd_module_init);
> module_exit(irqfd_module_exit);
> +
> +/*
> + * --------------------------------------------------------------------
> + * ioeventfd: translate a PIO/MMIO memory write to an eventfd signal.
> + *
> + * userspace can register a PIO/MMIO address with an eventfd for receiving
> + * notification when the memory has been touched.
> + * --------------------------------------------------------------------
> + */
> +
> +struct _ioeventfd {
> + struct list_head list;
> + u64 addr;
> + int length;
> + struct eventfd_ctx *eventfd;
> + u64 datamatch;
> + struct kvm_io_device dev;
> + bool wildcard;
> +};
> +
> +static inline struct _ioeventfd *
> +to_ioeventfd(struct kvm_io_device *dev)
> +{
> + return container_of(dev, struct _ioeventfd, dev);
> +}
> +
> +static void
> +ioeventfd_release(struct _ioeventfd *p)
> +{
> + eventfd_ctx_put(p->eventfd);
> + list_del(&p->list);
> + kfree(p);
> +}
> +
> +static bool
> +ioeventfd_in_range(struct _ioeventfd *p, gpa_t addr, int len, const void *val)
> +{
> + u64 _val;
> +
> + if (!(addr == p->addr && len == p->length))
> + /* address-range must be precise for a hit */
> + return false;
> +
> + if (p->wildcard)
> + /* all else equal, wildcard is always a hit */
> + return true;
> +
> + /* otherwise, we have to actually compare the data */
> +
> + BUG_ON(!IS_ALIGNED((unsigned long)val, len));
> +
> + switch (len) {
> + case 1:
> + _val = *(u8 *)val;
> + break;
> + case 2:
> + _val = *(u16 *)val;
> + break;
> + case 4:
> + _val = *(u32 *)val;
> + break;
> + case 8:
> + _val = *(u64 *)val;
> + break;
> + default:
> + return false;
> + }
> +
> + return _val == p->datamatch ? true : false;
> +}
> +
> +/* MMIO/PIO writes trigger an event if the addr/val match */
> +static int
> +ioeventfd_write(struct kvm_io_device *this, gpa_t addr, int len,
> + const void *val)
> +{
> + struct _ioeventfd *p = to_ioeventfd(this);
> +
> + if (!ioeventfd_in_range(p, addr, len, val))
> + return -EOPNOTSUPP;
> +
> + eventfd_signal(p->eventfd, 1);
> + return 0;
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * This function is called as KVM is completely shutting down. We do not
> + * need to worry about locking just nuke anything we have as quickly as possible
> + */
> +static void
> +ioeventfd_destructor(struct kvm_io_device *this)
> +{
> + struct _ioeventfd *p = to_ioeventfd(this);
> +
> + ioeventfd_release(p);
> +}
> +
> +static const struct kvm_io_device_ops ioeventfd_ops = {
> + .write = ioeventfd_write,
> + .destructor = ioeventfd_destructor,
> +};
> +
> +/* assumes kvm->slots_lock held */
> +static bool
> +ioeventfd_check_collision(struct kvm *kvm, struct _ioeventfd *p)
> +{
> + struct _ioeventfd *_p;
> +
> + list_for_each_entry(_p, &kvm->ioeventfds, list)
> + if (_p->addr == p->addr && _p->length == p->length &&
> + (_p->wildcard || p->wildcard ||
> + _p->datamatch == p->datamatch))
> + return true;
> +
> + return false;
> +}
> +
> +static int
> +kvm_assign_ioeventfd(struct kvm *kvm, struct kvm_ioeventfd *args)
> +{
> + int pio = args->flags & KVM_IOEVENTFD_FLAG_PIO;
> + struct kvm_io_bus *bus = pio ? &kvm->pio_bus : &kvm->mmio_bus;
> + struct _ioeventfd *p;
> + struct eventfd_ctx *eventfd;
> + int ret;
> +
> + /* must be natural-word sized */
> + switch (args->len) {
> + case 1:
> + case 2:
> + case 4:
> + case 8:
> + break;
> + default:
> + return -EINVAL;
> + }
> +
> + /* check for range overflow */
> + if (args->addr + args->len < args->addr)
> + return -EINVAL;
> +
> + /* check for extra flags that we don't understand */
> + if (args->flags & ~KVM_IOEVENTFD_VALID_FLAG_MASK)
> + return -EINVAL;
> +
> + eventfd = eventfd_ctx_fdget(args->fd);
> + if (IS_ERR(eventfd))
> + return PTR_ERR(eventfd);
> +
> + p = kzalloc(sizeof(*p), GFP_KERNEL);
> + if (!p) {
> + ret = -ENOMEM;
> + goto fail;
> + }
> +
> + INIT_LIST_HEAD(&p->list);
> + p->addr = args->addr;
> + p->length = args->len;
> + p->eventfd = eventfd;
> +
> + /* The datamatch feature is optional, otherwise this is a wildcard */
> + if (args->flags & KVM_IOEVENTFD_FLAG_DATAMATCH)
> + p->datamatch = args->datamatch;
> + else
> + p->wildcard = true;
> +
> + down_write(&kvm->slots_lock);
> +
> + /* Verify that there isnt a match already */
> + if (ioeventfd_check_collision(kvm, p)) {
> + ret = -EEXIST;
> + goto unlock_fail;
> + }
> +
> + kvm_iodevice_init(&p->dev, &ioeventfd_ops);
> +
> + ret = __kvm_io_bus_register_dev(bus, &p->dev);
> + if (ret < 0)
> + goto unlock_fail;
> +
> + list_add_tail(&p->list, &kvm->ioeventfds);
> +
> + up_write(&kvm->slots_lock);
> +
> + return 0;
> +
> +unlock_fail:
> + up_write(&kvm->slots_lock);
> +
> +fail:
> + kfree(p);
> + eventfd_ctx_put(eventfd);
> +
> + return ret;
> +}
> +
> +static int
> +kvm_deassign_ioeventfd(struct kvm *kvm, struct kvm_ioeventfd *args)
> +{
> + int pio = args->flags & KVM_IOEVENTFD_FLAG_PIO;
> + struct kvm_io_bus *bus = pio ? &kvm->pio_bus : &kvm->mmio_bus;
> + struct _ioeventfd *p, *tmp;
> + struct eventfd_ctx *eventfd;
> + int ret = -ENOENT;
> +
> + eventfd = eventfd_ctx_fdget(args->fd);
> + if (IS_ERR(eventfd))
> + return PTR_ERR(eventfd);
> +
> + down_write(&kvm->slots_lock);
> +
> + list_for_each_entry_safe(p, tmp, &kvm->ioeventfds, list) {
> + bool wildcard = args->flags & KVM_IOEVENTFD_FLAG_DATAMATCH ?
> + true : false;
>
Doh! Inverted logic. "wildcard" should be "false" if DATAMATCH is
defined in the flags.

Avi, please reverse true/false here before accepting (assuming a v11
respin isn't needed). Of course, if you would prefer me to just submit
a new patch, that is fine too.

-Greg

> +
> + if (p->eventfd != eventfd ||
> + p->addr != args->addr ||
> + p->length != args->len ||
> + p->wildcard != wildcard)
> + continue;
> +
> + if (!p->wildcard && p->datamatch != args->datamatch)
> + continue;
> +
> + __kvm_io_bus_unregister_dev(bus, &p->dev);
> + ioeventfd_release(p);
> + ret = 0;
> + break;
> + }
> +
> + up_write(&kvm->slots_lock);
> +
> + eventfd_ctx_put(eventfd);
> +
> + return ret;
> +}
> +
> +int
> +kvm_ioeventfd(struct kvm *kvm, struct kvm_ioeventfd *args)
> +{
> + if (args->flags & KVM_IOEVENTFD_FLAG_DEASSIGN)
> + return kvm_deassign_ioeventfd(kvm, args);
> +
> + return kvm_assign_ioeventfd(kvm, args);
> +}
> diff --git a/virt/kvm/kvm_main.c b/virt/kvm/kvm_main.c
> index dd92b44..14e1f32 100644
> --- a/virt/kvm/kvm_main.c
> +++ b/virt/kvm/kvm_main.c
> @@ -979,7 +979,7 @@ static struct kvm *kvm_create_vm(void)
> spin_lock_init(&kvm->mmu_lock);
> spin_lock_init(&kvm->requests_lock);
> kvm_io_bus_init(&kvm->pio_bus);
> - kvm_irqfd_init(kvm);
> + kvm_eventfd_init(kvm);
> mutex_init(&kvm->lock);
> mutex_init(&kvm->irq_lock);
> kvm_io_bus_init(&kvm->mmio_bus);
> @@ -2271,6 +2271,15 @@ static long kvm_vm_ioctl(struct file *filp,
> r = kvm_irqfd(kvm, data.fd, data.gsi, data.flags);
> break;
> }
> + case KVM_IOEVENTFD: {
> + struct kvm_ioeventfd data;
> +
> + r = -EFAULT;
> + if (copy_from_user(&data, argp, sizeof data))
> + goto out;
> + r = kvm_ioeventfd(kvm, &data);
> + break;
> + }
> #ifdef CONFIG_KVM_APIC_ARCHITECTURE
> case KVM_SET_BOOT_CPU_ID:
> r = 0;
>
> --
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>


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