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SubjectRe: [PATCH] Add a gfp-translate script to help understand page allocation failure reports
On Mon, Jun 08, 2009 at 09:59:06AM -0400, Christoph Hellwig wrote:
> On Mon, Jun 08, 2009 at 02:29:50PM +0100, Mel Gorman wrote:
> > The page allocation failure messages include a line that looks like
> >
> > page allocation failure. order:1, mode:0x4020
> >
> > The mode is easy to translate but irritating for the lazy and a bit error
> > prone. This patch adds a very simple helper script gfp-translate for the mode:
> > portion of the page allocation failure messages. An example usage looks like
>
> Maybe we just just print the symbolic flags directly?

It'd be nice if it was possible, not ugly and didn't involve declaring
maps twice.

Even with such hypothetical support, I believe there is scope for having
the script readily available for use with reports from older kernels,
particularly distro kernels.

> The even tracer
> in the for-2.6.23 queue now has a __print_flags helper to translate the
> bitmask back into symbolic flags, and we even have a kmalloc tracer
> using it for the GFP flags. Maybe we should add a printk_flags variant
> for regular printks and just do the right thing?
>

The problem I found with a printk_flags variant was that there was no
buffer for it to easily print to for use with printk("%s"). We can't "see"
the printk buffer, we can't kmalloc() one and I suspect it's too large to
place on the stack. What had you in mind?

I haven't looked at the trace implementation before so I have very little
idea as to how best approach this problem. That didn't stop me attempting a
hatchet-job on the implementation of printk support for the bitflags->string
maps declared within ftrace - particularly the GFP flags.

The following patch is what it ended up looking like. I recommend goggles
because even if we go with printk support, this could be implemented better.

=== CUT HERE ===

Add support for %f for the printing of string representation of bit flags

This patch is a prototype to see if the tracing infrastructure used for
the outputting of symbolic representation of bits set in a flag can be
reused for printk. With it applied, a page allocation failure report
looks like

[ 171.284889] cat: page allocation failure. order:9, mode:0xd1
[ 171.284948] mode:|GFP_KERNEL|0x1
[ 171.295114] Pid: 2383, comm: cat Not tainted 2.6.30-rc8-tip-02066-g800cfbb-dirty #38
Not-signed-off-yet-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie>

diff --git a/include/linux/ftrace_event.h b/include/linux/ftrace_event.h
index 5c093ff..8f8e86c 100644
--- a/include/linux/ftrace_event.h
+++ b/include/linux/ftrace_event.h
@@ -16,6 +16,11 @@ struct trace_print_flags {
const char *name;
};

+struct trace_printf_spec {
+ unsigned long flags;
+ struct trace_print_flags *flag_array;
+};
+
const char *ftrace_print_flags_seq(struct trace_seq *p, const char *delim,
unsigned long flags,
const struct trace_print_flags *flag_array);
diff --git a/include/trace/events/kmem.h b/include/trace/events/kmem.h
index 9baba50..e2404ad 100644
--- a/include/trace/events/kmem.h
+++ b/include/trace/events/kmem.h
@@ -17,8 +17,7 @@
*
* Thus most bits set go first.
*/
-#define show_gfp_flags(flags) \
- (flags) ? __print_flags(flags, "|", \
+#define gfp_flags_printf_map \
{(unsigned long)GFP_HIGHUSER_MOVABLE, "GFP_HIGHUSER_MOVABLE"}, \
{(unsigned long)GFP_HIGHUSER, "GFP_HIGHUSER"}, \
{(unsigned long)GFP_USER, "GFP_USER"}, \
@@ -42,6 +41,11 @@
{(unsigned long)__GFP_THISNODE, "GFP_THISNODE"}, \
{(unsigned long)__GFP_RECLAIMABLE, "GFP_RECLAIMABLE"}, \
{(unsigned long)__GFP_MOVABLE, "GFP_MOVABLE"} \
+
+
+#define show_gfp_flags(flags, map) \
+ (flags) ? __print_flags(flags, "|", \
+ map \
) : "GFP_NOWAIT"

TRACE_EVENT(kmalloc,
@@ -75,7 +79,7 @@ TRACE_EVENT(kmalloc,
__entry->ptr,
__entry->bytes_req,
__entry->bytes_alloc,
- show_gfp_flags(__entry->gfp_flags))
+ show_gfp_flags(__entry->gfp_flags, gfp_flags_printf_map))
);

TRACE_EVENT(kmem_cache_alloc,
@@ -109,7 +113,7 @@ TRACE_EVENT(kmem_cache_alloc,
__entry->ptr,
__entry->bytes_req,
__entry->bytes_alloc,
- show_gfp_flags(__entry->gfp_flags))
+ show_gfp_flags(__entry->gfp_flags, gfp_flags_printf_map))
);

TRACE_EVENT(kmalloc_node,
@@ -146,7 +150,7 @@ TRACE_EVENT(kmalloc_node,
__entry->ptr,
__entry->bytes_req,
__entry->bytes_alloc,
- show_gfp_flags(__entry->gfp_flags),
+ show_gfp_flags(__entry->gfp_flags, gfp_flags_printf_map),
__entry->node)
);

@@ -184,7 +188,7 @@ TRACE_EVENT(kmem_cache_alloc_node,
__entry->ptr,
__entry->bytes_req,
__entry->bytes_alloc,
- show_gfp_flags(__entry->gfp_flags),
+ show_gfp_flags(__entry->gfp_flags, gfp_flags_printf_map),
__entry->node)
);

diff --git a/lib/vsprintf.c b/lib/vsprintf.c
index 756ccaf..acb20e0 100644
--- a/lib/vsprintf.c
+++ b/lib/vsprintf.c
@@ -25,6 +25,7 @@
#include <linux/kallsyms.h>
#include <linux/uaccess.h>
#include <linux/ioport.h>
+#include <linux/ftrace_event.h>

#include <asm/page.h> /* for PAGE_SIZE */
#include <asm/div64.h>
@@ -403,6 +404,7 @@ enum format_type {
FORMAT_TYPE_CHAR,
FORMAT_TYPE_STR,
FORMAT_TYPE_PTR,
+ FORMAT_TYPE_TRACE_FLAGS,
FORMAT_TYPE_PERCENT_CHAR,
FORMAT_TYPE_INVALID,
FORMAT_TYPE_LONG_LONG,
@@ -574,6 +576,44 @@ static char *string(char *buf, char *end, char *s, struct printf_spec spec)
return buf;
}

+/*
+ * Support a %f thing storing a struct trace_print_flags
+ */
+static char *trace_flags(char *buf, char *end,
+ struct trace_printf_spec *trace_flags_spec,
+ struct printf_spec spec)
+{
+ unsigned long mask;
+ unsigned long flags = trace_flags_spec->flags;
+ struct trace_print_flags *flag_array = trace_flags_spec->flag_array;
+ char *str;
+ char *delim = "|";
+ char *ret = buf;
+ int i;
+
+ for (i = 0; flag_array[i].name && flags; i++) {
+
+ mask = flag_array[i].mask;
+ if ((flags & mask) != mask)
+ continue;
+
+ str = (char *)flag_array[i].name;
+ flags &= ~mask;
+ if (ret < end && delim)
+ ret = string(ret, end, delim, spec);
+ ret = string(ret, end, str, spec);
+ }
+
+ if (flags) {
+ ret = string(ret, end, delim, spec);
+ spec.flags |= SPECIAL|SMALL;
+ spec.base = 16;
+ ret = number(ret, end, flags, spec);
+ }
+
+ return ret;
+}
+
static char *symbol_string(char *buf, char *end, void *ptr,
struct printf_spec spec, char ext)
{
@@ -888,6 +928,11 @@ qualifier:
return fmt - start;
/* skip alnum */

+ case 'f':
+ spec->qualifier = 'l';
+ spec->type = FORMAT_TYPE_TRACE_FLAGS;
+ return ++fmt - start;
+
case 'n':
spec->type = FORMAT_TYPE_NRCHARS;
return ++fmt - start;
@@ -1058,6 +1103,12 @@ int vsnprintf(char *buf, size_t size, const char *fmt, va_list args)
fmt++;
break;

+ case FORMAT_TYPE_TRACE_FLAGS:
+ str = trace_flags(str, end,
+ va_arg(args, struct trace_printf_spec *),
+ spec);
+ break;
+
case FORMAT_TYPE_PERCENT_CHAR:
if (str < end)
*str = '%';
diff --git a/mm/page_alloc.c b/mm/page_alloc.c
index ed766b5..714b5c2 100644
--- a/mm/page_alloc.c
+++ b/mm/page_alloc.c
@@ -47,6 +47,7 @@
#include <linux/page-isolation.h>
#include <linux/page_cgroup.h>
#include <linux/debugobjects.h>
+#include <linux/ftrace_event.h>

#include <asm/tlbflush.h>
#include <asm/div64.h>
@@ -172,6 +173,11 @@ static void set_pageblock_migratetype(struct page *page, int migratetype)
PB_migrate, PB_migrate_end);
}

+struct trace_print_flags trace_print_flags_gfp[] = {
+ gfp_flags_printf_map,
+ { -1, NULL }
+};
+
#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_VM
static int page_outside_zone_boundaries(struct zone *zone, struct page *page)
{
@@ -1675,9 +1681,15 @@ nofail_alloc:

nopage:
if (!(gfp_mask & __GFP_NOWARN) && printk_ratelimit()) {
+ static struct trace_printf_spec gfpmask_printspec;
+ gfpmask_printspec.flags = gfp_mask;
+ gfpmask_printspec.flag_array = trace_print_flags_gfp;
+
printk(KERN_WARNING "%s: page allocation failure."
- " order:%d, mode:0x%x\n",
- p->comm, order, gfp_mask);
+ " order:%d, mode:0x%x\nmode:%f\n",
+ p->comm, order, gfp_mask,
+ &gfpmask_printspec);
+
dump_stack();
show_mem();
}


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