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Subject[PATCH 11/49] ext4: Avoid races caused by on-line resizing and SMP memory reordering
Date
Ext4's on-line resizing adds a new block group and then, only at the
last step adjusts s_groups_count. However, it's possible on SMP
systems that another CPU could see the updated the s_group_count and
not see the newly initialized data structures for the just-added block
group. For this reason, it's important to insert a SMP read barrier
after reading s_groups_count and before reading any (for example) the
new block group descriptors allowed by the increased value of
s_groups_count.

Unfortunately, we rather blatently violate this locking protocol
documented in fs/ext4/resize.c. Fortunately, (1) on-line resizes
happen relatively rarely, and (2) it seems rare that the filesystem
code will immediately try to use just-added block group before any
memory ordering issues resolve themselves. So apparently problems
here are relatively hard to hit, since ext3 has been vulnerable to the
same issue for years with no one apparently complaining.

Signed-off-by: "Theodore Ts'o" <tytso@mit.edu>
---
fs/ext4/balloc.c | 15 +++++++--------
fs/ext4/ext4.h | 12 ++++++++++++
fs/ext4/ialloc.c | 40 +++++++++++++++++++---------------------
fs/ext4/inode.c | 7 ++++---
fs/ext4/mballoc.c | 45 ++++++++++++++++++++++++---------------------
fs/ext4/super.c | 3 +--
6 files changed, 67 insertions(+), 55 deletions(-)
diff --git a/fs/ext4/balloc.c b/fs/ext4/balloc.c
index 53c72ad..a5ba039 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/balloc.c
+++ b/fs/ext4/balloc.c
@@ -88,6 +88,7 @@ unsigned ext4_init_block_bitmap(struct super_block *sb, struct buffer_head *bh,
ext4_group_t block_group, struct ext4_group_desc *gdp)
{
int bit, bit_max;
+ ext4_group_t ngroups = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
unsigned free_blocks, group_blocks;
struct ext4_sb_info *sbi = EXT4_SB(sb);

@@ -123,7 +124,7 @@ unsigned ext4_init_block_bitmap(struct super_block *sb, struct buffer_head *bh,
bit_max += ext4_bg_num_gdb(sb, block_group);
}

- if (block_group == sbi->s_groups_count - 1) {
+ if (block_group == ngroups - 1) {
/*
* Even though mke2fs always initialize first and last group
* if some other tool enabled the EXT4_BG_BLOCK_UNINIT we need
@@ -131,7 +132,7 @@ unsigned ext4_init_block_bitmap(struct super_block *sb, struct buffer_head *bh,
*/
group_blocks = ext4_blocks_count(sbi->s_es) -
le32_to_cpu(sbi->s_es->s_first_data_block) -
- (EXT4_BLOCKS_PER_GROUP(sb) * (sbi->s_groups_count - 1));
+ (EXT4_BLOCKS_PER_GROUP(sb) * (ngroups - 1));
} else {
group_blocks = EXT4_BLOCKS_PER_GROUP(sb);
}
@@ -205,18 +206,18 @@ struct ext4_group_desc * ext4_get_group_desc(struct super_block *sb,
{
unsigned int group_desc;
unsigned int offset;
+ ext4_group_t ngroups = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
struct ext4_group_desc *desc;
struct ext4_sb_info *sbi = EXT4_SB(sb);

- if (block_group >= sbi->s_groups_count) {
+ if (block_group >= ngroups) {
ext4_error(sb, "ext4_get_group_desc",
"block_group >= groups_count - "
"block_group = %u, groups_count = %u",
- block_group, sbi->s_groups_count);
+ block_group, ngroups);

return NULL;
}
- smp_rmb();

group_desc = block_group >> EXT4_DESC_PER_BLOCK_BITS(sb);
offset = block_group & (EXT4_DESC_PER_BLOCK(sb) - 1);
@@ -665,7 +666,7 @@ ext4_fsblk_t ext4_count_free_blocks(struct super_block *sb)
ext4_fsblk_t desc_count;
struct ext4_group_desc *gdp;
ext4_group_t i;
- ext4_group_t ngroups = EXT4_SB(sb)->s_groups_count;
+ ext4_group_t ngroups = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
#ifdef EXT4FS_DEBUG
struct ext4_super_block *es;
ext4_fsblk_t bitmap_count;
@@ -677,7 +678,6 @@ ext4_fsblk_t ext4_count_free_blocks(struct super_block *sb)
bitmap_count = 0;
gdp = NULL;

- smp_rmb();
for (i = 0; i < ngroups; i++) {
gdp = ext4_get_group_desc(sb, i, NULL);
if (!gdp)
@@ -700,7 +700,6 @@ ext4_fsblk_t ext4_count_free_blocks(struct super_block *sb)
return bitmap_count;
#else
desc_count = 0;
- smp_rmb();
for (i = 0; i < ngroups; i++) {
gdp = ext4_get_group_desc(sb, i, NULL);
if (!gdp)
diff --git a/fs/ext4/ext4.h b/fs/ext4/ext4.h
index d0f15ef..02ec44b 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/ext4.h
+++ b/fs/ext4/ext4.h
@@ -1228,6 +1228,18 @@ struct ext4_group_info *ext4_get_group_info(struct super_block *sb,
return grp_info[indexv][indexh];
}

+/*
+ * Reading s_groups_count requires using smp_rmb() afterwards. See
+ * the locking protocol documented in the comments of ext4_group_add()
+ * in resize.c
+ */
+static inline ext4_group_t ext4_get_groups_count(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+ ext4_group_t ngroups = EXT4_SB(sb)->s_groups_count;
+
+ smp_rmb();
+ return ngroups;
+}

static inline ext4_group_t ext4_flex_group(struct ext4_sb_info *sbi,
ext4_group_t block_group)
diff --git a/fs/ext4/ialloc.c b/fs/ext4/ialloc.c
index f18e0a0..55ba419 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/ialloc.c
+++ b/fs/ext4/ialloc.c
@@ -316,7 +316,7 @@ error_return:
static int find_group_dir(struct super_block *sb, struct inode *parent,
ext4_group_t *best_group)
{
- ext4_group_t ngroups = EXT4_SB(sb)->s_groups_count;
+ ext4_group_t ngroups = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
unsigned int freei, avefreei;
struct ext4_group_desc *desc, *best_desc = NULL;
ext4_group_t group;
@@ -353,7 +353,7 @@ static int find_group_flex(struct super_block *sb, struct inode *parent,
struct flex_groups *flex_group = sbi->s_flex_groups;
ext4_group_t parent_group = EXT4_I(parent)->i_block_group;
ext4_group_t parent_fbg_group = ext4_flex_group(sbi, parent_group);
- ext4_group_t ngroups = sbi->s_groups_count;
+ ext4_group_t ngroups = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
int flex_size = ext4_flex_bg_size(sbi);
ext4_group_t best_flex = parent_fbg_group;
int blocks_per_flex = sbi->s_blocks_per_group * flex_size;
@@ -362,7 +362,7 @@ static int find_group_flex(struct super_block *sb, struct inode *parent,
ext4_group_t n_fbg_groups;
ext4_group_t i;

- n_fbg_groups = (sbi->s_groups_count + flex_size - 1) >>
+ n_fbg_groups = (ngroups + flex_size - 1) >>
sbi->s_log_groups_per_flex;

find_close_to_parent:
@@ -478,20 +478,21 @@ static int find_group_orlov(struct super_block *sb, struct inode *parent,
{
ext4_group_t parent_group = EXT4_I(parent)->i_block_group;
struct ext4_sb_info *sbi = EXT4_SB(sb);
- ext4_group_t ngroups = sbi->s_groups_count;
+ ext4_group_t real_ngroups = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
int inodes_per_group = EXT4_INODES_PER_GROUP(sb);
unsigned int freei, avefreei;
ext4_fsblk_t freeb, avefreeb;
unsigned int ndirs;
int max_dirs, min_inodes;
ext4_grpblk_t min_blocks;
- ext4_group_t i, grp, g;
+ ext4_group_t i, grp, g, ngroups;
struct ext4_group_desc *desc;
struct orlov_stats stats;
int flex_size = ext4_flex_bg_size(sbi);

+ ngroups = real_ngroups;
if (flex_size > 1) {
- ngroups = (ngroups + flex_size - 1) >>
+ ngroups = (real_ngroups + flex_size - 1) >>
sbi->s_log_groups_per_flex;
parent_group >>= sbi->s_log_groups_per_flex;
}
@@ -543,7 +544,7 @@ static int find_group_orlov(struct super_block *sb, struct inode *parent,
*/
grp *= flex_size;
for (i = 0; i < flex_size; i++) {
- if (grp+i >= sbi->s_groups_count)
+ if (grp+i >= real_ngroups)
break;
desc = ext4_get_group_desc(sb, grp+i, NULL);
if (desc && ext4_free_inodes_count(sb, desc)) {
@@ -583,7 +584,7 @@ static int find_group_orlov(struct super_block *sb, struct inode *parent,
}

fallback:
- ngroups = sbi->s_groups_count;
+ ngroups = real_ngroups;
avefreei = freei / ngroups;
fallback_retry:
parent_group = EXT4_I(parent)->i_block_group;
@@ -613,9 +614,8 @@ static int find_group_other(struct super_block *sb, struct inode *parent,
ext4_group_t *group, int mode)
{
ext4_group_t parent_group = EXT4_I(parent)->i_block_group;
- ext4_group_t ngroups = EXT4_SB(sb)->s_groups_count;
+ ext4_group_t i, last, ngroups = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
struct ext4_group_desc *desc;
- ext4_group_t i, last;
int flex_size = ext4_flex_bg_size(EXT4_SB(sb));

/*
@@ -799,11 +799,10 @@ struct inode *ext4_new_inode(handle_t *handle, struct inode *dir, int mode)
struct super_block *sb;
struct buffer_head *inode_bitmap_bh = NULL;
struct buffer_head *group_desc_bh;
- ext4_group_t group = 0;
+ ext4_group_t ngroups, group = 0;
unsigned long ino = 0;
struct inode *inode;
struct ext4_group_desc *gdp = NULL;
- struct ext4_super_block *es;
struct ext4_inode_info *ei;
struct ext4_sb_info *sbi;
int ret2, err = 0;
@@ -818,15 +817,14 @@ struct inode *ext4_new_inode(handle_t *handle, struct inode *dir, int mode)
return ERR_PTR(-EPERM);

sb = dir->i_sb;
+ ngroups = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
trace_mark(ext4_request_inode, "dev %s dir %lu mode %d", sb->s_id,
dir->i_ino, mode);
inode = new_inode(sb);
if (!inode)
return ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);
ei = EXT4_I(inode);
-
sbi = EXT4_SB(sb);
- es = sbi->s_es;

if (sbi->s_log_groups_per_flex && test_opt(sb, OLDALLOC)) {
ret2 = find_group_flex(sb, dir, &group);
@@ -856,7 +854,7 @@ got_group:
if (ret2 == -1)
goto out;

- for (i = 0; i < sbi->s_groups_count; i++) {
+ for (i = 0; i < ngroups; i++) {
err = -EIO;

gdp = ext4_get_group_desc(sb, group, &group_desc_bh);
@@ -917,7 +915,7 @@ repeat_in_this_group:
* group descriptor metadata has not yet been updated.
* So we just go onto the next blockgroup.
*/
- if (++group == sbi->s_groups_count)
+ if (++group == ngroups)
group = 0;
}
err = -ENOSPC;
@@ -1158,7 +1156,7 @@ unsigned long ext4_count_free_inodes(struct super_block *sb)
{
unsigned long desc_count;
struct ext4_group_desc *gdp;
- ext4_group_t i;
+ ext4_group_t i, ngroups = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
#ifdef EXT4FS_DEBUG
struct ext4_super_block *es;
unsigned long bitmap_count, x;
@@ -1168,7 +1166,7 @@ unsigned long ext4_count_free_inodes(struct super_block *sb)
desc_count = 0;
bitmap_count = 0;
gdp = NULL;
- for (i = 0; i < EXT4_SB(sb)->s_groups_count; i++) {
+ for (i = 0; i < ngroups; i++) {
gdp = ext4_get_group_desc(sb, i, NULL);
if (!gdp)
continue;
@@ -1190,7 +1188,7 @@ unsigned long ext4_count_free_inodes(struct super_block *sb)
return desc_count;
#else
desc_count = 0;
- for (i = 0; i < EXT4_SB(sb)->s_groups_count; i++) {
+ for (i = 0; i < ngroups; i++) {
gdp = ext4_get_group_desc(sb, i, NULL);
if (!gdp)
continue;
@@ -1205,9 +1203,9 @@ unsigned long ext4_count_free_inodes(struct super_block *sb)
unsigned long ext4_count_dirs(struct super_block * sb)
{
unsigned long count = 0;
- ext4_group_t i;
+ ext4_group_t i, ngroups = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);

- for (i = 0; i < EXT4_SB(sb)->s_groups_count; i++) {
+ for (i = 0; i < ngroups; i++) {
struct ext4_group_desc *gdp = ext4_get_group_desc(sb, i, NULL);
if (!gdp)
continue;
diff --git a/fs/ext4/inode.c b/fs/ext4/inode.c
index 96f3366..4e7f363 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/inode.c
+++ b/fs/ext4/inode.c
@@ -4965,7 +4965,8 @@ static int ext4_index_trans_blocks(struct inode *inode, int nrblocks, int chunk)
*/
int ext4_meta_trans_blocks(struct inode *inode, int nrblocks, int chunk)
{
- int groups, gdpblocks;
+ ext4_group_t groups, ngroups = ext4_get_groups_count(inode->i_sb);
+ int gdpblocks;
int idxblocks;
int ret = 0;

@@ -4992,8 +4993,8 @@ int ext4_meta_trans_blocks(struct inode *inode, int nrblocks, int chunk)
groups += nrblocks;

gdpblocks = groups;
- if (groups > EXT4_SB(inode->i_sb)->s_groups_count)
- groups = EXT4_SB(inode->i_sb)->s_groups_count;
+ if (groups > ngroups)
+ groups = ngroups;
if (groups > EXT4_SB(inode->i_sb)->s_gdb_count)
gdpblocks = EXT4_SB(inode->i_sb)->s_gdb_count;

diff --git a/fs/ext4/mballoc.c b/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
index f871677..c3af9e6 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
+++ b/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
@@ -739,6 +739,7 @@ static void ext4_mb_generate_buddy(struct super_block *sb,

static int ext4_mb_init_cache(struct page *page, char *incore)
{
+ ext4_group_t ngroups;
int blocksize;
int blocks_per_page;
int groups_per_page;
@@ -757,6 +758,7 @@ static int ext4_mb_init_cache(struct page *page, char *incore)

inode = page->mapping->host;
sb = inode->i_sb;
+ ngroups = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
blocksize = 1 << inode->i_blkbits;
blocks_per_page = PAGE_CACHE_SIZE / blocksize;

@@ -780,7 +782,7 @@ static int ext4_mb_init_cache(struct page *page, char *incore)
for (i = 0; i < groups_per_page; i++) {
struct ext4_group_desc *desc;

- if (first_group + i >= EXT4_SB(sb)->s_groups_count)
+ if (first_group + i >= ngroups)
break;

err = -EIO;
@@ -852,7 +854,7 @@ static int ext4_mb_init_cache(struct page *page, char *incore)
struct ext4_group_info *grinfo;

group = (first_block + i) >> 1;
- if (group >= EXT4_SB(sb)->s_groups_count)
+ if (group >= ngroups)
break;

/*
@@ -1788,6 +1790,7 @@ int ext4_mb_get_buddy_cache_lock(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t group)
int block, pnum;
int blocks_per_page;
int groups_per_page;
+ ext4_group_t ngroups = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
ext4_group_t first_group;
struct ext4_group_info *grp;

@@ -1807,7 +1810,7 @@ int ext4_mb_get_buddy_cache_lock(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t group)
/* read all groups the page covers into the cache */
for (i = 0; i < groups_per_page; i++) {

- if ((first_group + i) >= EXT4_SB(sb)->s_groups_count)
+ if ((first_group + i) >= ngroups)
break;
grp = ext4_get_group_info(sb, first_group + i);
/* take all groups write allocation
@@ -1945,8 +1948,7 @@ err:
static noinline_for_stack int
ext4_mb_regular_allocator(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac)
{
- ext4_group_t group;
- ext4_group_t i;
+ ext4_group_t ngroups, group, i;
int cr;
int err = 0;
int bsbits;
@@ -1957,6 +1959,7 @@ ext4_mb_regular_allocator(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac)

sb = ac->ac_sb;
sbi = EXT4_SB(sb);
+ ngroups = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
BUG_ON(ac->ac_status == AC_STATUS_FOUND);

/* first, try the goal */
@@ -2017,11 +2020,11 @@ repeat:
*/
group = ac->ac_g_ex.fe_group;

- for (i = 0; i < EXT4_SB(sb)->s_groups_count; group++, i++) {
+ for (i = 0; i < ngroups; group++, i++) {
struct ext4_group_info *grp;
struct ext4_group_desc *desc;

- if (group == EXT4_SB(sb)->s_groups_count)
+ if (group == ngroups)
group = 0;

/* quick check to skip empty groups */
@@ -2315,12 +2318,10 @@ static struct file_operations ext4_mb_seq_history_fops = {
static void *ext4_mb_seq_groups_start(struct seq_file *seq, loff_t *pos)
{
struct super_block *sb = seq->private;
- struct ext4_sb_info *sbi = EXT4_SB(sb);
ext4_group_t group;

- if (*pos < 0 || *pos >= sbi->s_groups_count)
+ if (*pos < 0 || *pos >= ext4_get_groups_count(sb))
return NULL;
-
group = *pos + 1;
return (void *) ((unsigned long) group);
}
@@ -2328,11 +2329,10 @@ static void *ext4_mb_seq_groups_start(struct seq_file *seq, loff_t *pos)
static void *ext4_mb_seq_groups_next(struct seq_file *seq, void *v, loff_t *pos)
{
struct super_block *sb = seq->private;
- struct ext4_sb_info *sbi = EXT4_SB(sb);
ext4_group_t group;

++*pos;
- if (*pos < 0 || *pos >= sbi->s_groups_count)
+ if (*pos < 0 || *pos >= ext4_get_groups_count(sb))
return NULL;
group = *pos + 1;
return (void *) ((unsigned long) group);
@@ -2587,6 +2587,7 @@ void ext4_mb_update_group_info(struct ext4_group_info *grp, ext4_grpblk_t add)

static int ext4_mb_init_backend(struct super_block *sb)
{
+ ext4_group_t ngroups = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
ext4_group_t i;
int metalen;
struct ext4_sb_info *sbi = EXT4_SB(sb);
@@ -2598,7 +2599,7 @@ static int ext4_mb_init_backend(struct super_block *sb)
struct ext4_group_desc *desc;

/* This is the number of blocks used by GDT */
- num_meta_group_infos = (sbi->s_groups_count + EXT4_DESC_PER_BLOCK(sb) -
+ num_meta_group_infos = (ngroups + EXT4_DESC_PER_BLOCK(sb) -
1) >> EXT4_DESC_PER_BLOCK_BITS(sb);

/*
@@ -2644,7 +2645,7 @@ static int ext4_mb_init_backend(struct super_block *sb)
for (i = 0; i < num_meta_group_infos; i++) {
if ((i + 1) == num_meta_group_infos)
metalen = sizeof(*meta_group_info) *
- (sbi->s_groups_count -
+ (ngroups -
(i << EXT4_DESC_PER_BLOCK_BITS(sb)));
meta_group_info = kmalloc(metalen, GFP_KERNEL);
if (meta_group_info == NULL) {
@@ -2655,7 +2656,7 @@ static int ext4_mb_init_backend(struct super_block *sb)
sbi->s_group_info[i] = meta_group_info;
}

- for (i = 0; i < sbi->s_groups_count; i++) {
+ for (i = 0; i < ngroups; i++) {
desc = ext4_get_group_desc(sb, i, NULL);
if (desc == NULL) {
printk(KERN_ERR
@@ -2781,13 +2782,14 @@ static void ext4_mb_cleanup_pa(struct ext4_group_info *grp)

int ext4_mb_release(struct super_block *sb)
{
+ ext4_group_t ngroups = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
ext4_group_t i;
int num_meta_group_infos;
struct ext4_group_info *grinfo;
struct ext4_sb_info *sbi = EXT4_SB(sb);

if (sbi->s_group_info) {
- for (i = 0; i < sbi->s_groups_count; i++) {
+ for (i = 0; i < ngroups; i++) {
grinfo = ext4_get_group_info(sb, i);
#ifdef DOUBLE_CHECK
kfree(grinfo->bb_bitmap);
@@ -2797,7 +2799,7 @@ int ext4_mb_release(struct super_block *sb)
ext4_unlock_group(sb, i);
kfree(grinfo);
}
- num_meta_group_infos = (sbi->s_groups_count +
+ num_meta_group_infos = (ngroups +
EXT4_DESC_PER_BLOCK(sb) - 1) >>
EXT4_DESC_PER_BLOCK_BITS(sb);
for (i = 0; i < num_meta_group_infos; i++)
@@ -4121,7 +4123,7 @@ static void ext4_mb_return_to_preallocation(struct inode *inode,
static void ext4_mb_show_ac(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac)
{
struct super_block *sb = ac->ac_sb;
- ext4_group_t i;
+ ext4_group_t ngroups, i;

printk(KERN_ERR "EXT4-fs: Can't allocate:"
" Allocation context details:\n");
@@ -4145,7 +4147,8 @@ static void ext4_mb_show_ac(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac)
printk(KERN_ERR "EXT4-fs: %lu scanned, %d found\n", ac->ac_ex_scanned,
ac->ac_found);
printk(KERN_ERR "EXT4-fs: groups: \n");
- for (i = 0; i < EXT4_SB(sb)->s_groups_count; i++) {
+ ngroups = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
+ for (i = 0; i < ngroups; i++) {
struct ext4_group_info *grp = ext4_get_group_info(sb, i);
struct ext4_prealloc_space *pa;
ext4_grpblk_t start;
@@ -4469,13 +4472,13 @@ static int ext4_mb_release_context(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac)

static int ext4_mb_discard_preallocations(struct super_block *sb, int needed)
{
- ext4_group_t i;
+ ext4_group_t i, ngroups = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
int ret;
int freed = 0;

trace_mark(ext4_mb_discard_preallocations, "dev %s needed %d",
sb->s_id, needed);
- for (i = 0; i < EXT4_SB(sb)->s_groups_count && needed > 0; i++) {
+ for (i = 0; i < ngroups && needed > 0; i++) {
ret = ext4_mb_discard_group_preallocations(sb, i, needed);
freed += ret;
needed -= ret;
diff --git a/fs/ext4/super.c b/fs/ext4/super.c
index 68c3a44..fcd7b24 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/super.c
+++ b/fs/ext4/super.c
@@ -3557,9 +3557,8 @@ static int ext4_statfs(struct dentry *dentry, struct kstatfs *buf)
if (test_opt(sb, MINIX_DF)) {
sbi->s_overhead_last = 0;
} else if (sbi->s_blocks_last != ext4_blocks_count(es)) {
- ext4_group_t ngroups = sbi->s_groups_count, i;
+ ext4_group_t i, ngroups = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
ext4_fsblk_t overhead = 0;
- smp_rmb();

/*
* Compute the overhead (FS structures). This is constant
--
1.6.3.2.1.gb9f7d.dirty


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