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SubjectRe: [PATCH] cpuhotplug: introduce try_get_online_cpus() take 2
On Thu, Jun 04, 2009 at 02:58:20PM +0800, Lai Jiangshan wrote:
> Gautham R Shenoy wrote:
> > On Fri, May 29, 2009 at 06:53:42PM -0700, Paul E. McKenney wrote:
> >> On Fri, May 29, 2009 at 04:29:30PM +0800, Lai Jiangshan wrote:
> >>> Current get_online_cpus()/put_online_cpus() re-implement
> >>> a rw_semaphore, so it is converted to a real rw_semaphore in this fix.
> >>> It simplifies codes, and is good for read.
> >>>
> >>> And misc fix:
> >>> 1) Add comments for cpu_hotplug.active_writer.
> >>> 2) The theoretical disadvantage described in cpu_hotplug_begin()'s
> >>> comments is no longer existed when we use rw_semaphore,
> >>> so this part of comments was removed.
> >>>
> >>> [Impact: improve get_online_cpus()/put_online_cpus() ]
> >> Actually, it turns out that for my purposes it is only necessary to check:
> >>
> >> cpu_hotplug.active_writer != NULL
> >>
> >> The only time that it is unsafe to invoke get_online_cpus() is when
> >> in a notifier, and in that case the value of cpu_hotplug.active_writer
> >> is stable. There could be false positives, but these are harmless, as
> >> the fallback is simply synchronize_sched().
> >>
> >> Even this is only needed should the deadlock scenario you pointed out
> >> arise in practice.
> >>
> >> As Oleg noted, there are some "interesting" constraints on
> >> get_online_cpus(). Adding Gautham Shenoy to CC for his views.
> >
> > So, to put it in a sentence, get_online_cpus()/put_online_cpus() is a
> > read-write semaphore with read-preference while allowing writer to
> > downgrade to a reader when required.
> >
> > Read-preference was one of the ways of allowing unsuspecting functions
> > which need the protection against cpu-hotplug to end up seeking help of
> > functions which also need protection against cpu-hotplug. IOW allow a
> > single context to call get_online_cpus() without giving away to circular
> > deadlock. A fair reader-write lock wouldn't allow that since in the
> > presence of a write, the recursive reads would block, thereby causing a
> > deadlock.
> >
> > Also, around the time when this design was chosen, we had a whole bunch
> > of functions which did try to take the original "cpu_hotplug_mutex"
> > recursively. We could do well to use Lai's implementation if such
> > functions have mended their ways since this would make it a lot simpler
> > :-) . But I suspect it is easier said than done!
> >
> > BTW, I second the idea of try_get_online_cpus(). I had myself proposed
> > this idea a year back. http://lkml.org/lkml/2008/4/29/222.
> >
> >
> >
>
> Add CC to Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
>
> (This patch is against mainline but not for inclusion, it will adapted
> against -mm when request)
>
> Requst For Comments and Reviewing Hungeringly.
>
> - Lockless for get_online_cpus()'s fast path
> - Introduce try_get_online_cpus()

One question for Gautham Shenoy -- are non-atomic CPU-hotplug notifiers
always invoked from the task that did the cpu_hotplug_begin()?

If so, well and good. If not, then it would not be possible to
expedite RCU grace periods from within CPU-hotplug notifiers.

Thanx, Paul

> ---
> diff --git a/include/linux/cpu.h b/include/linux/cpu.h
> index 2643d84..63b216c 100644
> --- a/include/linux/cpu.h
> +++ b/include/linux/cpu.h
> @@ -104,6 +104,7 @@ extern struct sysdev_class cpu_sysdev_class;
>
> extern void get_online_cpus(void);
> extern void put_online_cpus(void);
> +extern int try_get_online_cpus(void);
> #define hotcpu_notifier(fn, pri) { \
> static struct notifier_block fn##_nb __cpuinitdata = \
> { .notifier_call = fn, .priority = pri }; \
> @@ -117,6 +118,7 @@ int cpu_down(unsigned int cpu);
>
> #define get_online_cpus() do { } while (0)
> #define put_online_cpus() do { } while (0)
> +static inline int try_get_online_cpus(void) { return 1; }
> #define hotcpu_notifier(fn, pri) do { (void)(fn); } while (0)
> /* These aren't inline functions due to a GCC bug. */
> #define register_hotcpu_notifier(nb) ({ (void)(nb); 0; })
> diff --git a/kernel/cpu.c b/kernel/cpu.c
> index 395b697..54d6e0d 100644
> --- a/kernel/cpu.c
> +++ b/kernel/cpu.c
> @@ -14,6 +14,8 @@
> #include <linux/kthread.h>
> #include <linux/stop_machine.h>
> #include <linux/mutex.h>
> +#include <asm/atomic.h>
> +#include <linux/wait.h>
>
> #ifdef CONFIG_SMP
> /* Serializes the updates to cpu_online_mask, cpu_present_mask */
> @@ -26,21 +28,26 @@ static __cpuinitdata RAW_NOTIFIER_HEAD(cpu_chain);
> */
> static int cpu_hotplug_disabled;
>
> +/*
> + * @cpu_hotplug is a special read-write semaphore with these semantics:
> + * 1) It is read-preference and allows reader-in-reader recursion.
> + * 2) It allows writer to downgrade to a reader when required.
> + * (allows reader-in-writer recursion.)
> + * 3) It allows only one thread to require the write-side lock at most.
> + * (cpu_add_remove_lock ensures it.)
> + */
> static struct {
> struct task_struct *active_writer;
> - struct mutex lock; /* Synchronizes accesses to refcount, */
> - /*
> - * Also blocks the new readers during
> - * an ongoing cpu hotplug operation.
> - */
> - int refcount;
> + wait_queue_head_t sleeping_readers;
> + /* refcount = 0 means the writer owns the lock. */
> + atomic_t refcount;
> } cpu_hotplug;
>
> void __init cpu_hotplug_init(void)
> {
> cpu_hotplug.active_writer = NULL;
> - mutex_init(&cpu_hotplug.lock);
> - cpu_hotplug.refcount = 0;
> + init_waitqueue_head(&cpu_hotplug.sleeping_readers);
> + atomic_set(&cpu_hotplug.refcount, 1);
> }
>
> #ifdef CONFIG_HOTPLUG_CPU
> @@ -50,10 +57,20 @@ void get_online_cpus(void)
> might_sleep();
> if (cpu_hotplug.active_writer == current)
> return;
> - mutex_lock(&cpu_hotplug.lock);
> - cpu_hotplug.refcount++;
> - mutex_unlock(&cpu_hotplug.lock);
>
> + if (unlikely(!atomic_inc_not_zero(&cpu_hotplug.refcount))) {
> + DEFINE_WAIT(wait);
> +
> + for (;;) {
> + prepare_to_wait(&cpu_hotplug.sleeping_readers, &wait,
> + TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);
> + if (atomic_inc_not_zero(&cpu_hotplug.refcount))
> + break;
> + schedule();
> + }
> +
> + finish_wait(&cpu_hotplug.sleeping_readers, &wait);
> + }
> }
> EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(get_online_cpus);
>
> @@ -61,14 +78,27 @@ void put_online_cpus(void)
> {
> if (cpu_hotplug.active_writer == current)
> return;
> - mutex_lock(&cpu_hotplug.lock);
> - if (!--cpu_hotplug.refcount && unlikely(cpu_hotplug.active_writer))
> - wake_up_process(cpu_hotplug.active_writer);
> - mutex_unlock(&cpu_hotplug.lock);
>
> + if (unlikely(atomic_dec_and_test(&cpu_hotplug.refcount))) {
> + smp_mb__after_atomic_dec();
> + BUG_ON(!cpu_hotplug.active_writer);
> + wake_up_process(cpu_hotplug.active_writer);
> + }
> }
> EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(put_online_cpus);
>
> +int try_get_online_cpus(void)
> +{
> + if (cpu_hotplug.active_writer == current)
> + return 1;
> +
> + if (likely(atomic_inc_not_zero(&cpu_hotplug.refcount)))
> + return 1;
> +
> + return 0;
> +}
> +EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(try_get_online_cpus);
> +
> #endif /* CONFIG_HOTPLUG_CPU */
>
> /*
> @@ -86,46 +116,41 @@ void cpu_maps_update_done(void)
> }
>
> /*
> - * This ensures that the hotplug operation can begin only when the
> - * refcount goes to zero.
> + * This ensures that the hotplug operation can begin only when
> + * there is no ongoing reader.
> *
> * Note that during a cpu-hotplug operation, the new readers, if any,
> - * will be blocked by the cpu_hotplug.lock
> + * will be blocked and queued at cpu_hotplug.sleeping_readers.
> *
> * Since cpu_hotplug_begin() is always called after invoking
> * cpu_maps_update_begin(), we can be sure that only one writer is active.
> *
> - * Note that theoretically, there is a possibility of a livelock:
> - * - Refcount goes to zero, last reader wakes up the sleeping
> - * writer.
> - * - Last reader unlocks the cpu_hotplug.lock.
> - * - A new reader arrives at this moment, bumps up the refcount.
> - * - The writer acquires the cpu_hotplug.lock finds the refcount
> - * non zero and goes to sleep again.
> - *
> - * However, this is very difficult to achieve in practice since
> - * get_online_cpus() not an api which is called all that often.
> - *
> */
> static void cpu_hotplug_begin(void)
> {
> cpu_hotplug.active_writer = current;
> + smp_mb__before_atomic_dec();
> + atomic_dec(&cpu_hotplug.refcount);
>
> for (;;) {
> - mutex_lock(&cpu_hotplug.lock);
> - if (likely(!cpu_hotplug.refcount))
> + set_current_state(TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);
> + if (!atomic_read(&cpu_hotplug.refcount))
> break;
> - __set_current_state(TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);
> - mutex_unlock(&cpu_hotplug.lock);
> schedule();
> }
> +
> + __set_current_state(TASK_RUNNING);
> }
>
> static void cpu_hotplug_done(void)
> {
> cpu_hotplug.active_writer = NULL;
> - mutex_unlock(&cpu_hotplug.lock);
> + atomic_inc(&cpu_hotplug.refcount);
> +
> + if (waitqueue_active(&cpu_hotplug.sleeping_readers))
> + wake_up(&cpu_hotplug.sleeping_readers);
> }
> +
> /* Need to know about CPUs going up/down? */
> int __ref register_cpu_notifier(struct notifier_block *nb)
> {
>
>


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