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Subject[PATCH 1/2] function-graph: disable when both x86_32 and optimize for size are configured
From: Steven Rostedt <>

On x86_32, when optimize for size is set, gcc may align the frame pointer
and make a copy of the the return address inside the stack frame.
The return address that is located in the stack frame may not be
the one used to return to the calling function. This will break the
function graph tracer.

The function graph tracer replaces the return address with a jump to a hook
function that can trace the exit of the function. If it only replaces
a copy, then the hook will not be called when the function returns.
Worse yet, when the parent function returns, the function graph tracer
will return back to the location of the child function which will
easily crash the kernel with weird results.

To see the problem, when i386 is compiled with -Os we get:

c106be03: 57 push %edi
c106be04: 8d 7c 24 08 lea 0x8(%esp),%edi
c106be08: 83 e4 e0 and $0xffffffe0,%esp
c106be0b: ff 77 fc pushl 0xfffffffc(%edi)
c106be0e: 55 push %ebp
c106be0f: 89 e5 mov %esp,%ebp
c106be11: 57 push %edi
c106be12: 56 push %esi
c106be13: 53 push %ebx
c106be14: 81 ec 8c 00 00 00 sub $0x8c,%esp
c106be1a: e8 f5 57 fb ff call c1021614 <mcount>

When it is compiled with -O2 instead we get:

c10896f0: 55 push %ebp
c10896f1: 89 e5 mov %esp,%ebp
c10896f3: 83 ec 28 sub $0x28,%esp
c10896f6: 89 5d f4 mov %ebx,0xfffffff4(%ebp)
c10896f9: 89 75 f8 mov %esi,0xfffffff8(%ebp)
c10896fc: 89 7d fc mov %edi,0xfffffffc(%ebp)
c10896ff: e8 d0 08 fa ff call c1029fd4 <mcount>

The compile with -Os will align the stack pointer then set up the
frame pointer (%ebp), and it copies the return address back into
the stack frame. The change to the return address in mcount is done
to the copy and not the real place holder of the return address.

Then compile with -O2 sets up the frame pointer first, this makes
the change to the return address by mcount affect where the function
will jump on exit.

Reported-by: Jake Edge <>
Signed-off-by: Steven Rostedt <>
kernel/trace/Kconfig | 1 +
1 files changed, 1 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)

diff --git a/kernel/trace/Kconfig b/kernel/trace/Kconfig
index 4a13e5a..1eac852 100644
--- a/kernel/trace/Kconfig
+++ b/kernel/trace/Kconfig
@@ -121,6 +121,7 @@ config FUNCTION_GRAPH_TRACER
bool "Kernel Function Graph Tracer"
+ depends on !X86_32 || !CC_OPTIMIZE_FOR_SIZE
default y
Enable the kernel to trace a function at both its return

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